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April, 1915 — September, 1915 


New York 

105 East 22D Street 





ERNEST P. BICKNELL.... Washington 










'Died September 5, 1915. 

WILLIAM J. IvERBY Washington 





SIMON X. PATTEN Philadelphia 





FRANK TUCKER, Treas New York 

ARTHUR I'. KELLOGG, S/jc.New York 


PA l 





H E S T A E E 

L F. KELLOGG, Editor 













'Died Jul) i. 1915. 

















volume xxxiv 
April, 1915 — September, 1915 

The material in this index is arranged under authors and subjects and 
in a few cases under titles. Anonymous articles and paragraphs are 
entered under their subjects. The precise wording of titles has not been 
retained where abbreviation or paraphrase has seemed more desirable. 

Abbott, A. \\'., New Jersey's gains in social legislation 

(letter), 148. 
Absinthe in the French army, 69. 
Academic freedom, 289, 318. 
Accident prevention, Harvard University, 129. 
Accidents in New York, duplication of reports, 284. 
Ackley, Henry. Ballad of the town (poem), 6. 
Adams, Samuel H., 68. 
Addams, Jane, 2, 5, 172. 

Carnegie Hall address on return from Europe, 355. 

Carnegie Hall remark on stimulants for soldiers, 430, 

Chicago's welcome, 408. 

Return from peace tour, 327. 

Story of her journey to the European war capitals, 

Welcoming of, 353. 
Adler, Felix, 259. 

Improper medical, 68. 

See also Associated Advertising Clubs of the World. 
Advocate of Peace, Quoted on The Survey's Peace Num- 
ber, 76. 
Aery, Wm. A., 531. 

Better health and better homes for Negroes by Ne- 
groes (Virginia), 158. 

Business makes men — Negro Business League, 550. 

Loosening up Louisiana. 266. 
Age, shock cause of. 56s. 
Ainslee, Peter, 395. 

Legislation, 79. 

Legislature, summer session plans, 329. 

Schoolhouse and jail, 41. 
Alabama Sociological Congress, 253. 
Alcohol, 558. 

Anti-Saloon League convention, 352. 

Book on, 164. 

Boston poster campaign feature, 389. 

Cartoon from Philadelphia North American, 280. 

Indiana health officers' resolution, 496. 

Lantern slides. Poster Campaign Committee, Cam- 
bridge, Mass., 129. 

Montreal, 260. 

New York City's campaign against, 299. 

Quebec, 260. 

Soft drinks at Strand Roof Garden, 163. 

War and (English press), 3. 
Aldis, Mary. May 11, 1915, 328. 
Allen, Edmund M., 404. 
Almshouses in North Carolina, 61. 
Almy, Frederic. 

Inside Sing Sing (letter), 166. 

Review of Devine's The Normal Life, 541. 
American Academy of Medicine, 385. 
American Academy of Political and Social Science, annual 

meeting, 252. 
American Ambulance Hospital. See under Hospitals. 
American Anti-Saloon League, National Labor Depart- 
ment, 474. 
American Association of Public Employment Offices. De- 
troit meeting, 384. 
American Association of Societies for Organizing Char- 
ity, 207. 
American Association of University Professors, 318. 
American Association of Workers for the Blind, Confer- 
ence, 533. 

American Federation of Labor, Panama-Pacific Exposi- 
tion, 312. 
American Hospital Association meeting, 385. 
American Library Association, annual conference, 342. 
American Medical Association, convention at San Fran- 
cisco, 385. 
American Posture League. 262. 
American School Hygiene Association, conference in San 

Francisco, 384. 
American School Peace League, 262. 
American Social Hygiene Association. 

Conference in California, 198. 

San Francisco, unemployment. 39 

Vice at San Francisco, 497. 
Americanization Day, 189 

Celebration in 150 communities, 390 

New York, 546. 

Spread of plans, 26 1 

Toiling ants t cartoon ) . 439. 

\\ i mien making, 37 5. 
Anderson. Harriet. 

Review of Drysdale's Small Family System, 273. 

Review of Exner's Rational Sex Life for Men, 27 1, 

Review of sex books for boys and girls, 165. 
Andrews, Fannie Fern, 59. 
Andrews, lohn B. Industrial Commission for New York 

State, l()l. 
Angell, James B., memorial, 112d. 
Ann Arbor, Mich.. 1 12<1. 
Answered prayer (poem), 380. 
Anthony, Katharine. Review of books on women's civic 

work. 5S3. 
Anti-Saloon League Convention, 352. 
Appeal to Reason, quoted on Tin: Survey's Peace Num- 
ber, 72. 
Arbeiter Ring. 196. 

Chicago building strike, 367. 

Chicago street railway strike, 280, 389. 

Western railroads, 264. 
Arensen, Emely, 222c. 
Arequipa Sanatorium. 310. 

Commission on feeble-minded, 100. 

Legislation, 340, 386. 

State Conference of Charities and Correction, 180. 
Amies, Ethel, 253. 
Armour, J. Ogden, 133. 
As one body (poem), 512. 
Ashwell, Lena, letter from, 407. 
Aspiration (statue). 71. 
Associated Advertising Clubs of the World, Chicago's 

meeting, 384. 
Athletics in Maryland, 532. 
Atlantic, The, 319. 
Atlantic City, 295. 
Auerbach, M. A. Arkansas Conference of Charities and 

Correction, 180. 
Augspurg, Anita, 221, 450. 
Avery, John M., 257. 


Babb. Emily. Settlements at Baltimore conference, 206. 

Baby week in various cities, 382. 

Milk and Baby Hygiene Association, 263. 

Servian, 367. 

See also Infant mortality. 




Back to the land, book on, 543, 

Baker, E. H., 387. 

Raker, Judge H. H., obituary and portrait, 93. 

Raich, Emily Greene, 439. 

Passport (cut), 506. 

Peace delegates in Scandinavia and Russia, 506. 

Portrait, 506. 
Balch, Lincoln. O great republic (hymn), 83. 
Raldwin, Roger N. 

Missouri legislature's fruitless session, 71. 

Mullanpby Fund rescued, 114. 

Alliance of social agencies, 408. 

insane, old and new ways with, 87. 

National Conference, features and notes, 203. 

Negro health conference, 69. 

Public Athletic League, 532. 

Unemployed, workshop and exchange, 53. 
Ranker-Farmer Alliance for Co-operation (letter), 562, 

Ranker-Farmer Conference, 383. 
Bard, Albert S. Review of Toulmin's The City Manager, 

Barnes, Wm., 538. 

Proposed amendment of New York State Constitu- 
tion (E. T. Devine), 229. 
Rarnhart, Harry, 360. 
Rarringer, Emily D., 211. 
Rarto, Pietro, 45, 47. 
Raths for girls, 546. 
Battlefield, flowers of (cartoon), 40. 
Ratzell, Paul E. Letter on the J. N. Adam Hospital. 57. 
Bayonne, N. J., 414. 

Reach, Jos. W. End of the week (poem). 00. 
Beale, Harriet Rlaine, 168. 
Beard, Mary R., 583. 
Beck, Carl, 532. 

Becker, Charles (New York Evening Post on). H)8. 
Belgian Relief Fund, 77. 99. 
Belgians, Holland's care for, 285. 

Effect of shock, 568. 

Our Argosy (ship), 99. 

Poem (W. S. Johnson), 250. 
Rellows, Mr. and Mrs. Charles, 223. 
Bennett, Helen C, 583. 
Berg, Carl, 66. 
Berger, Victor, 293. 

Berglund, Edna Glass. Charity ball (poern), 487. 

Three days in, 226. 

Tbrec days in, criticism of Miss Newman's article 
(letter), 474. 
Bernard, Frances Fenton. Letter on The Survey's Peace 

number, 75. 
Rerne, Socialist women's conference for peace. 172. 
Rest, Harry. Social centers for the deaf, 162. 
Rethmann-Hollweg, portrait, 422. 
Ricknell, E. P.. 59. 

Red Cross in Servia. 250. 

Return to confer on Mexico, 387. 
Rirmingham, Ala. 

Cuts in expenses, 530. 

Playgrounds, 293. 

Sociological Congress, 253. 

Woman's Civic Board. 474. 
Birth control, 5. 

Arkansas Conference of Charities and Correction, L80. 

New York court disturbance over Sanger case, 567. 

New York public meeting, 211. 

Tuberculosis and (letter from S. A. Knopf), 345. 
Birth of a Nation, 4, 96. 209, 344. 
Bitter, Karl, appreciation, portrait, and illustrations of 

sculptures, 112. 
Blackburn, Burr, 343, 

Blackmar, F. W. Kansas laxity in housing prisoners, 161. 
Blackwell. Alice Stone. 

A little tavern (trans, of poem of Petofi), 490, 

Music of Children (poem from the Yiddish), 6 
Blatchly, Chas. K., 404. 
Blind, postage on matter for the, 456. 

California conference of American Association of 
Workers for the Blind, 533. 

Census bulletin on, 346. 

Mechanical eye, 533. 

National Committee for the Prevention of, 244. 

Pennsylvania Institution for the Instruction of the 
Blind, work, 261. 

Soldiers in Europe, 368. 

Standard dot system adopted, 533. 
Rloomfield, Meyer, 131, 544. 
Blossom, Frederick, A., 405. 

Blue, Surgeon-General, Public Health Service report, 68. 
Body and members (poem), 512. 
Bohn, Wm. E. Review of Davol's American Pageantry, 

Boissevain, Mia, 222b. 
Bondheld, Margaret, 450, 451. 
Book reviews. 

Abolition of Poverty, The (Hollander), 543. 

American Pageantry (Davol), 73. 

American Women in Civic Work (Bennett), 583. 

Black Man's Burden (Holtzclaw), 164. 

Brown Mouse (Quick), 583. 

Call of the New Day to the Old Church (Stelzle), 402. 

Canadian Woman's Annual and Social Service Pi- 
rectory, 141. 

Cause of the War (Jefferson), 395. 

Christ or Napoleon — Which? (Ainslee), 395. 

Christian Equivalent of War (Lyon), 395. 

Christian Faith for Men of To-Day (Cook), 401. 

Christian Life in the Modern World (Peabody), 394. 

Christianity and International Peace (Jefferson). 395. 

Church and the war (20 books reviewed by G. Tay- 
lor), 394. 

Citizens in Industry (Henderson), 569. 

City Manager, The (Toulmin), 542. 

Clarimi, The (Adams), 73. 

Commercial Work and Training for Girls (Eaton and 
Stevens ). 274. 

Constantine the Great and Christianity (Coleman), 

Consumption (Hawes), 542. 

English Convict (Goring), 179. 

European Police Systems (Fosdick), 273. 

Field of Social Service (Davis), 364. 

Fight for Peace (Gulick), 395. 

Food — What it is and does (Greer). 

George Augustus Gates — a Brief Biography (Ga 

Good News of a Spiritual Realm (Goddard), 403. 

Happiness of Nations. The (Macknvet. 542. 

Harbor. The (Poole), 140. 

History of Poor Relief Legislation in Iowa (Gillvin), 

History of the Dwelling House and its Future 
(Thompson), 74. 

Individual and the Social Gospel (Mathews) 

Individual Delinquent (Healv), 164. 

Joyful Heart. The ( Scbaufne'r). 27:.. 

Last War (Lynch). 395. 

Lectures on Housing (Rowntree and Pigou), 74. 

Liberal Judaism and Social Service ( lew?-). 

Low Cost Cooking (Nesbitt), ">4:;. 

Meaning of Prayer (Fosdick), 403. 

Mental and Physical Measurements of Working Chil- 
dren (Woolley and Fischer). :.'; 1 

Middle West Side (Cartwright), 141 

Modern City and its Problems (Howe). Itl 

Modem Factory (Price), 73. 

Mothers who must Earn (Anthony). 141. 

New Home Missions (Douglass). 401. 

New York Charities Directory for 1915, 168 

Vormal life. The (Devine), 541. 

Oberlehrer, The (Learned). 304. 

Out of Work (Kellor), 541. 

Outdoor Relief in Missouri (Warfield), 140. 

Personal Religion and the Social Awakening (Fin- 
ney), 401. 

Pittsburgh Survey, Vols. V and VI, 

Power to Right our Wrongs (Van loan), 395. 

Principles of Rural Credit (Morman). 3<">4. 

Problems of Conduct (Drake), 544 

Prohibition Advance in .III Lands (Hayler), 164. 

Rational Sex Life for Men ( Exn< 

Reconstruction of the Church (Stranger), 394. 

Red Geranium, 'The (Carleton), 543 

Religion as a Personal Experience (Brundage), 401. 

Salesmanship (Fisk), 875 

d e x 

Sanitation in Panama (Gorgas), 543. 

School System as an Educational Laboratory (Learn- 
ed), 364. 

Science and Religion (Keyser), 401. 

Small Family System (Drysdale), 373. 

Social Problem, The (Ellwood), 541. 

Sociological Progress in Mission Lands (Capen), 401. 

Ten Sex Talks to Girls and Ten Sex Talks to Boys 
(Steinhardt), 165. 

Types of Teaching (Earhart), 274. 

Wesley's World Parish (Findlay), 401. 

What the Mother of a Deaf Child Ought to Know 
(Wright), 74. 

Whither? (Anon.), 584. 

Woman's Work in Municipalities (Beard), 583. 

York State Rural Problems (Bailey), 165. 

Youth, School and Vocation (Bloomfield), 5 44. 
Bookmarks, anti-tuberculosis, 169. 
Books received, 165, 3G5, 544, 584. 

See also Pamphlets. 
Boomerang investigations (Chicago). 577. 

Associated Charities poster campaign against alcohol, 
feature, 389. 

City Club, 93. 

Forsyth Dental Infirmary for Children, 151, 

Park shows, 409. 

Psychopathic Hospital, 159. 

Quarantine control, 40, 77. 

Rat campaign, 568. 

Women's City Club, 93. 
Bowers. L. M., 212, 462. 
Box furniture, 438. 
Boyd, F. S.. 3. 

Boyle, Jas. P. New York constitution (letter), 97. 
Boys' Club Federation. Annual conference, 343. 
Bradley. Dwight J. Letter of commendation for The 

Survey and the poem "1915," 366. 
Bread line, Chicago, 484. 
Bremer, Harry M. Iowa legislation, 145. 
Breshkovsky, Catherine, further banishment. 529. 
Brewster, James H., 281, 477. 
Brigham, Louise, 438, 
Bristol, L. M., 257. 

British war posters. 222d, 223, 224. 225. 
Bronner, Augusta F., quoted on statistics of reformatory 

children, 552. 

Public School 89, 185, 

Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children. 
Brooklyn Central Labor Union, 157. 
Brown, Chas. L., 51. 
Brown, Rome G. Father Ryan and the minimum wage 

(letter), 57. 
Browning Settlement, 249. 
Brundage, Wm. M., 401. 
Brunner, W. F., 67. 
Bryan, Wm. J., 290, 291. 

Bryson, Lyman. The garment (poem), 348. 
Buck. Wm. B., 297. 
Buffalo, child welfare societies, 572. 
Buisson, Ferdinand, 549. 

Bullock, C. Seymour. Canadian Patriotic Fund, 460. 
Ilureau of Applied Economics, 474. 
Bureau of Municipal Research, Report to Constitutional 

Convention, 494. 
Burgess, Ernest W., 453. 
Burks, Jesse D., 459. 
Burlington, Iowa, social welfare, 486. 
Burnham, Roger Noble, 151, 297. 
Burns, Allen T., 443. 
Burt, Henry F., 546. 
Business colleges, 366. 
Business education, 386. 
"Business makes men" (Negroes), 550. 
Butler, Amos W. Henderson, C. R., appreciation, 56. 
Byington. Margaret F., 545. 

Caldwell, N. J., pageant, 573. 

Child labor conferences, 259. 

Gains (letter), 344. 

Housing and labor camps, 2<;.V 

Legislation, summary, 254. 

Nature study in public schools, 66. 

Prohibition conference at Fresno, 295. 

Recreational Inquiry Committee report, 442. 

State compensation insurance experience, 173. 

Unemployment, handling, 483. 
Calumet & Hecla Mining Co., 239, 257, 495. 
Cambridge Magazine on the war and the Women's Peace 

Conference, 353, 357. 
Campbell, C. Macfie. Review of Healy's The Individual 

Delinquent, K4. 
Campbell, Margaret L. Peace (letter and hymn), 4?:;. 
Canada, recruiting by children, 369. 
Canadian Patriotic Fund, 460. 
Canadian Woman's Directory, 141. 
Canal workers' strike, 445. 

New England, 264. 

Plans for control, 554. 
Canners in Oregon, 284. 
Capen, Ewd. W., 401. 
Capes, W. P., 454. 

Capital punishment, abolition (J. H. Holmes), 122. 
Carleton, Wm., 543. 
Carleton College, 346. 
Carnegie Foundation, 524. 
Carstens, C. C. 

Community plan in work for children, 20(5. 

Sketch of Judge H H. Baker, 95. 
Carter, Judge Frank, 152. 

Carver, T. N. Review of Bailey's York State Rural Prob- 
lems, 165. 
Case-worker, 322. 

Catskill mountain sanatorium for Jewish workmen, 196. 
Cauble, Laura A., 371. 
Cavacos, Emmanuel A., 71. 
Cave, Rhodes E.. .'{Ms. 
Censorship. See Drama. 
Chain gangs, 152. 
Chamberlain, Mary. 

Holland's neighborliness for the Belgians, 285. 

Peace currents beneath war turmoil in England, 501. 

War on the backs of the workers, 373. 

Women after the war, 450. 

Women at The Hague, 219. 
Changsha Social Service League, 575. 
Chapin, Henry D., 182. 
Chaplin, Chas., 477, 47s. 

New Jersey conference, 163. 

New York State and City fall out, 80. 

Pennsylvania report of conditions in Allegheny Co., 

Philanthropic individualism (E. Winslow), 555. 

Public and private in New Jersey, 163. 

St. Louis fake, 240. 

See also National Conference of Charities and Correc- 
Charities and correction, New York City conference, 253. 
Charities and suburbs (Johnson), 509. 
Charities Directory, New York, 168. 

Clockwork (letter), 473. 

In 2000 A. D. (letter), 366. 

Public and private, relation, 206. 
Charity ball (poem), 487. 

Charity officials. American Association meeting at Balti- 
more, 208. 
Charity Organization Society of Newport, R. I., 3S1. 
Charity societies, Baltimore meeting, 207. 
Charter for children, 241. 
Chattanooga, education conference, 154. 
Chelsea Park. 314. 

Cheyney, A. S. Toward peace (letter), 166. 

Boomerang investigations, 577. 

Building strike end, 367. 

City Club exhibition of publicly owned lands and 
buildings, 65. 

Eastland disaster, 410, 437, 457. 

Election, civic significance, 61. 

Industrial Relations Commission hearings, 132. 

Jewish Aid Society, 70. 



Juvenile Protective Association report on mental de- 
fectives, 136. 

Morals Commission on vice, 534. 

Neighborhood center plan, 65. 

Park and playground commissions, 243. 

Police and health departments co-operating, 456. 

Poverty line, 350. 

School of Civics, 283. 

Street railway strike arbitration, 280, 389. 

Unemployment, Cathedral Shelter, 484. 

Welcome to Jane Addams, 408. 

See also Illinois. 
Chicago Community Trust, 239. 
Chicken-stealing, paying for (letter), 366. 
Child-helping, Lehigh Valley Conference, 185. 
Child labor. 

Cartoon, 149. 

Cartoon, "The Widow's Mite," 171. 

Conferences, San Francisco, 259. 

Connecticut, 329. 

Illinois and Michigan manufacturers, 129. 

Pennsylvania, Cox bill, 149. 

San Francisco conference notice, 185. 
Child welfare. 

Buffalo, uniting societies, 572. 

Connecticut State Conference, 137. 

Cuba, 552. 

International League, 300. 

Pennsylvania's work, 572. 

Warring countries, 300. 

Community plan in work for, 206. 

County control in New Hampshire. 180. 

Federal charter, 241. 

Feeblemindedness among delinquent. 552. 

Industry and, 274. 

Motion pictures for, 47 7. 

Music of (poem), 6. 

New Jersey laws. 348. 

Out-of-school activities, 534. 

Park built by, 531. 

Police and, 344. 

San Francisco drama for, 80. 

See also Babies; Infant Mortality; Randall's Island. 

Children's Bureau. 

Exhibit at Panama-Pacific Exposition, 313. 

Report on child labor, 329. 
Children's Code Commission, 328. 
China, health matters, 575. 
Christian activities, conference on uniting, 295, 
Christian Endeavor convention, 456. 

Christian Herald, quoted on The Survey's Peace Num- 
ber, 72. 
Christian Science Monitor, quoted on The Survey's Peace 

number, 72. 
Christian Work, 456. 

Practicability, 395. 

Unconscious growth, 275. 
Christodora House, 551. 
Church, books on work of, 401. 
Chute, Chas. L., 252. 

Probation Association meeting, 208. 
Cinematograph. See Motion pictures. 

Book on problems, 141. 

Home rule, 491. 
Citizenship, admission on Fourth of July. 302. 
City and Suburban Homes Co., 545. 
City heat (poem), 380. 
City manager, 542. 

City planning, national conference, 294. 
Civic enterprise week, Rockford, 111.. 574. 
Civic forum, 531. 
Civic song, 564. 
Civic spirit, Boston, 93. 

Chicago school, 283. 

Women's work in, 583. 
Clark, John Bates, 292. 
Clark, Walter, 193. 
Clean town contest, Utah, 301. 
Clean-up spirit, New Orleans. 442. 
Clean-up week, 386. 

Cleghorn, Sarah N. 

Old patient and young doctor, dialogue, 272. 

The weakling (poem), 372. 

City hospital, 264. 

Committee of One Hundred, 173. 

Day Nursery window exhibit, 351. 

Girls' bureau, 533. 

Hiram House and bad boys, 456. 

Illegitimacy, 242. 

Miners arriving through State transportation. 4.".'.). 

School survey proposed, 100. 

Social Betterment Committee of Federated Churches, 

Social hygiene, 60. 

Survey Committee report on relief, 282. 

Tenement house code, 139. 

Unemployment, how handled, 443. 
Cleveland Foundation, 239, 282. 
Clinic Notes, 528, 529. 
Cloak, suit and skirt industry. 

New agreement, 347. 

Planning for peace, 368. 

Published study, 54. 

Strike averted, 390. 
Clockwork charity (letter), 473. 
Coatesville, Pa., 118. 
Cocks, Orrin G., 478. 
Coffeen, Elmer L., 253. 

Colcord, Joanna C. Gift of Pietro (poem). 1 1 ". 7 . 
Cole, Hills. Esperanto for peace (letter). 167. 
Coleman, C. B., 275. 

man, Geo. W., personal, 546, 
Collective bargaining, 480. 
Colleges, accident prevention, 129. 
Collegiate Anti-Militarism League, 
Collier, John, 407. 

Back of our footlights, 213. 

Before our footlights, 315. 

Censorship in action, 423. 

Learned judges and the films, 513. 

Hillyer barred from future cases, 471 

Labor troubles and the Episcopal Church, 281. 

Militia, two adverse reports. 349. 

Municipal League meeting. 139. 

Strike leader Lawson guilty, 151. 

Striker's conviction, 18^ 

See also Fitch, J. A.: Lawson. John R. 
Colorado Fuel and I run Co., 212. 

See also Fitch, J. A. 
Colored schools. See under Negroes. 
Columbia (poem). 567. 
Columbia University-Presbyterian Hospital alliance, plans, 


Commandments, the old (poem). 17. 

Commercial schools. 386. 

Commission government in Colorado, I 

Committee of One Hundred. 173. 

Commons, John R., 480, 500. 

Community amusement, women's opportunity lo develop, 

Community chorus. Rochester, 360. 
Community development. See Social service. 
Community trusts. Sec Trusts. 
Community workers, training school for, 107. 
( 'i mipensation. 

California experience. 173. 

New York act. figures for first year. 386 

Pennsylvania bills, 44. 

I OmstOCk, Anthony. 507. 

Conard. Laetitia Moon-. Social hymns (letter), i: 

Conduct, problem of, 544. 


Calendar, 77, 187. 277. 405. 475. 476, 565 

Report from various. 251. 
( Connecticut. 

Child labor, 329 

Child welfare and housing. 137. 

Legislation, summary. 256. 
Connecticut Research Association. 371, 456, 
Conscience insurance, 166. 
Constitution making. See New York t State'* 
Consumption. See Tuberculosis. 
Contraception. See Birth control. 



Convalescent home, 130. 

Convict camps. 
Florida, 103. 
North Carolina. 152. 

Convict lease system, 455. 

(.'unwell, Miss O'Kane, 573. 

Cook, Ezra A., 401. 

Cook County Hospital Nursery, 546. 

Cooking, 54:i. 

Co-operation. European War and, 247. 

Copeland, Col. W. S., 158. 

Copper miners, war profits, 239, 257. 

Corbin, A. F. Review of Quick's The Brown Mouse, 5s:;. 

Corning. Eva L., 571. 

Correctional survey, 517. 

Cost of living, book on low cost cooking, 543. 

Country life. See Rural life. 

Court survey, 51. 

Courtney, Kathleen, 221, 222c. 

Courts, New York legislation in 1915, 142. 

( ovington, Ky. T. B. Bookmarks, 169. 

Covington, M. A., 255. 

Cox, Howard, 314. 

Craig, Dr. Frank A., 573. 

Crane, Chas. R.. 283. 

Creel, Richard H., 211. 

Crile, Dr. Geo. W., 568. 

Criminal stigmatized, 179. 

Cross, Ira B. Compensation insurance in California. 173 

Cross, W. R. Calumet (letter), 257. 

Cross, W. T. The confusion of democracy (letter I, 297. 

Crothers, Samuel M., 203. 

Cuba, child welfare, 552. 

Cudmore, Sedley A. Letter on The Survey's Peace num- 
ber, 75. 

Current Opinion, quoted on The Survey's Peace num- 
ber, 72. 

Curtis. Anna Shaw. Calumet and Hecla wages and divi- 
dends (letter and comment), 495. 


Dallas, Texas, 62. 
Dana, Chas. L., 160. 

Randall's Island (letter), 166. 
Dane, Francis Clifford, 240. 
Daniels, John, 408. 
Darrow, Clarence, 194. 
Dartmouth College, 131. 
Daugaard, Thora, 222c. 
Davenport, Daniel, 193. 

Davies, Geo. R. North Dakota legislation, 14(1. 
Davies, Mary Carolyn. 

From the factory (poem), 90. 

Homeless (poem), 537. 

Noble (poem), 444. 

Public library, A (poem), 556. 

Three (loomed men in the death house write (poem), 
Davis, Katharine B., 437. 
Davis, Philip, 364. 

New internationalism interpreted by world's educa- 
tors, 549. 
Dawson, Wm. M. O., 250. 
Day, Geo. Edw. City heat (poem), 380. 
Dayton, O., clean-up by unemployed, 96. 
Deaconess Training School of the Pacific, 546. 
Deaf, the. 

Louisville church social center for (letter), 344 

Social centers for, 162. 

Swindlers, 534. 
Dean, Arthur D. Review of Eaton and Stevens' Com- 
mercial Work and Training for Girls, 274. 
Death penalty. See Capital punishment. 
Dederer, Ebba A., 548. 

Prayer of defective child, 570. 

See also Feebleminded. 
DeForest, Chas. M., 296. 
De Groot, Edw. B. 

Sanitation of playground sand courts, 243. 

Sketch with portrait, 94. 
Delcasse, Theophile, portrait, 422. 
Delinquency, book on causes, 164. 
Delinquents, feeblemindedness among, 552. 

Dental Infirmary. Forsyth, 151. 

Department stores, Educational Association, 4^:;. 

Dependent, Backward, Truant and Delinquent Children, 

Conference on the Education of, 253. 
Deportation. See Immigrants. 
Desertion, story of Harry S., of Pittsburgh, 351. 
Des Moines Associated Charities, 351. 
Dethroned (poem), 21. 
Detroit, 294. 

Recreation Commission budget, 131. 
Devine, Edw. T., 29. 

Barnes' proposed amendment of New York State con- 
stitution, 229. 

Education and social work, 520. 

Humanity, security and honor, 431. 

Messrs. Laughlin and Leavitt, 319. 

Review of his The Normal Life, 541. 

Superfluous investigation (State and X. Y. City Char- 
ities), 123. 

Widows' pensions in New York, 30. 
Dewey arch, 113. 

Dinwiddie, Emily W. Some homes in Philadelphia. 573 
Diplomacy, war, peace, and (letter), .'!44. 
Disease Prevention Day, 564. 
District of Columbia mental defectives, 264. 
Dixon, Thos.. 209, 455. 

Dole, Chas. F. Sketch of Judge H. H. Baker. 95. 
Donnelly, Dr. Jas. F., 409. 
I >< >pey Benny, 194. 
Douglass, Harlan P., 401. 
Drake, Durant, 544. 

Censorship. 213, 228. 

Censorship and regulation (J. Collier). 315. 

Censorship in action (J. Collier). 42;). 

Censorship, legal status (J. Collier). 513. 

Portable theater. 551. 

San Francisco children's theatre. 80. 

Social functions, half-forgotten (J. Collier). 213. 

See also Motion pictures. 
Drinks. See Alcohol. 

Harrison law, effects, 553. 

Memphis outdoor hospitals for drug users, 92. 
Drummond, Win., 66. 
Drysdale, C. V., 273. 
Du Bouchet, Charles. 333. 
"Due process," 279. 

Dummer. Katherine. Poem on John R. Lawson, 302. 
Dunlop, Mabel. 307. 
Dunphy, Mary C, 80, 123, 166, 330. 

Discharge, 216. 
Dunwoodv Institute, .''.46. 
Dutch. See Holland. 
Dutch cartoon of the war. cover of July 31 issue. 

Earhart, Lida B.. 274. 

Earle. Adelaide. Letter on The Survey's Peace number, 

East and West, 98. 
East Side Forum, 531. 
East Side peddlers. 441. 
East Youngstown, ()., trachoma, 198. 
Eastland disaster, 396. 

In the wake of, 437. 

Men who must answer for, 457. 

Seaman's act and. 42S. 
. Taylor. Graham, on. 410. 
Eaton, Jeanette, 274. 
lule, 288. 

Appalachian region study, 44S. 

Compulsory, states without, 171, 496. 

Conference for. in the South. 154. 

Exhibits at Panama-Pacific Exposition, 322. 

Fairhope Schools, 496a. 

Harvard studies, 364. 

New York legislation in 1915, 143. 

Social work and (Devine), 520. 

Cnity of, 274. 

See also Public schools ; Industrial education : Voca- 
tional education ; National Education Associa- 
Edwards, Grace O. Clean-up by unemployed, 96. 



Eliot, Thus. D. 

Conscience insurance (letter), 160. 

Letter of commendation of J. J. Coale and The Sur- 
vey, 57. 

Morals of spending (letter), 495. 
Elkus, Abram I. Investigation as a basis for social legisla- 
tion, 81. 
Elliott, John. Review of West Side Studies, 141. 
Ellwood, Chas. A., 541. 
Elmira. Needs of young girls, 350. 
Emigrants, Mullanphy Fund, 114. 

Society for study of problems, 130. 

See also Unemployment. 
Employment agencies. See Federation of Non-Commercial 

Employment Agencies. 
Employment bureaus, 384. 

Illinois General Advisory Board for, 569. 

Placing women through public employment offices, 560. 
Engelen, Judge D. O., 56. 

Alcohol in, 3. 

Industry in war times, 155. 

Peace currents, 501. 

War cripples, 368. 

War industry, 388. 

Women workers, 373. 

See also Great Britain. 
Enlistment. See Anti-Enlistment League. 
Esperanto for peace (letter), 167. 
Eugenics, need of law, 532. 

Am T not sufficiently civilized yet? (drawing), 501 

Unnatural boundaries of States, 24. 
Evans, W. A., 192. 

Excursion steamers. See Eastland disaster. 
Exner, Dr. M. J., 274, 498. 
Exuberance, 275. 

Factories, night work for women, si. 

Fairfax, Cal., 310. 

Fairfield, Ala., 312. 

Fairhope League, 346. 

Fairhope Schools, 496a. 

Fake charities, St. Louis, 240. 

Family, 203. 

Limitation, 5, 273, 567. 

Banker-Farmer Conference, 383. 

Bankers and (letters), 562, 563. 
Farmingdale, N. J., 553. 
Fay, Edw. A. Review of Wright's What the Mother of a 

Deaf Child Ought to Know, 74. 
Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America. 295. 
Federation of Non-Commercial Employment Agencies, 499. 
Feebleminded, the. 

Among delinquent children, 552. 

Arkansas commission, 100. 

Case of the nation vs., 136. 

Chicago, 136. 

Committee on Provision for the Feebleminded, 369. 

New Hampshire, 137. 

Toronto, 372. 
Felter, Frank A. Review of books on public relief, 140. 
Fichman, David, 483. 
Filene, Edw. A., 293. 

Findlay, George G. and Mary Grace, 401. 
Fines, 517. 

Finney, Ross L., 401. 
Fischer, Charlotte R., 274. 
Fisk, James W., 275. 
Fitch, John A. 

More light on Colorado at last Industrial Relations 
hearing, 212. 

What Rockefeller knew and what he did, 461-478. 

When a sheriff breaks a strike, 414. 
Flagg, Maurice T. Minnesota's plans for farm and village 

homes, 138. 
Flexner, Abraham, on social work, 204. 
Flexner, Bernard. Sketch of Judge Ff. Ff. Baker, 95. 

Cartoon, 477. 

Deaths from fly poisons, 260. 

Verse and cartoon (Baker), 387. 
bloods, Ohio "conservancy act," 79. 

Convict camps, 103. 

Convict lease system, 455. 

Education law, 496. 

Legislation, 340. 

Medical inspection of school children, 564. 
Fly poisons. See Flies. 

Food, three schemes for cleaner and cheaper, 441. 
Food Supply Store, 441. 

Food values in health exhibit, Greenwich, Conn., 371. 
Ford Motor Co., 322. 

Forsyth Dental Infirmary for Children, 151, 297. 
Fosdick, Harry E., 403. 
Fosdick, Raymond B., 273. 
Foster, Rebecca, 112c. 
Foundations, 524. 

Community trusts, 239. 
Fourth of July. 

Citizenship on, 302. 

New idea for, 189, 261. 

Wreckage, 527. 

See also Americanization Day. 

Absinthe in the army, 69. 

Singing with the armies, 407. 

War nursing, 99. 

See also Paris. 
Frank, Ludwig. Appreciation and portrait, 18, :.<). 
Franklin, Benjamin, 318. 

Fraternitas Medicorum. Sec Medical Brotherhood. 
Frauds, medical, 68. 

Freedom of teaching. Sec Academic freedom. 
Freedom of the press, 430. 
French, Daniel Chester, 222a. 
Fresh air, poster, 209. 
Fresno, Cal., 295. 

Friends of Young Artists Society, 222a. 
Frost, Norman, 448. 
Furuseth, Andrew, 430. 

Campaign against the La Follette lull. 396. 

Portrait and sketch, 116, 117. 

i. ,i.l. lis, E. S., 212, 234. 

Galveston, quarantine, 409. 

Gardiner, Evelyn Gail. Letter on the Michigan Lej 

Hire. 155. 
Garment, the (poem), 348. 
Garment industry, men's. 

Planning for peace, 30> 

Strike averted, 390. 

Strike prospect, 347. 
Garment industry, women's. See Cloak, Suit and Skirt 

Garretson, A. B., 500. 
Gary, I ml., 185. 

Gary plan. See New York (City). 
Gasparri, Pierre, portrait. 4'.".'. 
( iates, Geo. Augustus. 403 
Gates, Isabel Smith, in:.' 
Gavisk, Francis H.. 169. 

Completion of SO years' service in Indianapolis, 343 

Portrait and note. 205. 
Gavit, John P. "Old age" (E. N. Huyck), 96. • 
George Junior Republic, Pennsylvania, 346, 

orge Washington Memorial. 185. 
( iermany. 

Socialist leaders (Liebknechl and Frank), I s 

Socialists, 458. 

Socialists' peace manifesto. 299. 
Three days in Berlin, 226, 474. 
| ills. Winifred S. 

Review o\ Greer's Food— What it- is and dees. ■ 

Review of Nesbitt's Low Cost C>>okiiui. 54;!. 
Gibson, Francis P., 534. 
Giddings, Franklin II., 292 
Gilbreth, F. B., 527. 

Gilman, Elisabeth. Baltimore's workshop and labor ex- 
change for the unemployed. .'.::. 

Baths for. 546. 

Elmira study of young girls. 350 

d e x 


San Francisco Joy Zone, 389. 

Work and training, 274. 
Glasgow Tramways Corporation, 373. 
Gleason, Caroline J., 452. 
Glenn, John, 87. 
Glenn, John M. ( 295. 
Glenn, Mrs. John M„ 87. 

Address as president of National Conference of Char- 
ities and Correction, 199. 

Portrait, 201. 

Relief work in Great Britain, 571. 
Goddard, Dwight, 403. 
Goethe, C. M., 66. 

California's gains (letter), 344. 
Goff, Frederick H., 239, 443. 
Gohl, E. H. Paying for chickens (letter), 366. 
Goldenweiser, A. S., death, 343. 
Goldstein, Dr. Sidney E., 483. 
Goldwater, Dr. S. S., 299. 
Gonorrhea. 192. 
Good deeds, 166. 
Goodnow, Frank J., 193. 

Goodnow, Marc N. Convict camps of Florida. 103. 
Corgas, Wm. C, 59, 543. 
Goring, Charles, 179. 
Gorman, Judge James E., 351. 
Gouda, 286. 

Gould, Elgin R. L., obituary and portrait. 54."). 
Grand Rapids, civic song prize, 564. 
Gray, George, 290. 
Great Britain. 

Committee on tillage, 475. 

Factories, hours and output, 484. 

Social insurance, 177. 

War posters, 222d, 223, 224, 225. 

See also England. 
Green, F. R. Co-ordination of voluntary public health 

organizations, 91. 
Greenwich, Conn., 371. 

Greenwich (Conn.) Research Association. Sec Connecti- 
cut Research Association. 
Greer, Edith, 365. 
Gregory, Stephen S., 193. 
Grey, Sir Edward, portrait, 422. 
Griffiths, Austin E. 

Review of Fosdick's European Police Systems, 21 
Groon, Wm. S., 169. 
Grouitch, Madame, 367. 
Grubbs. S. B., 211. 
Guild, Roy B., 147. 
Gulick, Sidney L., 302, 395. 
Gwyn, Herbert B., 484. 

Haakon VII, portrait, 507. 
Hafner, Charles, 222a. 
Hague, The. See Women's Peace Conference; World 

llalliday. Mary H. Criticism of "Three days in Berlin" 

(letter), 474. 
Halpern, Julius, 196. 
Halsey, Olga S. Social Insurance in Great Britain, 177, 

178, 185. 
Hamburg-American liners interned, 3. 
Hamilton, Alice. At the war capitals (story of Miss 

Addams' journey), 417. 
Hamilton, Tohn Alan. Clockwork charity (letter), 4;:;. 
Hampton, N. H., 567. 
Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute. 266. 

Anniversary week, 131. 
Hansell, Ingeborg, 573. 
Happiness for nations, 542. 
Harriman, Mrs. J. Borden, 4S0. 500. 
Harris, B. F., 383. 
Harrison drug law, 553. 
Hart, Hastings H., 572. 

Conference presidents, 96. 
Hart. Schaffner & Marx prizes, 386. 

Review of Schauffler's The Joyful Heart, 275 
Hartich, Alice. My neighbor (poem), 413. 
Hartigan, Joseph, 442. 
Hartman, Edw. T. 

Review of books on housing, 74. 

Review of Howe's Modern City and its Problems 141. 
Harvard school studies, 364. 

Harvard University, accident prevention, 129. 

Harvest (cartoons), 347, 407. 

Harvest (poem), 288, 

Havana, 552. 

Haviland, C. Floyd. Report on insane in Pennsylvania, 

7, 9. 
Havves. I dim I'.., 542. 
Hay, Helen S„ 367. 
Haywood, Wm. B., 194. 

Exhibits at Panama-Pacific Exposition, 310. 

New York legislation in 1915, 142. 

See also Public health. 
Health exhibit, Greenwich, Conn . 371. 
Health exhibit trains, 456. 
Health luncheon, 372. 
Health service, Illinois, 371. 
Health week, 158. 
llebberd, Robt. W., 80, 
Heinz House opening, 283. 
Henderson, Charles K., 206. 

Appreciations (with portrait), 55. 

Letter to editor of The SURVEY, 56. 

Memorial proposed, 149. 

Memorials, 509. 
Henry Street Settlement. See Peace number of Till-: 


Heredity. 557. 

Hero, real (poem ), 290. 

Herring, Arthur 1'. On treatment of insane, 12. 13. 

Hersbev, R. M., cover of May 8 issue. 

Hess, [Jr. Alfred l'"„ 55;:. 

Heymann, Lida, 221, 450. 

Hillyer. Judge Granby. 

Barred from presiding at strike eases, 47 7. 

Lawson's (J. R.) reply to. 521. 
Hodges, Geo. H, 130. 
Hoff-Mills bill. 41. 
I [olidaj s, 517. 

Housing homeless Belgians, 285. 

Interned soldiers, 535. 
Hollander. Jacob 11., 543. 
Holman. Chas. W. Tenant farmers, 02. 
Holme, Garnet, 80. 
Holmes. John llaynes, 210. 

Capital punishment. 122 
Holmes, loseph A., obituary, 404. 
Holt, Hamilton. 291. 
Holt, Winifred, 368. 
Holt/claw, Wm. II.. 10 1 
Home rule for cities, 491. 
1 [omeless ( poem ). 531 

Honor, wa\ of (cartoon from Chicago Daily News), 56. 
Honor system, college, 386. 
I looker. ( ieo. F., 00. 
Hospitals. 557. 

Adam ( I. X. ) Memorial. 57. 

American Ambulance (France), 333, 563. 

American in Servia, 367. 

Cleveland, 204. 

Cleveland Babies' Dispensary, 564. 

Efficiency movement, 263. 

Presbyterian, plan for alliance with Columbia Uni- 
versity. 150. 

See also Insanity. 
Houghton Daily Mining Gazette, 257. 
1 louse fly. .S'(V Flies. 
1 lousing. 

California, 205. 

Cleveland code, 139. 

Indianapolis. 139. 

Minnesota, farm and village. 138. 

Negroes, New York City, 66. 

New Jersey conference, 295. 

New Jersey facts, 94. 

New York legislation in 1915, 143. 

Philadelphia conditions, 573. 

Philadelphia's fight for a law. 284. 

Pittsburgh meeting, 94. 
Howard. Frederick R. Letter on Scadding House, Port- 
land, Ore.. 57. 
Howe, Frederick C. 4. 189, 261. 
Hoyt. Helen. Release (poem), 380. 
Hudnut, Jos., 00. 

1 n d e x 

I ludson ( mild, 314. 

I lughan, Jessie W., 210. 

Mull (Morton Denison) Prize, 346. 

Humanity, security and honor (Devine), 431. 

Hume, Mrs. E. H. Social Service League of Changsha, 

Hungarian poem (Petofi), 4110. 

Hunger turd. L. S., 133. 

Hunter, Geo. I'. Review of Poole's The Harbor, 140. 

Hunter. JoeJ 1). Illinois widows' act (letter), 4.")."). 

Huntington, Theodora T. Remedial Loans, Baltimore con- 
vention, 207. 

Ilurty, Dr. J. N., 57. 

Iluyck, Edmund N., 90. 
Old age (poem), 0. 

I [ymns. 

great republic, 83. 
Peace, 473. 

Sec also Social hymns. 

Ice cream, 183. 
Idealism, segregated, 564. 
Idleness. Sec Unemployment. 
Illegitimacy in Cleveland, 242. 

General advisory hoard for employment offices, 569. 

Hea'Hi service, 371. 

Legislation, 341. 

Shurtlefr bill, 129. 

Tri-city public health department, 189. 

Unemployment bill, 149. 

Widows' act (letter), 455. 
Illinois Library Extension Commission. 386. 

Appalachian region, 448, 

North Carolina, 548. 
Immigrant, deported. 30. 

Americanization Day, 189, 261. 

Pennsylvania, chances in, 118. 

Reporting children to school authorities, 100. 

Russian deportation postponed, 281. 

International congress at San Francisco. 528. 

New York arrivals, week ending May 11. 1915, 170. 

Russian, after the war, 153. 

U. S. Department, exhibit at Panama-Pacific Exposi- 
tion, 312, 313. 
fndependence Hay. See Fourth of July. 
Independence Hall, 290. 
Indeterminate sentence. See Parole. 

Disease Prevention Hay. 564. 

Legislation, summary. 255. 

Parole law statistics, 301. 

Social hygiene, (11. 

State Farm for misdemeanants, 135. 

1 lousing, 139. 

National Conference of Charities and Correction, 203. 
Industrial Commission (N. V.), 101, 102. 
Industrial democracy, 31.9. 
Industrial education. 

Minneapolis, 346, 

See also Vocational Education. 
Industrial Relations Commission. 

Abstracts of final reports, 4S0, 500. 

Chicago hearings. 132. 

Dallas hearing, tenantry. 02. 

I. alior and the law; attack on the court'-, 193. 

McCarthy's retirement, 40. 

More light on Colorado, 212. 

Pullman and Pennsylvania practice. L75. 

What Rockefeller knew and what he did ( Fitch), 

Government intervention in war times (England), 155. 

War and, in England, 388, 
Infant mortality. 

Institutional. 182. 

See also Children's Bureau. 
Ingram. Helene. Term "ward" for charitable beneficiaries 

(letter), 366. 

Maryland conditions, old and new, BT. 

Massachusetts hospitals, out-patient work, 159. 

New York (State) conference on mental hygiene, 92. 

Pennsylvania county institutions, 7. 

Progress in treating (edit.), 28. 

South Carolina care, 13. 

Infant mortality in, 182. 

New York legislation in 1915, 144. 
Insurance, State, 518. 

Intercollegiate Socialist Society, first conference, 567. 
International Woman's Peace Committee, 172. 

See also Women's Peace Conference. 
Internationalism, new, 549. 
Interned ships at Boston, 3. 

Investigation as a basis for social legislation. 81. 
Investigation in Chicago, 577. 

Legislation, 1915, 145. 

University's social service, 485. 
Ipswich, Mass., recreational survey, 534. 
Ithaca, N. Y. 

Chart of insanity conditions and residual typhoid, 554. 
Ives, Henry G. Praise for The Survey (letter). 474 

Jackson, Anna M. Children and police (letter), 344. 
Jacobi, Abraham. 

Birth control meeting, 211. 

Eighty-fifth birthday and portrait, 147. 
Jacobs, Aletta, 222c. 
Jagow, Gottlieb von, portrait, 422. 
Tail sentences, 517. 
James, Henry, Jr., 99. 
Janitors, school for, 77. 
Jayne, Ira \\ ., 131, 148. 
Jebb, Robt. W., 343. 
Jefferson, Chas. E., 395. 
Jefferson, Thomas, statue. 112a 
Jenkins, Frederick \\ '., 9s. 
Jensen, Jens, 65. 
Jewish communal activities. 499. 
Jewish Community, 482. 
fewish social workers, 208. 

lew s. 

New York city, efforts in behalf of workers. 440. 

Story of persecuted Jew. verse and sketch. 572. 
Johannsen, Anton. 194. 
John Street Church, 51. 
Johnson, Alex., 100, 206. 

Case of the nation VS. the feebleminded. 136 
Johnson, Bascom, 497. 
Johnson, Chas. H.. 437. 

Johnson, Emily S. Charities and Suburbs. 509, 
Johnson. Marietta L., 346 
Johnson. W. S. Belgium (poem). 250. 
Johnson, Wm. Templeton. San Diego, exposition and 

peoples of the Southwest, 303 
Jones, Louise T., 367. 

Jones, Rufus M. Quaker peace position, 22 
Jordan, Charlotte 1!. Lincoln legend (poem), 43. 
Jordan, David Starr. 

Letter on Tin-: Survey's Peace number. 75 

Minimum of safety (militarism). 115. 
Josephson, ( )fficer, 109. 
Journal of the American Medical Association, is:.', 527. 

lov /ones. 109. 

Joyner, J. Y., .Ms 

Judaism, progressive trend. 353. 

ludd, Chas. H. Review of l.earned's two school studies. 

Juvenile courts. 

Confi ssii 'Us. 301. 

Philadelphia and lodge Gorman, 351. 

Rhode Island. 281. 
Juvenile Motion Picture Federation. See under Motion 



Kalamazoo, charities savings, 156 


Legislation, 153 

M ilk survey. 479. 

Motion picture censorship. s : 



Prison reconstruction plan, 161. 

Rural life movement, 139. 
Kansas City School Bulletin, 519. 
Karolis, Nicholas, 171. 
Kehillah, 440. 

Extension course, 499. 
Kelley, Mrs. Florence, 405. 

Industrial Commission of New York State, objections. 

Minimum wage (comments on letter of D. G. Rob- 
bins), 97. 
Kellogg, Arthur P. 

Review of Adams's The Clarion, 73. 

Trend of the times in charity (report of meeting of 
National Conference), 203. 
Kellogg, Paul U. 

Independence Hall conference on peace, 290. 

Powder mills and vocational schools in the Old Do- 
minion, 131. 

Welcoming of Jane Addams, 353. 
Kellor. Frances A., 541. 

Kelso, Robert W. Charity Officials' Association at Balti- 
more, 208. 
Kennedy, John C, 133. 
Kepford, Aretas E., 297. 

Kerbey, McFall. Illiteracy in the Appalachians, 448. 
Kerr, Alva M. An answered prayer (poem), 380. 
Keyser, Cassius J., 401. 

Kindergartens, Cleveland window exhibit. 351. 
King, W. L. MacKenzie, 212, 234, 402. 
Kingsbury, John A.. 80, 210. 
Kingsley House, 130. 
Kinkead, Sheriff, 387, 414. 
Kirby, Geo. H., quoted on syphilis, 547. 
Kirchwey, Geo. W, 293. 
Kirkham, J. M., 301. 
Kitchener, Earl, 223. 

Klein, Philip. Goring and the stigmatized criminal. 179. 
Kleman, Anna, 222c. 
Knight, Howard, 534. 
Kobylak, Joseph, 194. 
Konenkamp, S. I., 133. 
Kruesi, Walter E., 499. 
Kruttschnitt, Julius, 133. 
Kutcherra, Elise, 532. 


Exhibits at Panama-Pacific Exposition, 312. 

Hours and output in Great Britain, 484. 

Legislation, 279. 

New York legislation in 1915, 144. 

New York legislative bills, 4. 

Organizations' recommended constitutional amendment 
for New York State, 97. 

See also Industry. 
Labor, U. S. Department of, 266. 
Labor camps in California. 365, 
Labor Day, 517. 
Labor exchange, national, 266. 
Labor Gazette, 474. 
"Labor is noble" (poem), 444. 
Labor week, international, 249. 
La Cross, Wis., pageant, 532. 
La Follette, Robt. M. American seamen, 116. 
La Follette bill, campaign against, 390. 
La Follette's Magazine quoted. 11(5. 
La Fontaine, Henri, 567. 
Lakeman, Curtis E., 554. 
La Motte, Ellen N., 563. 

An American nurse in Paris, 333. 
Landis, J. H., 192. 
Lane. Winthrop D. 

New York schools, Gary plan for, 570. 

Randall's Island inquiry, 330. 
Lansbury, George, 155. 
Lansing, Kansas, 161. 
Lantern bearers. See Drama. 
La Salle, 111., 189. 

Lattimore, Alida. Singing for Rochester. 360. 
Lattimore, Florence L. Subsidy system in Pennsylvania, 42. 
Lauck, W. Jett. 264, 474. 
Laughlin, Prof. J. L„ article on industrial democracv in 

the Atlantic, 319. 
Laundries, protection for workers, 548. 

Lawson, John R., 151, 181, 477. 

Denied new trial, 349. 

Poem on, 302. 

Reply to Judge Hillyer, 521. 
Lead poisoning, British report on painters'. 554. 
League to Enforce Peace. 

Independence Hall conference, 290. 

Plans, 327. 

Publication of addresses, 456. 
Learned, Wm. S., 364. 
Leavitt, Frank M. Review of Bloomtield's Youth, School 

and Vocation, 544. 
Leavitt, Mr., article on philanthropy in Pearson's, 319. 
Lee, Ivy L., 212, 462. 
Lee, Joseph. 

Murder (Birth of a Nation), 96. 

Unknown basis of mental hygiene. 362. 
Lee, Porter R., 204. 
Lee. Dr. W. Estell. 296 
Left. Sam'l, 70. 

Alabama, 79. 

Alabama summer session. 329. 

Arkansas, 340, 386. 

California, summary, 254. 

Connecticut, summary, 256. 

Florida, 340. 

Illinois, 341. 

Indiana, summary. 255. 

Investigation as a basis. 81, 

Iowa. 1915. 145. 

Kansas, 453. 

Labor, constitutional amendments proposed in New 
York. 279. 

Maine, 340. 

Massachusetts, 339. 

Medical. Sec Medical legislation. 

Michigan, 103. 

Minnesota, 1915, 145. 

Missouri children's code. 98. 

Missouri's fruitless session. 71. 

Nebraska, summary, 255. 

New Hampshire, 180. 

New Jersey, 70. 

New Jersey's gains, 148. 

New Mexico, 341, 

New York results, 142. 

North Dakota. 1915. 140. 

Ohio. 452. 

Oregon, 452. 

Pennsylvania, 149, 22s. 

Pennsylvania, compensation bills, 44. 

Pennsylvania, insane, 7. 

Pennsylvania, summary, 253. 

Rhode Island, summary. 250. 

South Carolina, insane, 13. 

Texas, social gains. 191. 

Utah, 1915. no. 

Vermont, summary, 257. 

Washington, 339. 

Washington, summary, 255. 

West Virginia, summary, 250. 

See also Constitution making in New York. 
Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company, 445. 
Lehigh Valley Conference on child-helping, 185. 
Leiserson, Wm. M., 405. 

Review of Kellor's Out of Work, 541. 
Lennon, John B., 500. 

Leonard, Mrs. Oscar. Jewish social workers, 208. 
Levine, Albert J. Deliberating with the school critics. 242. 
Lewis, Harry S., 363. 
Lewis. Lydia C. Letter on Thk Survey's Peace number, 


Lewis. (). F., 253. 

Liberty, N. Y„ 196. 


A public library (poem), 556. 

See also American Library Association. 
Lichten, Grace M. 

New York newsboys (letter), 107. 

UJnemployment (letter), 366. 
Lieberman, Elias. How long, O Lord! (poem), 572. 
Liebknecht, Karl. 458. 

Appreciation and portrait, 18. 
Life Publishing Co.. 171. 



Lillian Rest, 130. 

Lillie, Maria Ehnendorf. As one body (poem), 512. 

Lincoln (Abraham), legend (poem), 43. 

Lincoln, Robert T., 175. 

Lindemann, E. C. 

Legislature that did no harm (Michigan), 163. 

Letter on the Michigan Legislature, 455. 
Linderfelt, K. E., 181. 
Lindsay, Sam'l McCune. 

Constitution making in New York, 391. 

Constitution making in New York — home rule and the 
State charitable and penal institutions, 491. ' 

Constitution making in New York — industrial rela- 
tions, conservation, education, 538. 

Constitution making in New York — the revised con- 
stitution, 579. 
Lindsey, Ben B. 

Attack collapses, 80. 

Contempt of court, 301. 
Liquor licenses in Quebec and Montreal. 200. 
Lister, Sir Jos., correction of dates, (59. 
"Little Pittsburgh," 118. 
Little tavern (poem), 490. 
Lloyd George, David, portrait, 422. 
Loan sharks, 546. 

National Federation of Remedial Loan Associations, 
annual convention, 207. 

Remedial Associations' report, 546. 
Loch, Chas. S., 343. 

Lochner, Louis P. Interned soldiers in Holland, 535. 
Log schoolhouses, 449. 
Lombroso, 179. 

Loreburn, Lord, portrait, 422. 
Los Angeles. 

Efficiency commission work, 459. 

Tree planting, 329. 
Los Angeles Community Foundation. 239. 
Loudon, John, portrait, 507. 

Louisiana, Washington's (B. T.) missionary tour, 266. 
Louisiana State Board of Health, fly cartoon. 477 

Deaf, social center for, 344. 

Recreation study, 283. 
Louvain University, 454. 
Lowell. A. Lawrence, 290. 
Lynch, Frederick, 395. 
Lynch, Tames M., 209. 
Lyon, D. Willard, 395. 
Lyons, Edw. P., 209. 


McCarthy, Chas. Letter as to retirement. 40. 

McClenaban, Bessie A. Social service by a state uni- 
versity (Iowa), 485. 

McCorkle. Daniel S.. 212, 232. 

McCormick (Elizabeth) Memorial Fund, 310, 311. 

McCoy, John, 46, 47. 

MacDougall, A. \V. Trend toward public social service 
(N. J. conference), 163. 

McFeely, Otto. Chicago's hearings of Industrial Rela- 
tions Commission, 132. 

McGuire, W. D., 4, 5. 

Mclnerney, J. J., 567. 

MacKaye, James, 542. 

McKelway, A. J.. 194. 

Letter on the Southern white man. 455. 

McLane, Kate M. Baltimore's treatment of the insane, old 
and new, 87. 

McLaughlin, A. J., 198, 211. 

McLean, Francis H. Charity societies, American Associa- 
tion, at Baltimore, 207. 

McLennan, Wm. E. Values in social work. :::;; 

Macmillan, Chrystal. 221, 222c, 506. 

MacNeille. Raymond, 351. 

Magruder, Dr. Ernest P., 409. 

Maimed. See Soldiers. 

Maine, Legislation, 340. 

Major, Elliott W., 130. 

Malnutrition inquiry, 496. 

Man, evolution of (cuts), 306. 307. 

Manhcimer. Wallace A., 482. 

Manila Little Mothers' League, 98. 

Manly, Basil M., 480, 500. 
Manning, R. I., 13. 
Manny, Frank A., 496. 

Review of Earhart's Types of Teaching, 274. 

Segregated idealism (letter). 504. 
Manufacturers. See National Association of Manufactur- 
Manus, Rose, 222b. 
Markham, Chas. H., 133. 
Marshall, Sabina, 405. 
Mary Fisher Home, 168. 

Insane, old and new ways with, 87. 

Statewide athletics, 532. 
Mason, Frank H. 

American Ambulance Hospital (letter). 563. 

Insane hospitals, out-patient work. 159. 

Legislation, 339. 

Mothers' aid law, 378. 

Public health officers, 211. 

Public health officials, conference, 198. 

Unemployment insurance, 265. 
Mastin, Florence Ripley. Little brother (poem), 134. 
Mathews, Shailer, 403. 

Henderson, C. R., appreciation, 56. 
Matthews, Wm. H. Wages from relief funds. 245. 
Maxted, John, 60. 
May 11, 1915 (poem), 328. 
Mayo-Minnesota foundation. 372. 
Mayors' (New York) Conference, 295. 
Mead, Marcia, 66. 

Meadville Theological School, convocation week, 34:; 
Mechanical eye. See Blindness. 
Mediation in Ohio coal strike, 190. 
Medical Brotherhood, 482. 
Medical education, St. Louis, new center. 244. 
Medical inspection of school children in Florida, 564. 
Medical legislation, new laws and amendments in four 

states, 371. 
Medical meetings. 

Laymen in, 160. 

San Francisco, 385. 
Medical research, Mayo-Minnesota foundation, 
Mcdiai! Review of Reviews, 211. 

Medical schools, Columbia and Presbyterian Hospital alli- 
ance, L50. 
Meltzer, Dr. S. J., 4s:_>. 
Memphis, outdoor hospitals for tuberculous children and 

drug users, 92. 
Men and Religion Forward Movement, 147. 
Mendelsohn. Sigmund. 45s. 
Mental defectives, District of Columbia, 264. 
Mental hygiene. 

New York ( State 1. '.»:.', 

Organizing the community for the protection of its 
mental life ( A. Meyer). 557. 

Societies in Alabama and Louisiana. 456. 

1 know! asis of 1 J. Lee I, 362 

See also Insanity. 
Merchant marine. See Safety at Sea. 
Merriman. Christina. British war posters 
Methodist building proposed to celebrate anniversary, 51. 
Metropolitan I ife Insurance Co. 

1 nemployed in New York City, 170. 

Unemployment in 15 cities, 210. 
Met/, I ieorge, 47. 

Cartoon from Cleveland Plain Dealer, 281. 

Food lack. 549. 

National Mexican Relief Committee formed, 347. 

Red Cross help. 387. 

Sickness and suffering, 
Meyer, l)r. Adolf. Organizing the community for tin 

tection <>i its mental life. ."■".; 

t hild labor bill, 129. 

Legislation, 163. 

I 1 gislature, letters on. 455 
Michigan. Uni if, Vngell memorial. 112d. 

Middle West. Rise'of (Bitter's sculpture), 112 b. c. 
Mikveh baths. 182. 
Miles. Dr. S. S.. :.<r, 
Militarism, 1 15. 

1 . iod Samaritan 1 cartoon ) . 2 




Kansas survey, 479. 

Pasteurization, 564. 

Standards of certified, 160. 
Milk and Baby Hygiene Association, 263. 
Milk commissions, convention, 385. 
Miller, Madeleine S. Rain and the milk (Pittsburgh) 

(poem), 90. 
Miller, Walter M., 170. 

Milner, Duncan C. Birth of a Nation (letter), 344. 
Milwaukee Foundation, 239. 
Miners. State transportation in Ohio, 459. 
Minimum wage. 

Common fears analyzed (J. A. Ryan). 1S4. 

Employer's predicament (J. A. Ryan), 122. 

bather Ryan and (letter from Rome G. Brown). .".;. 

Kelley, Mrs. Florence. Comments on letter of D. G. 
Robbins, 97. 

National Association of Manufacturers on, 519. 

Oregon, effects, 478. 

Oregon, employer on, 157. 

Primer for trade unionists, 157. 

Robbins, D. G., letter of comment on Mrs. Kelley's 
points, 96. 

Storer, Sophie Gary (letter), 57. 

Home for working women, 534. 

Industrial education, 346. 

Unemployment, method of meeting", 444. 

Farm and village homes, 138. 

Legislation of 1915, 145. 

Model farm house (cut), 139. 

Public Health Association, 92. 

State insurance, 518. 
Minnesota, University of, 372. 

Children's Code Commission, 328. 

Legislation, 71. 

Legislation, children's code, 98. 

Public welfare boards, 54s. 

Reformatory, 98. 

Requisitions, 130. 

Social hygiene, 61. 

Tuberculosis legislation, 169. 
Mitchell, John, 209. 
Montagu, Lily H. Review of Lewis's Liberal Judaism and 

Social Serxncc, 353. 
Montague, Gilbert 11. Motion-picture censorship, 82. 
Montessori, Maria, 549. 
Montreal liquor licenses, 260. 
Moonlight school month, 548. 
Moore, Otis H. Right of a man to a job, 54. 
Morgan, S. R. University teaching (letter). 473. 
Morman, Jas. B., 364. 
Morrow, Prince A., 192. 
Mortality in wars, 518. 
Mosquitoes, disease-bearing (cut), 79. 
Mother and State, Burnham's symbolic figures (cut), 151. 
Mother of the dead (group), 499. 
Mothers, hymns for (letter), 473. 
Mothers' aid. See Widows' pensions. 
Mothers' congress, 185. 
Motion pictures. 

Audience, photograph by Howard Cox, :!14. 

Birth of a Nation, progressive protest. 209. 

Birth of a Nation, protests, 4, 96, 344. 

Boston parks, 409. 

Censorship, U. S. Supreme Court on Kansas and Ohio 
statutes, 82. 

Juvenile Motion Picture Federation, 477. 

Norway, 328. 

See also Drama. 
Moton, Robt. R., 131, 158. 
Moyer, Chas. H., 239. 
Mu'llanphy Emigrant Relief Fund, 114. 
Municipal government prize, 346. 
Municipal information bureau, 454. 

Municipal Research. See Bureau of Municipal Research. 
Municipal social service. See under Social service. 
Munitions. See Ammunition. 
Murphy, Starr J., 462. 
Muscatine, Iowa, social welfare, 486. 
Mussey, Henry R., 251. 
Mvgatt, Tracy D., 210. 


Narcotics, Public Health Service bulletin, 1S5. 
Nasmyth, Geo. W. Letter on The Survey's Peace num- 
ber, 76. 
National Association for the Study and Prevention of 

Tuberculosis, annual conference, 294. 
National Association of Manufacturers, conclusions on 

minimum wage legislation, 519. 
National Civic Federation, Social Insurance Department 

report defended, 177. 
National Conference of Charities and Correction. 

Address of Mary Willcox Glenn, 199. 

Democratization, 169. 

Democratizing (letter), 297. 

Election of officers, new plan, 81. 

Features and notes of Baltimore meeting, 203. 

Officers and committees for 1916, 203. 

Presidents, longevity of, 96. 
National Conference on City Planning, Detroit meeting, 

National Education Association. 346. 

Third International Congress. 549. 
Nature study in California, 66. 
Naugatuck valley, 27. 
Navy, Venereal diseases, 291. 
Nearing, Scott, case of, 289, 318. 
Nebraska legislation, summary, 255. 
Negro Organization Society, 158. 

Baltimore health conference, 69. 

Exhibit of activities, 346. 

Florida convicts, 103. 

Folk Song, 132. 

Housing, Philadelphia, :>','.;. 

Louisiana, 266, 

Mortality, census bulletin. 69. 

National Association of Teachers in Colored Schools. 

National Negro Business League, 550, 

New York City, housing, 66. 

Protest against Birth of a Nation. 4. 96, 209. 

Pullman porters, 133, 175. 

Savannah health problem, <',; 

Titustown, Va., 531. 

Virginia clean-up, 158. 

See also Hampton. 
Neighbor, My (poem), 413. 
Neighborhood centers, prize plans, 65, 
Nesbitt. Florence, 543. 
New England, Cancer, 264. 
New Hampshire. 

Child legislation, 180. 

Feebleminded, study, 137. 
New Jersey. 

Child-saving laws, 348. 

1 lousing facts, 94. 

Legislation, 70, 148. 

State Conference of Charities and Corrections, 163. 
New Mexico, legislation. 341. 
New Orleans, clean-up spirit, 442. 
New Statesman, 177. 

New York (City). 

Administration, business-like. 251. 

Charities and Correction Conference, 253. 

Charities Directory, 168. 

Charities investigation, 80, 123. 

Children's Hospital, 80. 

Employment problems, society for study, 130. 

Flag and seal (cut), 243. 

Free Synagogue experiments in employment, 483. 

Gary plan for schools, 302, 570. 

Health Department lunchroom, 372. 

Health Department's campaign against drink, 299. 

Housing of negroes, 66. 

John Street Church, 51. 

Milk, certified, 160. 

Neighborhood center plan, 66. 

Newsboys Home Club, 167. 

Poor man, injustice to, 41. 

Prostitution in tenement houses, 281. 

Quacks, patent medicines, fakers, 68. 

Social centers, 3. 

Strand Roof Garden, 163 



Weights and measures week, 442. 

Women, book on, 141. 
New York (State). 

Board of Charities, investigation of New York City 
Charities, SO, 123. 

Bureau of Municipal Research report to Constitutional 
Convention, 494. 

Constitution making, 391. 

Constitution making — home rule and the state charit- 
able and penal institutions, 491. 

Constitution making — industrial relations, conserva- 
tion, education, 538. 

Constitution making — revised constitution, 579. 

Constitution revision and social progress, 49. 

Constitutional amendments recommended by labor or- 
ganizations, 97, 279. 

Industrial Commission, 101, 102. 

Industrial Commission, composition, 209. 

Labor bills, 4. 

Legislation of 1915, 142. 

Parmenter plan, 493. 

State Charities Aid report to Constitutional Conven- 
tion, 494. 

Women in factories, 81. 
New York Association for Improving the Condition of the 

Poor, 245. 

Social Welfare Department's schemes for cleaner and 
cheaper food, 441. 
New York Call, 181. 
New York Evening Post, 458. 
New York Globe, 400. 
New York Times. 

Eastland disaster and seaman's act, 428, 430. 

Editorial quoted on Jane Addams, 353. 
New York Training School for Community Center Work- 
ers, 407. 
New York Tribune's campaign against fraudulent advertis- 
ing, 08. 
New York University, 372. 
Newman, A. Evelyn. 

Criticism of her article "Three Days in Berlin" (let- 
ter), 474. 

Three Days in Berlin, 22G. 
Newman, Bernard J., 284. 
Newport, R. I., Vernon House, 381. 
Newsboys, 167. 

Campaign against La Follette bill, 396, 400. 

Responsibility, 430. 
Nienburg, Bertha Vonder, 478. 
Nightingale, Florence. Statue in London, 457. 
Mimmo. John, 181. 
Noble (poem), 444. 
Nocturne (poem), 440. 
North Carolina. 

Almshouse, joint county, 61. 

Convict camps, 152. 

Illiteracy, 548. 
North Dakota legislation, 1915. 146. 
Northlield, Minn., 346. 
Norton, Win. G., 452. 
Norway municipal "movies," 328. 
Notlaw. Charity in 2000 A. D. (letter), 366. 
Nunez, Dr. Enrique, 552. 
Nurseries, Cleveland window exhibit, 351. 
Nurses, groups of Russian, 508. 

Association meetings, 385. 

France and Servia. 99, 

Paris, American nurse in. 333. 

Philippines, 68. 
Xvs, Gafton, 222a. 


( )benauer, Marie L., 478. 

< I'Connell, James, 500. 

O'Dell, G. I 7 .. Review of Drake's Problems of Conduct, 

Odencrantz, Louise C, 405. 

Placing women through public employment offices, 560. 

Ogden, Robert ('.. medallion, 112b. 

( Iglesby, 111., isu. 
O'Hara, Edwin V, 479. 

Cleveland Girls' Bureau, 533. 

Coal strike settlement, 190. 

"Conservancy Act", 79. 

Labor union law decision, 185. 

Legislation, 452. 

Motion picture censorship, 82. 

Public welfare boards, 547. 

Social centers, new law, 442. 

Social hygiene, 60. 

Transportation of miners, 459. 
Ohio Public Health Federation, 497. 
Old age (poem), 6. 
Oppenheim, James, 366. 

"1915" (poem), 195. 

Canners' overtime, 284. 

Legislation, 452. 

Minimum wage, effects, 478. 

Minimum wage, employer on, 157. 
Osborne, Thos. Mott. 

Attack on, 437. 

Welcome to Sing Sing after vacation, 529. 
Oseroff, Abraham, 42. 
Osiris prize, 456. 
Ostrowsky, Abbo, 572. 
Other Side, 168. 

Ottumwa, Iowa, social welfare, 486. 
Outdoor relief. 

Conference paper and discussion, 205. 

Social problems of public. 15. 
Outlook, 166. 

Overtime, Oregon canners, 284. 
Ovington, May White. Review of Holtzclaw's Black 

Man's Burden, 164. 
Owen, Bess C. Unemployment in Portland, Ore., 52. 

Paderewski, Helen and Ignace J., 527. 

Page, Edwin L. County control of children. New Hamp- 
shire, 180. 
Page commission, 41. 

Caldwell, N. J.. 573. 

La Crosse, Wis., 532. 
Painters, lead poisoning. 554. 
Palmstierna. Baroness Ellen, 506. 
Pamphlets, recent, 38. 98. 168, 186, 276. 29s. 346, 386, 456, 

475, 496a. 565. 585. 
Panama, sanitation. 543 
Panama Canal, food protection, 160. 
Panama-Pacific Exposition. 

Deeper significance, 31 s. 

Joy Zone waning in popularity, 109. 

Vice, 197. 

See also San Diego; San Francisco. 
Parenthood and the state. 297. 

Nursing in, 333. 

Police work for refugees. 23. 
Park, I. Edgar, Real hero, the fpoem), 290. 
Parkinson. Thos. I.. 101, 209. 

I', iston shows in, 409. 

Chicago. 243. 

Concerts by operatic stars. 156 

Pittsburgh, Jitney Park, 531. 
Parmenter. Dr. John. 493 

Arizona, 564. 

Indiana statistics for L8 years, 30] 
Passaic. X. J., 295. 

Pasteur, Louis, photograph of bust; tribute. 198, 
Pasvolsky, Leo. Immigration that may come from Kusvi.i 

alter the war, 153. 
Paterson, X. J., strike leaders in prison. 3. 
Patten. Simon N. Unnatural boundaries of European 

slates. 21. 

Peabody, Francis G., 394. 

Birthplace < cartoon |, 292 

Currents in England, 501. 

I orces at work in Europe, 439. 

Hymn. 473. 

Milk labels. 60. 

New York Normal Vrt School poster, 40, 



Peace societies in England, 501, 505. 

Pope's message, 428. 

Prelude to (address of Mary Willeox Glenn), 199. 

Quaker position, 22. 

Records of good deeds (letter), 166. 

School of, 572. 

Socialist women at Berne, 172. 

Stead (H.) on American plans, 1. 

Women delegates in Scandinavia and Russia (Balch), 

See also Addams, Jane; American School Peace 
League; League to Enforce Peace; Socialists; 
Women's Peace Conference. 
Peace Day, 59, 262. 

Peace number of The Survey, comment and communica- 
tions, 72. 
Pearson's, 319. 
Peixotto, fessica B. San Francisco Exposition Exhibits, 


Blind beys' work. 261. 

Child labor law (Cox bill ), 149. 

Compensation bills, 44. 

Housing problems. 94. 

Insane in county institutions, 7. 

Legislation, 149, 228. 

Legislation, summary. 253. 

Penal Commission program. 84. 

Penitentiaries, union of, 328. 

Prison unemployment, S4. 

Public Charities Association. Allegheny County, 42. 

Subsidy system, 42. 

Unemployment, education, and the immigrant's chances. 

Welfare work for children, 572. 
Pennsylvania, University of, 173. 

Nearing case, 289, 318. 
Pennsylvania Railroad, Industrial Relations Commission's 

hearing, 175. 
Pensions. See Widows' pensions. 
People's Kitchen, 441. 
Perlman, Jesse. Mickey (poem). 154. 
Perry, Mrs. Geo. H., 259. 
Peru, 111., 189. 
Pessimism, 564. 
Petofi. Alexander, 490. 

Petrograd, groups of women peace delegates in. 506. 
Pfeiffer, Edw. II. Dethroned (poem), 21. 

Housing and social conditions, 573. 

Housing law fight, 284. 

Municipal Court, 51. 
Philadelphia County Medical Society, hospital efficiency re- 
ports, 263. 
Philanthropic individualism ( E. Winslow), 555. 
Philanthropy, 319. 
Philippine nurses, 68. 
Phipps Institute report, 573. 
Physicians. Sec Medical Brotherhood. 
Pickworth, Rev. Felix H., 546. 
Pietro, C. L., 499. 

Pinnacle of civilization (drawings). 501. 

Heinz House, 283. 

Housing meeting, 94. 

Jitney Park, 531. 

Story of Harry S., 351. 

Tax experiment to go on, 370. 
Pittsburgh Survey, Vols. V. and VI, 582. 
Play-day, St. Louis, 532. 
Playground and Recreation Association of America, ninth 

annual meeting, 251. 
Playground concert, Eastside, 532. 

Birmingham, Ala., 243. 

Chicago, 243. 

Sanitation of sand courts, 243. 

See also Recreation. 
Plummer, Mary W., 342. 

Answered prayer, 380. 

As one body, 512. 

Belgium, 250. 

Charity ball. 487. 

Children, music of, 6. 

City heat, 380. 

Columbia, 567. 

Dethroned, 21. 

Dialogue between old patient and young doctor, 27 2. 

End of the week, 90. 

From the factory, 90. 

Garment, the. :>4s. 

Gift of Pietro, 167. 

Harvest, 288. 

Homeless, 537. 

How long, O Lord ? 572. 

Lawson. John R., 302. 

Lincoln legend, 43. 

Little brother, 134. 

Little tavern, A, 490. 

May 11, 1915, 328. 

Mickey, 154. 

My neighbor, 413. 

Negro folk song, 132. 

"1915," 195. 

Noble, 444. 

Nocturne, 440. 

( )ld age, 6. 

Old commandments, the. 17. 

Public Library, A, 556. 

Rain at the mill (Pittsburgh), 90. 

Real hero, the, 290. 

Release. 380. 

Spring in the Xaugatuck valley, 27. 

Three doomed nun in the death house write, 581. 

Toilers, the. 90. 

Town, ballad of the. 6. 

War. 17 4. 

Weakling, the. 372. 

See also Hymns. 
Poetry, working-class (edit.), 28. 
Pogany, Paula, 450, 151, 
Poisonous fly-paper. 260. 

Chief of newer type, 95. 

Children and. 344. 

European, 273 

Women. International Association. 346. 
Police-woman's record in Topeka, 571. 
Polish relief, 52'! 

Poor. Sec New York Association for Improving the Con- 
dition of the Poor. 
Pope. Alvin, 308. 
Pope's message of peace, 42s. 
Popler, Irma Erwin, 546. 
Popular Science Monthly, 212. 
Portland, Ore. 

Scadding House. 57. 

Unemployment, 52. 

Vernon Community House, 533. 
Portmanteau Theater, 551. 

Post, Louis F. Government intervention in idleness, 266. 
Poster Campaign Committee, 129. 
Posters, British war, 222d— 225. 
Posture. See American Posture League. 
Potter, Zenas L., 517. 

Review of Price's The Modern Factory, 73. 
Poverty, 500. 

Book on abolition of, 543. 

Chicago, 350. 

New York City injustice, 41. 
Pray, K. L. M., 253. 
Prayer, answered (poem), 380. 
Prayer of the defective child, 570. 
Presbyterian General Assembly, 252. 
Presbvterian Hospital, Columbia University alliance, plans, 


Press. Sec Freedom of the press; Newspapers. 

Prevey, C. E., 255. 

Prince, Lucinda W. Review of Fisk's Salesmanship. 275, 

Prison labor in Pennsylvania, 84. 

Prisoners, grading, 518. 


Attacks on administration in New York, 437. 

Indiana State Farm, 135. 

Kansas reconstruction plan, 161. 

New York legislation in 1915, 142. 

Pennsylvania, union of, 328. 

See also Sing Sing. 




Missouri governor, 130. 

National Association, conference, 208. 
P'robation Commission, New York, and New York City 

probation officers, 252. 
Probation officer — parable. 111. 
Probation officer at work, 109. 

California conference, 295. 

Forward march of (Anti-Saloon League convention), 

See also Alcohol. 
Prosser, Chas. A., 297. 

New York legislation in 1915, 143. 

New York (City) tenement house law amendment, 281. 

See also Syphilis. 
Protocol. See cloak, suit and skirt industry. 
Psychopathic Hospital, Boston, 92. 

Public, The, quoted on The Survey's Peace number, 76. 
Public health. 

China, 575. 

Illinois tri-city department, 189. 

Massachusetts officials, conference, 198. 

New York University training, 372. 

Ohio federation's work, 497. 

Voluntary organizations, co-ordination, 91. 
Public Health Service. 

Exhibits at Panama-Pacific Exposition, 311. 

Officers in Massachusetts positions, 211. 

Quarantine, 99. 

Report, 68, 69. 
Public library, A (poem), 556. 
Public Schools. 

Bloomfield's Youth, School and Vocation reviewed. ">4l. 

Improvements needed, 242. 

New York, Gary plan, 302, 570. 

Out-of-school activities, 534. 

Portland, Ore., Vernon Community House, 533 

Summer control of children, 4.">s. 
Public welfare boards in western cities. 547. 
Pugh. Edward G. Tolerance (letter on The Survey), 96. 
Pullman. Raymond W., sketch and portrait, 95. 
Pullman Company, 523. 

Posters and wages, 132, 175. 
Pushcart, model, 441. 

Puthod, Valentine. Paris police work for refugees. :.':'.. 
Putnam, Mrs. Wm. Lowell. Sanity in social work, 188. 


Quaker peace position, 22. 

Boston, 77. 

Federal control, 40. 99 

Galveston, 409. 
Quebec liquor licenses, 260. 
Quick, Herbert, 583. 
Quinlan, Patrick, 3. 


Rabinoff, Geo. W., 256. 

Racine, Wis., school for janitors, 77. 

Raemaekers, Louis. 

Drawings of the war in Europe, 501. 

Illustrations from his war drawings, 417-421. 
Railroad shop men, 132. 
Railroads, productive efficiency, 2<>4. 
Ramondt-Hirschman, Madame, 506. 
Randall's Island, so, 123, 166, 210. 

Expenditure proposed for children's hospital and 
schools. 369. 

Inquiry, 330. 
Randolph, Agnes D., 158, 

Rats, Boston Woman's Municipal League and, 568. 
Rayewsky, Charles A , I'm.. 

California, Recreational Enquiry Committee report, 142. 

Congress at Panama-Pacific Exposition, .".s::. 

Detroit, 131, 

Louisville studies. 283. 

New York legislation in 1915, 143. 

Out-of-school activities of children, 534, 

St. Louis politics and Miss Rumbold, 179. 

San Francisco, 94. 

Recruiting, 223. 

Canada, 369. 
Red Cross. 

Mexico, 387. 

Servia, narrative from E. P. Bicknell, 259. 

Typhus news from Europe, 59. 

See also Nursing. 
Red Cross auto wagon (cut), 5. 
Red Cross seals, 1915, 569. 
Redfield, Secretary, 428, 437, 457. 
Reformatory boys in war, 456. 
Reinhardt Galleries, 222a. 
Release (poem), 380. 

Books on, 140. 

Cleveland's duplicated, 282. 

Funds invested in self-support measures, 70. 

Work in Great Britain, 571. 

See also Outdoor relief; Widows' pensions. 
Relief funds, wages from, 245. 
Religion, war test of (book reviews), 394. 
Religious societies, exhibit at Panama-Pacific Exposition, 

Repeaters, 517. 

Republic, O great (hymn), 83. 
Rhode Island. 

Juvenile court law, 281. 

Legislation, summary, 256. 
Richardson, Mary T. Toilers, the (poem), 90. 
Richmond, Mary E., 205. 
Riley, John B., 437. 
Roads, need of good, 54. 

Robbins, Donald G. Minimum wage (letter), 96. 
Robins, Mrs. Raymond, 262. 
Robinson, Leonard G. Review of Morman's The Principles 

of Rural Credit, 364. 
Robinson, Louis N. Review of Hollander's The Abolition 

of Poverty, 543. 
Roche, Alice E., 252. 
Rochester, Minn., 372. 
Rochester, N. Y. 

Community chorus, 360. 

Smoke report, 259. 
Rochester, Anna. Review of Woolley and Fischer's 

Mental and Physical Measurements of Working Chil- 
dren, 274. 
Rockefeller, John D., 387, 461. 
Rockefeller, John D., Jr., 181, 212. 

What he knew and what he did (J. A. Fitch L 461-472. 
Rockefeller Inundation, 524. 

Colorado relief, 77. 
Rockford, 111., civic enterprise week, 574. 
Roe, Gilbert E., 193. 
Roeder, Adolph. 

Jersey's small legislative gains, 70. 

Xew Jersey's gains in social legislation (letter of 
reply to A. W. Abbott). 148a. 
Roentgen, \\ ilhelm Konrad. 

I loiiors for, 191. 

Portrait, 191. 
Rogers, Wm. H. H., 209. 

Rosenblum, Wm. F. Prayer of the defective child. 576. 
Rosenfeld, Morris. War (poem), 174. 
Rowntree. B. Seebohm. Co-operative movement with 

Europe at arms, 24 7 
Rubinow, I. M. Social insurance in Great Britain. 177. 18 ; . 
Ruediger, C P.. 189. 
Rumbold, Charlotte, '.mo 

St. Louis politics and. 479. 
Rumely. Hdw. A.. 18, 20. ■ 
Rural credit, hook on. 304. 
Rural life. 

Book on. L65 

Kansas, 139. 

Minnesota. 138 

Immigration from, after the war. 

Peace delegates in. 506. 

Savings hanks deposits, 98 
Russian aliens, deportation. 281 
Russian sisters of charity, group. 508 
Ryan, Rev. John A. 

I titer in reply to Rome G. Brown. 58, 

Minimum wage and (letter from Rome G. Brown 

Minimum wage and predicament of the employer. L82. 



Minnesota legislation, 145. 

National Association of Manufacturers and minimum 

wage, 519. 
Personal, 545. 

Sabath, Judge Joseph, 532. 
Sabsovitch, Prof. H. L., 296. 
Sacramento, Cal., 344. 
Sadler, Michael E., 549. 
Safety at Sea. 

American sailors, 116. 

Campaign against the La Follette bill, 390. 

Eastland disaster and the seaman's act, 428. 

Furuseth, Andrew, portrait and sketch, 116, 117. 
Safety from fire, New York legislation in 1915, 144. 
St. George and the Dragon (cartoon), 70. 
St. Joseph, Mo., public welfare board, 548. 
St. Louis. 

Aldermen and Miss Rumbold, 479. 

Fake charities exposed, 240. 

Medical school buildings, 244. 

Mullanphy Relief Fund, 114. 

Municipal social service, 457. 

Play-day, 532. 

School of Social Economy, 440. 

School social center popularity, 282. 

Vacation schools, 474. 
Salem, Mass., a year after the fire, 439. 
Salesmanship, 275. 

Graduates, 483. 
Salmon, Thos. W. Insane in South Carolina, 13. 
Sanatorium for Jewish workmen, 196. 
Sanders, Ellen P. Banker and farmer (letter). 562. 
San Diego Exposition, 303. 
San Francisco. 

Children's drama, 80. 

Exposition, 308. 

Girls in Joy Zone, 389. 

Girls warned from, 39. 

Public recreation, 94. 

Vice, report on, 497. 
Sanger, Margaret, 5, 567. 
Sanger, William, 567. 
Sanitation, Panama, 543. 
Sanville, Florence L., 228. 

Prison unemployment in Pennsylvania. 84 

Social legislation in Pennsylvania, 7, 44, 118. 
Saunders, W. O. Cleaning out North Carolina's convict 

camps, 152. 
Savannah, Ga., health problem among Negroes. 67. 
Sazonoff, M., portrait, 507. 
Scandinavia, peace delegates in, 506. 
Scavenius, Minister, portrait, 507. 

Schatz, Walter P. Banker and farmer ( letter I. 563. 
Schauffler, R. H., 275. 
Schenck, Anna Pendleton. 66. 
Schereschewsky, Dr., 198. 
Schneider, Franz, 554. 

School and jail in Alabama, cut showing contrast. 41. 
School hygiene. See American School Hygiene Associa- 
School savings banks, 51. 
School survey in Cleveland, O., 100. 
Schoolhouses in the Appalachian region, 44s. 
Schools. See Public schools. 
Schreiner, Olive, 450, 451, 452. 

Schulze-Gaevernitz, G. von. Ludwig Frank, 18, 20. 
Schunemann, Mary Appleton. Letter to The Survey, 167. 
Scluirz. Carl, memorial, 112d. 
Schuyler, Louisa Lee, 297. 

Schweinitz, Karl de. Strike along the tow path, 445. 
Schwimmer, Rosika, 220. 
Scientific American, 533. 
Scientific management, summer school, 527. 
Sculptures of Karl Bitter, 112. 
Seabury Memorial Home, 168. 
Seager, Henry R., 193. 

New York State Constitution and social progress, 49. 
Seamen's law. See Safety at sea. 
Seattle. 294. 
Seely, Bertha W., 252. 

Baby hospital. 367. 

End of typhus in sight. 409. 

Red Cross in, 259. 

Typhus, 59. 

War nursing, 99. 
Settlements, Baltimore conference papers, etc.. 206. 

Books on, 165. 

Education, 498. 

Evils, 273. 

Self control for men, 274. 
Sheffield, Ada E. Influence of mothers' aid upon family 

life, 378. 
Shenandoah, Pa., 120. 
Sherman, P. Tecumseh, 177. 
Shipping. Sec Safety at sea. 
Shishkina-Jarvein, Madame, 506, 50s. 
Shock, effects of, 456. 
Sienkiewicz, Henry, 527. 
Singing for Rochester, 360. 
Singing with the armies in France, 407. 
Sing Sing. 

Almy, F., letter from, 166. 

Three doomed men in the death house write (poem), 

See also Osborne, T. M. 
Sioux City, Iowa, social welfare, 486. 

Skal, Geo. von. Letter on The Survey's Peace number, 76. 
Slaton, John M., 404. 
Smith, Esther M., Columbia (poem), 567. 

Old commandments (poem), 17. 
Smith, Sam'l Geo., obituary and portrait, 57. 
Smoke, Rochester Chamber of Commerce 2d report. 259. 
Snow, Wm. F., 192. 

Social agencies, Baltimore alliance, 408. 
Social centers. 

Deaf, 162. 

New York City control, 3. 

Ohio's new law, 442. 

St. Louis, 2S2. 
Social economy exhibits at Panama-Pacific Exposition, 308. 
Social experts, need of, 541. 
Social hygiene. 

Middle West conditions, 60. 

See also American Social Hygiene Association. 
Social hymns for mothers, 473. 
Social insurance in Great Britain, 177. 
Social legislation. 

Barnes' proposal, 22'.). 

See also Legislation. 
Social problems, medical papers on. 92. 
Social Servant, 185. 
Social service. 

Changsha, China, 575. 

Municipal, St. Louis, 457. 

Symposium on, 364. 

Trend toward public, 163. 

University of Iowa, 485. 
Social welfare. See Public welfare. 
Social work. 

Carleton College course, 346. 

Education and (Devine), 520. 

Ideal for, 541. 

Sanity in (Mrs. W. L. Putnam), 488. 

Values in, 337. 
Social workers, 204. 

Conscience insurance, 166. 

Exhibits at Panama-Pacific Exposition, 322. 

National Association of Jewish, meeting, 208. 

German leaders, 18. 

Intercollegiate Socialist Society, 567. 

Allegory for, 272. 

German, peace manifesto, 299. 

Women's conference for peace, Berne, 172. 
Society of Sanitary and Moral Prophylaxis, 192. 
Sociological books, etc., plan for distributing duplicates, 98. 

Blinded and maimed, 368. 

Interned in Holland, 535. 

Plans for maimed, 527. 
Song of the lark, after Breton (cartoon), 375. 
South, education and industry, conference for, 154. 
South Carolina. 

Care of insane, 13. 

Compulsory education, 171. 



Southard, Dr. E. E., 92. 

Southern Sociological Congress, 251. 

Cartoon, 102. 
Southern white man, -155. 
Spending, morals of (letter), 495. 
Spokane Foundation, 239. 

Spokane Review quoted on The Survey's Peace Num- 
ber, 72. 
Spring in the Naugatuck valley (poem), 27. 
Stafford, W. B., 483. 
Standard Oil Co. strike, 387. 

State, mother and (Burnham's symbolic figures), 151. 
Slate-city bureau of women's work, 533. 
Stead. E. Herbert. International labor week. 249. 

On American peace plans, 1. 
Stealing chickens (letter), 366. 
Steamship Inspection Service, 429. 
Stebbins. C. A., 442. 
Stelzle, Chas., 402, 474. 
Stern Bros., 483. 
Stevens, Bertha M., 274. 
Stevenson, John J., 212. 

Stillemans. Rev. J. F., sketch and portrait. 4 .~> 4 . 
Stockder. A. H. Diplomacy, war, and peace (letter), 344. 
Stockton, Richard, Sr., 148. 
Stockyards hands, 132. 

Stoddard, Win. L. Productive efficiency, 264. 
Stokers, book on, 140. 
Stonaker, C. L., 348. 

Stone, C. W. Letter praising The Survey, 504. 
Storer, Sophie Cary. Letter on minimum wage. 57. 
Strand Roof Garden, New York. 163. 
Straus, Oscar S., 293. 
Strayer, Paul M„ 304. 
Street crossing prize, 386. 

Bayonne, N. J., 387, 414. 

Canal, 445. 

Chicago building trades, end, 367. 

Chicago street railway arbitration, 280, 389. 

Colorado, Lawsoji guilty, 151. 

Garment trades, averted, 390. 

Kinkead, breaker of, 414. 

Men's garments, 347. 

Ohio, coal settlement, 1!H). 
Strong, Anna Louise, 311. 
Strong, Dr. Richard P., 409. 
Stroud, Augustus T., 531. 

Strunsky, Hyman. Workmen's sanatorium. 196. 
Sturgeon (Jeremiah) Chapel, 346. 
Suburbs, charities and, 509. 
Sullivan, J. W., 177. 
Sumner, Helen L. Review of MacKaye's The Happiness 

of Nations, 542. 
Survey, The. 

Comment on the Peace number (Mar. 6), 72. 

Criticized for lack of humor and tolerance, 96 

Eliot, Thos. D. (letter). 57. 

Letters of appreciation and criticism, 564. 

Praise for (letters), 366, 474. 

Sclumemann, Mary Appleton, letter discontinuing, 167. 

Winship, A. E., letter of appreciation, 16;. 
Suzzallo, Henry, 297. 
Syphilis, 192. 558. 

The scourge of society. 547. 

Taft, W'm. H.. 100, 293, 327. 

Talbott, E. Guy, 254. 

Tarbell, Ida M. Review of the Pittsburgh Survey, vols. 

V and VI, 582. 
Taussig, E. W. Calumet & Hecla, 25;. 

Pittsburgh experiment. 370. 

War taxes in England, 3;.".. 
Tayler-Jones, Louise, 546. 
Taylor, < rraham. 

Boomerang investigations (Chicago), 57;. 

Chicago election, civic significance, 61. 

Eastland disaster, 410. 

Henderson, C. R., appreciation, 55. 

Review of Coleman's Constantine the Great and Chris- 
tianity. 275. 

War a test of religious and social ideals (review of 
20 books), 394. 
Taylor, Graham R., 258. 

Labor and the law as viewed by those who represent 
each, 193. 
Teacher-mothers, 40. 
leasdale, Sara. Spring in the Naugatuck valley (poem), 

Telegraph companies, 500. 
Telegraphers, 132. 

Tenant farmer in the Southwest. 62. 

Tenement house law, New York (city) amendment for- 
bidding use for prostitution, 281. 

Compulsory education, 171. 

Public Health Association, 92. 

Social legislation gains, 191. 

Tenant farmers, 62. 
Theater. See Drama. 
Thirlan family, 44, 45. 

Thompson, W'm. O. On war industry in England, 388. 
Thurston, Henry W. Probation officer at work, 109. 
Thurtle, Dorothy. Government intervention in industry in 

war times (England), 155. 
Tilton, Elizabeth. 

Forward march of prohibition. ',i:>:y 

Letter on The Survey's Peace number, 76. 

Review of Hayler's Prohibition Advance in All Lands, 
Timber cutting on the Mississippi, 444. 
Tisza, Stephen, portrait, 422. 
Titustown, \'a.. 531. 
Toledo, Ohio, social hygiene, 60. 
Tolerance (letter on The Survey), 96. 
Tombs Angel, 112c. 
Tomlins, W. L.. 360. 
Topeka police-woman's record, 57 1 
Toronto, feebleminded. 372. 
Toulmin. Marry S., 542. 
Town, ballad of the (poem), 6. 
Towns, contest in cleaning, 301. 
Trachoma at East Youngstown, 198. 
Travis, Catharine H., 367, 546. 
Tree planting in Los Angeles. 320. 
Triscornia, 552. 
Troy. N. Y . 295. 
Trusts, community, 

Vnnual meeting of National Association, 294. 

Birth control and (letter from S. A. Knopf), 345 

Book on, 542. 

Bookmarks. 169. 

California, 344. 

Fresh air, poster, 209. 

Jewish workmen's co-operative sanatorium, 196. 

Memphis out-door hospitals, 92. 

Missouri legislation, lt',0 

Preventorium, Farniingdale. N. J., 553. 

Protecting children of consumptives. 528. 

Red Cross Seals. 569. 

Travel and migration of patients. 69. 

White Terror film, 564 
Tuck School of Finance, L31. 
Tufts, James 11.. 203. 

Turpentine (convict camps of Florida 1. L03. 
Tnskegee Institute. 366. 
'I yphoid carriers, 69. 

Typhoid fever. Ithaca. N. Y.. conditions. 554. 
Typhoid vaccination. 456. 

End in sight in Scrvia. 409. 

War area. 50. 
Typhus uniform. 367 

Unempli lyment, 541. 
Baltimore, 53. 

California problem. 1*- 

Cause ( letter ). 366. 

( ensus of 15 cities, '-' 10 

Chicago, Cathedral Shelter. 

City and private charity experiment, 

Clean-up work in Dayton, 96. 

Cleveland method of handling, 143. 



Henderson, C. R., on, 149. 

Massachusetts, committee on insurance against, 265. 

Minneapolis method of meeting, 444. 

National labor exchange, 270. 

New York City, federal statistics; Metropolitan Life 
Insurance Co.. statistics, 170. 

New York, Free Synagogue experiments, 483, 

Portland, Ore., 52. 

Right of a man to a job, 54. 

San Francisco. 39. 

State transportation for Ohio miners, 4.50. 

Survey under way, 284. 

Team work in dealing with, 499. 

Tree planting. Los Angeles, 329. 

Sec also Employment; Employment bureaus; American 
Association of Public Employment offices. 
I 'ngraded, 185. 
United Mine Workers, 190. 
United States; Humanity, security, and honor (Devine), 

United States Steel Corporation exhibit at Panama-Pacifii 

Exposition, 312. 
University teaching, 4;::. 

Sec also Academic freedom; Nearing, Scott. 
Unrest, probing the causes. 

Colorado, more light on, 212. 

Labor and the law, 193. 

Pullman and Pennsylvania practice, 175. 

Tenant farmers in the Southwest, 62. 
Upham, Rev. F. B., 51. 

Clean town contest, 301, 

Clean-up, lf>0. 

Legislation, 1915, 146. 
Utah, University of, freedom of teaching, :;is. 
Utica Normal and Industrial Institute', 164. 


Vacations, shortening the summer, 458. 
Vaccaro, James, 222a. 
Yaile, Gertrude, 29, 296. 

On outdoor relief, 205. 

Social problems of public outdoor relief, 15. 
Valencia, I 'a.. 130. 
Van Kleeck, Mary. Review of Davis's The Field oj Social 

Sen ice, :!<14. 
Van Loan, Anna F, 395. 
Venereal diseases, 192, 547. 

Navy, 241. 

Legislation, summary, 257. 

Medical Society, 2i>4. 
Vernon House, Newport, R. I., 381. 

Panama-Pacific Exposition. V.r, . 

Responsibility for condition, Chicago, 534. 
Villard, Henry, memorial, 112a. 

Yillard, Oswald Garrison. Karl Bitter — an American ap- 
preciation, 112. 
Virginia Health Bulletin, 158. 
Virginia, Negro health and homes, 158. 
Virginia, University of, Jefferson statue, 112a. 
Vocational education. 

Philadelphia opportunities, 346. 

See also Industrial education. 
Vocational training, 544. 
Vonviivls (Germany), suppressed edition, 45s. 

\\ ages, 500. 

Calumet and Hecla. 495. 
Walcott, E. A., 483. 
Walker, Stewart, 551. 
Wallace, Roy Smith, 405. 
Wallas, Graham, 564, 568. 
Walling, Wm. E. Karl Liebknecht, 18. 
Walsh, Frank, 480, 500. 

Battlefield flowers (cartoon), 40. 

Mortality in the last twelve wars, 518. 

Poem (M. Rosenfeld), 174. 

Religion and social ideals tested by (books reviewed), 

Young men and old men, positions, 567. 

See also Militarism; Motherhood; Soldiers; War in 
War cripples. England, 368. 
\\ ar in Europe. 

Alcohol in England, 3. 

America's relation to (Devine). 431. 

At the war capitals (story of Miss Addams' journey), 

British industry, 388. 

Co-operation, 247. 

Copper profits, 239, 257. 

Interned soldiers in Holland, 535. 

Last farthing (cartoon), 368 

Mother of the dead (group of sculpture), 199. 

Posters, British, 222(1, 22:!, 224, 225. 

Raemaekers's illustrations, 417-421, 501. 

Recruiting, 223. 

Reformatory boys in, 456. 

Revolt against (Jane Addams in Carnegie Hall). 355. 

Savage, why do you stare: (cartoon), 388. 

Ships interned, :;. 

Surgery, 121. 

"Surgical shock." 568. 

Three days in Berlin, 226, 474. 

Typhus, 59. 

Women alter, 450. 

Women laborers, 

See also England, France, Germany, Russia, etc. 

Ward — use of word for beneficiaries of charity (letter). 

ii -ton ( state ). 
Legislation, 255. 339. 

Washington, Booker T., 550. . 
Louisiana tour, 266. 

Washington, D. C, police chief. 95. 

Washington University, St. Louis, ::n 

Waterfield, C. A., 251. 

Watson, Amev E, and frank 1). Parenthood and the State 
(letter). 297. 

Way, Wm. A.. 386. 

Weakling, the ( poem ). .'172. 

Wealth, spending (letter), 495. 

Weights and Measures Week, 442. 

\\ elborn, J. F., 462. 

Welsh Outlook, 368. 

\\ engierski. Otto, lO'.i. 

i Virginia legislation, summary. 256. 

Westbrook, C. II., Jr. better praising Tin Si rvi y, 564. 

WestCOtt, B. F. Letter praising THE SURVEY, 564. 

Welter, Louise von. 222a. 
Harvest ( poem ), 288. 

Wharton School of Economics. See Pennsylvania, Uni- 
versity of. 

Wheat, Marie Moss, 9s. 

White. Dr. I. William. Statement about American Ambu- 
lance Hospital in France, 563. 

White. May Langdon, death. ::4.;. 

Review of Canadian IT, mom's Annual ami S<>ci<il Ser- 
vice Directory, 141. 
White. Viola C. Nocturne (poem). 440. 

Whitney. Josepha (Mrs. F. I'..). Wage-earners and 

frage (letter), .'{44. 
Wiard, Louis. 209. 
Widows' pensions. 

Good angel (cartoon), 1. 
Illinois act (letter), 455. 

Influence of mothers' aid upon family life. 378. 
New York, 1, 30, 77. 
Wilberforce University, 346. 
Wile, Ira S., 211. 
Wilkes-Barre, 510. 
Wilkins, Judge, 528. 
Williams, Arthur, 177. 
Wilson, Alex. M., 297. 
W ilson, President, resolutions 

support, 204. 
Wilson, Warren H. New spirit in the old South 
Winens, W. H„ 29G. 
Winchefsky, Morris, 6. 

Winship, A. E. Letter to The Survey, Ki7. 
Winslow, C. E. A., 297, 
Winslow, Erving. 

Letter on The Survey's Peace number, 75. 
Philanthropic individualism, 555. 


if National Conference in 




Wirt, Wm., 185, 302, 570. 
\\ isconsin. 

Social hygiene, 61. 

State capitol pediment (sculpture by Bitter), 112 b, c. 
Wise, Stephen S., 483. 
Witherspoon, Pauline. Louisville church social center for 

the deaf (letter), 344. 
Wolfe, J as. H. Utah legislation, 146. 

Wolff, Solomon. Letter on The Survey's Peace num- 
ber, 75. 
Woman suffrage, wage-earners and (letter), 344. 
Woman's Home Companion, 209. 
Woman's Peace Party, school of peace, 572. 
Woman's Trade Union League. See National Woman's 

Trade Union League. 

After the war, 450. 

American Women for Strict Neutrality, Organization, 

Factory night work, 81. 

Gainful occupation (cut), 157. 

New fields of labor created by war, 373. 

Unemployed, placing, 560. 

See National Woman's Trade Union League. 
Women Workers, National League, semi-annual meeting. 

Women's Peace Conference, 2, 172. 

Account by Mary Chamberlain, 219. 

Cambridge Magazine on, 353. 

Delegates' portraits — American, Belgian, German. Eng- 
lish, etc., 219, 220, 221, 222b, 222c. 

Chicago's publicly owned lands and 


Resolutions adopted, 218. 
Womer, Parley P., 546. 
Wood alcohol, 171. 
Woodhead, Howard. 

buildings, 65. 
Woods, Arthur, 194. 
Woodward, Wm. C, 
Woodward, Wm. P., 
Woolley, Helen T., 274. 
"Work, not alms" (cartoon), 443. 
Working women. 

Minneapolis home, 534. 

See also National Woman's Trade Union League. 
Workmen's Circle, 196. 

Workmen's compensation. See Compensation. 
World Court, 173. 

Cartoon, 327. 
World's Labour Laics, quoted, 484. 

Yewell, John F., 386. 

Yiddish writers, 98. 

Young, Ella Flagg, 40. 

Young, Win. Wallace. Letter criticizing The Survey, 564. 

Youngstown, O. See East Youngstown. 

Youth, war and, 567. 

Y. W. C. A. 

Los Angeles convention, 252. 

San Francisco Joy Zone work, 389. 




{By Rufus M. Jones 


@y Simon N. Patten 


AY 7AR has riven the great working class party in 
"^ Germany. Its members have responded to 
the appeal of the fatherland on the one hand, and 
to internationalism and peace on the other. This 
cleavage is personified by two Socialists, fellow- 
members of the Reichstag, described in this issue 

LUDWIG FRANK who died at the front 

KARL LIEBKNECHT whose solitary "No." last 
December, rang round the world 



{By Thomas W . Salmon 



{By Florence L. Sanville 

Price 25 Cents 

April 3, 1915 

Volume XXXIV, No. 1 



April 19— May 8 

Neighborhood Work Mrs. V. G. Simkhovitch 

Correctional Problems O. F. Lewis 

May 24— June 12 

Family Rehabilitation Porter R. Lee 

Probation for Juveniles Henry W. Thurston 

Housing Kate Holladay Claghorn 



IN 1915-16 


CLASSES OF 1915, 1914, 1913 

These fellowships will be awarded to the four graduates 
—two women and two men— who write the best paper in 
the regular entrance examination to be held on Saturday, 
May IS, and who, as candidates for fellowships, present 
other evidence of ability and aptitude for social work. 
The awards will be made not later than June 10, 1915 



Number 1 : Social Work with Families and Individuals: By Porter R. Lee 

A Brief Manual for Investigators 

Number 2: Organized Charity and Industry: By Edward T. Devine 

A chapter from the history of the New York Charity Organization Society 

Number 3: The Probation Officer at Work : By Henry W. Thurston 
Single copies, five cents; 25 copies, $1.00 postpaid. 
Additional numbers in this series will be announced from time to time on this page. 




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2559 Michigan Ave. 

Vol. XXXIV, No. t 


April 3, IQ15 











OLD AGE Edmund Niles Huyck 


THE MUSIC OF CHILDREN. From the Yiddish of Morris Winchefsky. rendered into Eng 
lish verse by Alice Stone Blackwell 



AND CAGES Florence L. Sanville 7 

50 YEARS IN 40 DAYS Thomas W. Salmon, M. D. 13 


THE OLD COMMANDMENTS, a poem Esther Morton Smith 17 


KARL LIEBKNECHT William English Walling 18 

LUDWIG FRANK . Gerhart von Schuize-Gaevernitz, translated by Edward A. Rumely 20 

DETHRONED, a poem Edward H. Pfeiffer 21 




SPRING IN THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY, a poem Sara Teasdale 27 



National Council 

ROBERT W. uk FOREST, Chairman 










JOHN M. GLENN. New York 



WILLIAM J. KERBY. Washington 
JOSEI'H LEE, Boston 
JULIAN W. MACK. Washington 
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without shares or stockholders. Membership is open to readers who become contributors of 
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The Scrvet is a weekly journal of constructive philanthropy, founded in the 90's by the 
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From the start, the magazine and its related activities have been broadly conceived as an 
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The GIST of IT— 

_A^ conservative but fairly generous widows" 
pension bill has passed both houses 
of the New York legislature by an over- 
whelming vote. Governor Whitman is ex- 
pected to sign it. Page 1. 

]y[R. DEVINE urges friends and oppo- 
nents of widows' pensions to work 
together to make it a success and to de- 
velop a fruitful program for the county 
boards of child welfare. Page 30. 

\yiDOWS' pensions may tend to follow 
the older forms of public outdoor re- 
lief and become a habit-forming opiate. But 
carefully administered, case by case, argues 
Miss Vaile from her Denver experience, 
they open up wonderful possibilities of fam- 
ily reconstruction. Page 15. 

QUAKERS go far beyond the modern 
"" economic reasons against war. They 
are not especially concerned with -whether 
or not war pays, and challenge it as "abso- 
lutely and eternally wrong morally." Page 

'pHE National Board of Censorship of 
Motion Pictures passed The Birth of a 
Nation by a divided vote and is being 
roundly criticized for approving a film 
which many people consider an unfair at- 
tack on the Negro. Page 4. 

QUINLAN and Boyd, leaders in the Pat- 
~ erson strike, must serve their terms, by 
a decision of the New Jersey Court of Er- 
rors and Appeals. Boyd has appealed Wr 
a pardon on the ground that he has changed 
his views. Page 3. 

A summary of the Dutch women's call 
for the women's peace congress at the 
Hague. Page 2. 

pENNSYLVANIANS who are going to 
"go insane" better choose their resi- 
dence carefully. In some parts of the state 
they get care of the most modern sort. In 
others, they are subjected to mediaeval 
neglect as bad as Dorothea Dix disclosed 
80 years ago. Page 7. 

JN just 40 days South Carolina took legis- 
lative steps — rather, running broad jumps 
— which will bring up its standards of care 
for the insane from 1860 to 1915. Page 13. 

^T the beginning of the war two German 
Socialists in the Reichstag led the di- 
vided ranks of the Socialist Party. Ludwig 
Frank died at the front, urging the working 
people to rally to the fatherland ; Karl Lieb- 
knecht remained in Berlin fighting for in- 
ternationalism and peace. Page 18. 

PROFESSOR PATTEN prophesies that 
European peace and prosperity would 
be secured if national boundary lines were 
laid in economic zones. Page 24. 

•pHE celebrated Seminaire St. Sulpice in 
Paris, vacant because of the law of sep- 
aration of church and state, was captured 
by the police and by them turned into a 
beehive of active refuge for Belgians and 
French. Page 23. 


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A six weeks course of unusual value to 

parents, teachers and social workers 

Normal Course Children's School 

Courses by Specialists in 

Life Class Activities 

For further particulars, address 



Examination for 

Secretary on Recreation 

(Committee on Social Welfare, 
Board of Estimate) 

Salary $4,000 per annum 

Applications will be issued from 

March 24 until 4 p. m. to April 7. 

The dti lies of tire Secretary on Recrea- 
tion will l>e — To conduct investigations; 
To formulate and stilmiil the findings re- 
sulting from such Investigations: To ex- 
amine mid prepare material for the cal- 
endars of this Committee. 

Requirements: Extended administra- 
tive experience in planning recreation 
facilities for large groups of persons is 

Applicants must be citizens of the 
1 nlted States, The requirement that 
applicants must l>e residents of the 
State of New York is waived for this 

The subjects and weights for this 
examination are : Training and ex- 
perience 4; 70 c 'c required; Written 
examination 4; 7095 required; Oral 
examination 2; 70% required. 

A physical qualifying examination 
will be given. 

Candidates will not bo assembled for 
the written examination, hut will tie 
notified to appear for the oral examina- 
tion. Application blanks will be mailed 
upon request provided a self-addi 
stamped envelope or sufficient postage la 
enclosed to cover the mailing. 

Minimum age Is J-"i years. 

Municipal Civil Service Commission, 

New York City 


Women's Educational and Industrial Union, 
264 Boylston Street, Boston, Mass., wishes 
to know of opportunities in Social Service 
affording living expenses, for college grad- 
uates (1915) who have majored in Eco- 
nomics and Sociology-, but have had lift!'' 
field work. 

"The National Training School prepares for 
executive positions in Young Women's Chris- 
tian Associations. Address Secretarial Depart- 
ment, 600 Lexington Avenue, New York City." 

The Story of the Mary Fisher Home 

ITS ISMATES Grotesque, comical, pathetic 
The sa, blest case in the Wlitte Slave Ii.ttlic. The 
Sturv of the Poe Outage The Poe P^rk K.tvvm 
Bjiirkinan's letter to President Wilson conoeinnii: 
American men of letters 
Shakespeare Press, 1 14 East 28th St. SI.2S 





Only Governor Whitman's sig- 
nature — which is confidently expected — 
is needed to give widows' pensions to 
New York. The Hill bill, which had 
passed the Senate unanimously, went 
through the Assembly by a vote of 129 
to 8, the first measure of the session to 
submerge party lines. 

The Hill bill is considered a conserva- 
tive measure. The pensions — "allow- 
ances," they are called — may "not ex- 
ceed the amount or amounts which it 
would be necessary to pay to an institu- 
tional home for the care of such widow's 
child or children." This means, in most 
cases, $2.50 a week, or about $11 a month 
for each child. For the widow with one 
or two children the amount will be small, 
though it will compare favorably with 
that granted in other cities, should the 
maximum allowance be given. For 
families of three or more children the 
amount may be relatively generous. 

The New York bill includes only 
mothers whose husbands are dead. They 
must be "suitable" persons to bring up 
their children, must have been residents 
of the county for two years preceding 
the application, and their husbands must 
have been citizens of the United States 
and residents of the state before death. 
The children must be under sixteen 
vears of age. 

A provision not found in any other 
state law is one requiring that a pension 
shall not be granted unless it appears 
'that if such aid is not granted the child 
or children must be cared for in an in- 
stitutional home." This provision, strict- 
ly interpreted, would sharply limit the 
number of widows eligible for pensions. 

The administration of the law is to be 
in the hands of a local board of child 
welfare in each county. Of the seven 
members, one is to be the county super- 
intendent of the poor ex-officio, and the 
others, two of whom must be women, are 
to be appointed by the county judge for 
a term of six years each, one expiring 
each year. In New York city the appoint- 
ment is to be by the mayor. The com- 
missioner of public charities is to be a 
member ex-officio, and there are to be 
eight other members serving eight-year 

Volume XXXIV, No. 1. 

terms, at least three of them women. 
Members are to serve without compensa- 
tion, but may be paid their necessary ex- 

Allowances are to be granted by a 
majority vote of the board. The State 
Board of Charities is to have general 
supervision and may revoke allowances 
for cause. Appropriations, which are 
not compulsory, are to be made by the 
county board of supervisors — in New 
York city, the Board of Estimate and 
Apportionment and the Board of Alder- 

The local boards may establish their 
own rules and regulations, but these 
"shall provide for the careful investi- 
gation by the board or otherwise of all 
applicants for allowances and of ade- 
quate supervision of all persons receiv- 
ing allowances. Such investigations and 
supervisions, when consistently possible, 
to be made by the board or by authori- 
ties now intrusted with similar work and 
without incurring any unnecessary ex- 
pense." This provision makes possible 
the closest sort of co-operation with the 
present poor authorities, particularly 
with the Department of Public Chari- 
ties in New York city, and with volun- 
teer social agencies. 

The bill is to take effect July 1, and 
the members of the county boards of 
child welfare must be appointed within 
sixty days thereafter. 

'-'*«! - " 

Kirby in New York World 



Calling on the United States 
for definite leadership anent the war and 
carrying a message of optimism con- 
cerning the spiritual gain and larger de- 
mocracy which England is finding in her 
ordeal, F. Herbert Stead of London, has 
been speaking to social workers and 
other groups in eastern cities. Mr. 
Stead is warden of Browning Hall, so- 
cial settlement in Walworth, London, 
and brother of William T. Stead, the 
journalist and peace advocate who went 
down on the Titanic. His visit was 
planned a year ago and he expected to 
include many cities. But the situation 
in his own country led him to give up 
all except the appointments he had orig 
inally made. 

Mr. Stead criticized much of the peace 
agitation in this country. The programs 
and suggestions put out in the United 
States to date are so vague and various, 
he maintains, as to be confusing and 
even detrimental. Instead of discussing 
platitudes and visionary schemes for 
federating the nations, he believes that 
the United States should focus its at- 
tention on definite plans for making the 
international agency we now have more 
effective. The third Hague conference, 
already overdue, should be convened, he 
urges, by the United States immediately 
upon the conclusion of the war. Before 
the Twentieth Century Club in Boston 
he even declared that one of the former 
presidents of this country should be 
made the head of the Hague adminis 
trative council, the "first world prem 

The urgent need, according to Mr 
Stead, is to start now the work of form 
ulating a program of action for the con- 
ference. The latter, he said, "should 
consist of the most powerful and respon 
sible statesmen that can be sent by the 
nations, and when convened it should 
proceed, not to emit pious wishes, or 
academic resolutions, but to take prompt, 
peremptory and drastic action. Definite 
decrees should be passed by the confer 
ence — that war shall henceforth cease, 
that no war shall be tolerated except 
that initiated by the central power in 


The Survey, April 3, 1915 

enforcement of the decrees of the tribu- 
nal, and that any wars shall be treated 
on land as brigandage and on sea as 
piracy. The best deterrent would be the 
declaration of an economic boycott 
against any recalcitrant nation. That 
would be more powerful than any armed 
t'orce. The mere threat of it would be 
effective in 90 out of 100 cases, and the 
application of the boycott would be ef- 
fective in nine out of the remaining ten. 
But in the hundredth case the applica- 
tion of armed force might be necessary. 
Disarmament obligatory and universal 
except for the minimum requisite to 
maintain order within each nation could 
then be decreed." 

In the united feeling of the British 
nation, which the war has brought about, 
Mr. Stead sees the beginning of a new 
era of understanding and common pur- 
pose among all the people. With the ex- 
ception of Ramsay MacDonald and Keir 
Hardie, all the principal labor leaders 
are standing with the representatives of 
other groups in supporting the nation, 
as are also the militant suffragists. 
There is difference of opinion on many 
points connected with the causes and 
start of the war. And many are strong 
in their objection to secret diplomacy, 
which they feel contributed to the out- 
break of the war. But this and other 
divisive matters are, he maintains, rele- 
gated to the background in the face of 
the national crisis. 

"The old distrust of one another and 
bitter political antagonisms have gone 
and those who shared in this intense 
unity will never go back to them," says 
Mr. Stead. The nation as a whole, he 
explained, is doing things for the entire 
people. Some of these before the war 
would have been the subject of great 
controversy. For instance, the appro- 
priation of four million pounds for im- 
proved housing, a measure partly to re- 
lieve unemployment in the building 
trades, might have taken a whole parlia- 
mentary session to secure under ordin- 
ary circumstances. It went through 
easily and with scarcely any debate soon 

after the war started. Other examples 
of collective action, the significance of 
which will not be forgotten by the peo- 
ple, are the governmental control of the 
railways, governmental monopoly of 
sugar, and the nationalizing of the work 
of all engineering firms engaged in pro- 
ducing munitions of war. 

With this new and larger conscious- 
ness of democracy there is, says Mr. 
Stead, a great spiritual regeneration, a 
higher ethical sense which has inevitably 
accompanied the multitudinous self sac- 
rifice of the people. There is a new re- 
alization of the old truth that without 
the shedding of blood there is no remis- 
sion. And even the tremendous loss of 
life is not too great a price to pay, Mr. 
Stead holds, for the great moral ad- 
vance which he sees the nation making. 



Girded by clashing armies, an 
International Congress of Women at the 
Hague, Holland, April 27 to 30, will 
unite women of every nationality in an 
appeal for peace. 

The congress is the outcome of a 
gathering of Dutch, German, English 
and Belgian women who met on Feb 
ruary 12 at the Hague. This group 
prepared a preliminary program for a 
great conference and in the name of the 
neutral Dutch women sent out an ur- 
gent summons to women all over the 

"We feel strongly," they entreat, 
"that at a time when there is so much 
hatred among nations we women must 
show that we can retain our solidarity 
and that we can maintain a mutual 

Response to this summons has come 
from every quarter of the globe. Ameri- 
can delegates will be headed by Jane 
Addams, who has been appointed presi- 
dent of the congress. Russia and 
France among the warring nations may 
not be represented, but it will not be for 
lack of enthusiasm among the women. 
Rosika Schwimmer, a Hungarian dele- 

Chicago Daily Newt 


gate to the congress, now in the United 
States, reports that word has come to 
her of French women imprisoned for 
daring to urge a peace congress, and of 
an English woman who narrowly es- 
caped imprisonment when carrying the 
word of the Peace Congress to France. 

Since relative national responsibility 
for and all conduct of the present war 
are declared outside the scope of the 
conference this gathering of women will 
not wear itself away with arguments 
over the right or might of the armies in 
the European countries. It will, first of 
all, formulate demands, persistent, co- 
gent, irresistible, not in favor of any one 
party or nation, but simply for peace 
It will urge the belligerent countries to 
publicly define the terms on which they 
are willing to make peace and for this 
purpose immediately to call a truce. 

Once its demand for peace has been 
declared the congress will consider ways 
to fortify the world against another war 
with its camp followers of suffering 
pillage, devastation and starvation. 

The preliminary program states thai 
this International Congress of Women 
believing that war is the negation of all 
progress and civilization, demands thai 
in the future methods of arbitration or 
conciliation shall be adopted by the gov 
ernments of all nations and that when a 
country resorts to arms the powers shall 
unite in bringing pressure on the traitor 

The insistent demand of the congress, 
however, will be for giving women a 
share in considering and in settling ques- 
tions of international dispute. The pro- 
gram maintains "that one of the strong- 
est forces for the prevention of war will 
be the combined influence of the women 
of all countries, and that, therefore, upon 
women as well as men rests the respon- 
sibility for the outbreak of future wars. 
But as women can only make their influ- 
ence effective if they have equal political 
rights with men, this congress declares 
that it is the duty of all women to work 
with all their force for their political 

In answer to the assertion that war 
means the protection of women, one 
meeting of the congress will be on Worn 
en's Sufferings in War. 

The transference of territory which 
must not take place "without the con 
sent of the men and women in it" ; the 
necessity of women delegates in the 
Conference of Powers; the education of 
children so that their thoughts and de- 
sires may be turned towards the main 
tenance of peace; war in its relation to 
women ; the necessity of universal suf- 
frage, — these are other subjects of the 
international congress which affirm the 
right of women to be recognized as 
sharers in the burdens of war. 

Members of the international con- 
gress will be individual women who de- 
sire to register and women delegates 
from clubs or associations 

Common Welfare 


Two sides of the same slip in Boston photographed by C. million dollars of capital invested in them lie idle. At the 

E. Patch. At the left the Hamburg-American liners Amerika right, a much more modest ship busily loading and going about 

and Cincinnati, interned during the war. The ships and the her work under the flag of a nation at peace. 


Whether public school cen- 
ters in New York city are to be pri- 
vately owned and managed, or owned 
and run by the people themselves, has 
been made an acute issue, say the 
friends of the social center movement, 
by the recent action of the Board of 
Estimate and Apportionment in reduc- 
ing the funds for recreation centers by 
one half. This action is interpreted as 
a challenge to the Board of Education 
to reconstruct its recreation centers on 
a more democratic basis. 

Three years ago experiments were be- 
gun, looking to the placing of the recre- 
ation centers in the hands of those who 
actually dwell in the school neighbor- 
hoods. Local committees were formed, 
the neighborhood itself provided funds 
and was depended on for leadership. 
The first of these experimental centers, 
in Public School 63, has been followed 
by over twenty others, operating amid 
Irish, Italian, Jewish, German and na- 
tive American groups. 

The activities in these centers have 
ranged from social dancing to civic 

Meanwhile, most of the public school 
centers have remained mere recreation 
centers, run by the Board of Education 
through a principal and teachers and 
usually for young people of one sex 
only. A number of part-time workers, 
present for three hours in the evening 
and for half of the year, provide a 
close supervision, but no whole time 
worker has been given the task of or- 
ganizing neighborhood aid. 

The difference, say those who believe 
in the social centers, is that between 
self-education and self-government, and 
their opposites. The social center is 
managed by a local board or committee, 
elected by those who attend the center 
or by the clubs that meet there and is 
attended by both sexes, by older folks 
as well as the young. The activities 
are broader and are controlled by the 
committee in charge and the expenses 

are largely paid by receipts from dances 
and entertainments and nominal dues. 
With its funds cut in two, the Board 
of Education faces the necessity of re- 
organizing this work. Since the real 
social center is largely self-supporting, 
its friends are urging its extension. A 
special committee of the board will re- 
port on the matter at an early time. 
A public meeting at Washington Irv- 
ing High School, April 6, will be ad- 
dressed by the mayor, the city superin- 
tendent of schools and the president of 
the board. 


To the surprise of everyone 
who has followed the legal history 
growing out of the Paterson strike, 
Frederick Sumner Boyd, who on March 
22 began to serve his sentence of one to 
seven years in the New Jersey peniten- 
tiary, has appealed for clemency to the 
State Board of Pardons. He bases his 
appeal on the ground that he was "con- 
victed of advocating views he has now 
entirely abandoned, regarding them as 
anti-social and detrimental to the gener- 
al welfare." 

Boyd was convicted in October, 1913, 
in the Court of Special Sessions in Pat- 
erson, on the charge that he had advo- 
cated destruction of property. At the 
height of the strike he had made a speech 
urging the strikers to commit sabotage 
by putting emery dust in the oil cups of 
machines and by using acids on the silk. 
His case was appealed, and the New Jer- 
sey Court of Errors and Appeals has 
recently handed down a decision con- 
firming his sentence. 

Boyd's appeal sets forth that he "now 
looks upon the tactics he formerly advo- 
cated as certain to defeat the moral and 
social betterment of the working class." 
Accompanying the petition is a state- 
ment endorsing the appeal, signed by 
Theodore Roosevelt, Gilbert E. Roe, 
Herbert Croly, Charlotte Rudyard, 
George H. Sewell, Jr., Walter Lippman, 
Carl Hovey, Finley Peter Dunne, Fred- 

eric C. Howe, John B. Andrews, John 
Reed, Lincoln Steffens, William H. 
Short, Hamilton Holt, Boardman Robin- 
son, and the Rev. Percy Stickney Grant. 

The action of the Court of Errors and 
Appeals in confirming the Boyd convic- 
tion followed shortly after a similar de- 
cision in the case of Patrick Quinlan 
It was in May, 1913, that Patrick Quin- 
lan was found guilty in Paterson of in- 
citing to riot and was sentenced to an 
indeterminate term of one to fifteen 
years in the state penitentiary. 

The evidence against Quinlan was en 
tirely that of police officers who testi- 
fied that in a speech early in the strike 
he had urged that violent methods be 
used if necessary to get the workers in 
the mills to come out on strike. Many 
witnesses were called by the defense to 
testify that not only had Quinlan not 
uttered the words contained in the in- 
dictment, but that he was not even pres- 
ent at the meeting where they were al- 
leged to have been spoken. He has be-' 
gun to serve his term in the same peni- 
tentiary where Boyd is confined. 



The London Spectator has 
come out with a long editorial in which 
it advocates letting Scotland try nation- 
al prohibition — "prohibition of every- 
thing," says the Spectator, "beer and 
wines as well as whiskey," and then, if 
it works well, the measure should be 
transferred to England. 

Truth, formerly Labouchere's paper, 
declares that if men like to drink their 
money away that is their own affair, but 
drinking away their country's energy in 
time of war, is another matter, and the 
proposal of the Glasgow ironmongers 
that water be substituted for whiskey 
must now be taken seriously. 

The Manchester Guardian declares 
that the liquor traffic must be restricted, 
and all the papers write editorials 
around the sprightly speech of Mr 
Lloyd George. 

"I was talking with the Russian mi«- 

The Survey, April 3, 1915 

ister of finance, a singularly able man," 
said Lloyd George. "I asked, 'What has 
been the result of prohibition ?' 

"He replied, 'The productivity of 
labor has been increased from 30 to 50 
per cent?' 

"I said, 'How do they stand it?' 

" 'Stand it !' he replied, 'I have lost 
revenue up to 65,000,000 pounds, but if I 
proposed to put it back there would cer- 
tainly be a revolution.' " 

The London Nation sums up the cost 
of alcohol. "Drink makes courage into 
Dutch courage' — a useless thing in the 
trenches; reduces efficiency certainly 10 
per cent ; wastes wages, and wastes 
grain ; to convert innumerable tons of 
barley into beer, in war time, is poor 
national economy." National prohibi- 
tion is the heroic remedy but are the 
people heroes? It fears not. 

The Bishop of Willesden in a mass 
meeting declared that if Russia and 
France in time of war can be heroes 
about drink, England must be, too. 

In short, England's pride is touched. 
She does not want to be behind her al- 
lies in any particular, but alcohol edu- 
cation with her has been backward and 
in this great crisis, she finds herself 



fuse laws from other states," so Flor- 
ence Kelley characterized the labor bills 
pending in the New York legislature at 
a protest meeting called by various social 
organizations in New York city on 
March 26. 

The collection includes the Thorn 
bills allowing the Industrial Board to 
suspend mandatory provisions of labor 
law upon petition from employers, per- 
mitting a twelve-hour day for women in 
factories where the stress of business de- 
mands, depriving dependents of aliens 
of workman's compensation and fixing 
$5,000 as the maximum benefit under the 
compensation act, and weakening the fire 
prevention sections of the labor law. 
Other bills scored were the Talmage bill 
exempting cities of the first class from 
the fire prevention sections of the labor 
law; the Thompson-Bewley cannery bills 
substituting a seventy-two-hour week for 
the present sixty-six-hour week and a 
12 o'clock closing hour for a 10 o'clock 
closing hour for women from June to 
November in canneries and the Spring 
bill consolidating the Labor Department 
with the Workmen's Compensation Com- 

Mrs. Kelley, Abram I. Elkus, James 
P. Holland and other speakers drew a 
sharp contrast between the reactionary 
attitude of the Legislature in thus pro- 
posing to let down the bars of the labor 
laws, and the action of the state Court 
of Appeals on that very day — March 26 
— in unanimously sustaining the law pro- 
hibiting work by women in factories be- 
tween 10 p.m. and 6 a.m 


Two questions of censorship are 
to the fore in New York. One concerns 
the photo-drama, The Birth of a Nation, 
which has been passed by the National 
Board of Censorship of Motion Pictures 
by a divided vote against protests by 
friends of the Negro. The other has to 
do with the arrest of the husband of a 
woman who wrote and circulated a 
pamphlet entitled Family Limitation. 

The two incidents differ in many 
aspects, as do the groups who urge the 
suppressing of the play and the circulat- 
ing of the pamphlet. But motion pic- 
tures no less than printed pages have 
come to be recognized media for ex- 
pressing thought ; so that the new ques- 
tion of freedom and censorship of the 
film comes up alongside the old and re- 
opened one of freedom of the press. 

The Birth of a Nation, produced in 
California by D. W. Griffith, has been 
hailed as the most splendid of movies. 
It is packing a New York theater for 
two performances daily, seven days a 
week, at prices running up to $2 a seat. 
Its first half portrays Civil War scenes 
on a scale never before attempted and 
with a scenic variety that ranges from 
the heroic clash of whole armies to the 
playful spat of a kitten and a puppy on 
the veranda of the southern home where 
the interest of the play centers. It ends 
with the surrender of Lee and the assas- 
sination of Lincoln. 

The second half — the film runs three 
hours with a single break of eight min- 
utes — is based entirely on Thomas 
Dixon's anti-Negro novel, The Clans- 
man. It shows the South in the grip of 
the carpet-baggers and a mulatto lieu- 
tenant-governor building up a black 
party. Negroes are called from their 
work to a wild revel in the streets. On 
election day they vote with both hands 
and keep white men from the polls. In 
the legislature they sit with hats on and 
bare feet on the desks as they drink from 
flasks and pass an intermarriage law. 

A harrowing climax comes in the pur- 
suit of a young white girl by a renegade 
Negro through aching miles of wood- 
land. Finally, she escapes him by jump- 
ing from a high rock to her death. Her 
brother organizes the Ku Klux Klan 
to avenge her — or to stop the reign of 
terror, as the producers put it — and the 
clan, cast as saviors of the South, drives 
out the rioting Negroes just in time to 
save another white girl from a forced 
marriage with the mulatto lieutenant- 
governor. The final outcome suggested 
is a Negro republic in Liberia. 

Criticism has been prompt and vigor- 
ous. The National Association for the 
Advancement of Colored People has 
branded it as unjust and tending to 
arouse bitter race antagonism. The as- 
sociation made an unsuccessful attempt 
to stop the production by court action, 
on the ground that it tended to a breach 

of the peace, pointing out that the pla\ 
founded on the same novel was stopped 
in Philadelphia some time since after a 
riot had actually started in the theater. 

The association was unsuccessful, 
also, in its attempt to have the National 
Board of Censorship of Motion Pictures 
revoke its approval — an attempt which 
had the sympathy of many other indi- 
viduals and bodies. The board has been 
roundly criticized as a result. 

The film was viewed originally by ten 
members of the board's large censoring 
committee, who passed it unanimously 
Upon appeal to Frederic C. Howe, chair- 
man of the board, it was brought be- 
fore the general committee, which is the 
board's governing body. Various 
changes were suggested which were 
made. These are said to have been 
chiefly a substantial reduction in the 
details of the chase of the white girl 
by the renegade Negro, which in the 
original is said to have been the most 
dreadful portrayal of rape ever offered 
for public view ; the insertion of various 
soothing captions such as, "I won't hurt 
you, little Missy" ; the entire excision 
of a lynching; and a toning down of the 
scene in which the mulatto all but mar 
ries a white girl by force. 

Again the general committee vieweri 
the film. This time it was passed by * 
vote of 15 to 8. Mr. Howe, chairman 
of the board, was among the eight vot 
ing No, and he has refused the use of 
the board's regular form of approval 
which reads: "Passed by the National 
Board of Censorship of Motion Pictures 
Frederic C. Howe, chairman." 

While the board is purely a voluntary 
body without actual power of stopping 
any motion picture, its decisions are so 
widely accepted that disapproval of a 
film debars it from 80 per cent of the 
motion picture houses of the country 

^/" D. McGUIRE, Jr., executive 
* secretary of the board, holds that 
the decision in this case squares with the 
board's printed standards that the "board 
does not regard itself as a censor of 
accuracy, unless the inaccuracy in ques 
tion is of the kind that will result in 
some concrete disaster to the person 
whom the inaccuracy misleads." He 
holds that "any historical inaccuracy in 
The Birth of a Nation would hardly re- 
sult in leading any individuals into an\ 
concrete disaster." Further, he says. 

"A board of censorship for motion 
pictures or dramatic productions should 
confine itself entirely to the considera- 
tion of whether a given production i.<- 
objectionable from the standpoint of 
public morals. If it can pass this test 
it should be permitted. If not, it should 
be stopped. Public authorities have no 
more right to interfere with the produc 
tion of a play or a motion picture which 
emphasizes the southern point of view 
of our great conflict and the subsequent 
period of reconstruction, than that of a 
play which lays emphasis upon the 
northern point of view " 

Common Welfare 

Mr. McGuire states that the Pennsyl- 
vania State Board of Censorship, the 
Chicago Municipal Board of Censorship 
and local committees in Los Angeles and 
San Francisco have all approved it. It 
has run for several weeks in these cities 
without adverse comment, he says, and 
a vote taken at a performance in Los 
Angeles polled over 2,500 favorable to 
23 adverse ballots. "The national board 
seeks to represent public opinion 
throughout the country which, as far as 
it has registered itself through the ac- 
tions noted above, upholds the decision 
of the national board." 

The most incisive criticism yet of- 
fered is by a southerner now living in 
New York. Speaking as a southern man 
who has been through ten years of 
recent political campaigning, he charges 
the film with being an attempt to drag 
back into public discussion "the myth of 
Negro domination." More and more, he 
reasons, the South is getting away from 
this bogey and more and more it is 
passing out of southern politics. Only 
a few interested people, he says, are 
.trying to keep the well-worn head of 
the scarecrow above water and Thomas 
Dixon is one of these few. He has kept 
at it persistently in his books and now 
he has secured the aid of the most stun- 
ning of all motion picture dramas; to 
this southerner, it is a clear case of an 
attempt to whet the edge of race feeling. 
Jane Addams, in an interview in the 
New York Evening Post, said: 

"The producer seems to have followed 
the principle of gathering the most vi- 
cious and grotesque individuals he could 
find among colored people and showing 
them as representatives of the truth 
about the entire race. It is both unjust 
and untrue. The same method could be 
followed to smirch the reputation of any 

"Moreover, it appeals to race prejudice 
upon the basis of conditions of half a 
century ago, which have nothing to do 
with the facts we have to consider to- 
day. Even then it does not tell the 
whole truth. It is claimed that the play 
is historical ; but history is easy to mis- 
use. It is undoubtedly true that some 
of the elements of the plot are based on 
actual events; but they are only a part 
of the picture. You can use history to 
demonstrate anything, when you take 
certain of its facts and emphasize them 
to the exclusion of the rest. The pro- 
duction is the most subtle form of un- 
truth—a half truth." 

T^HE pamphlet on Family Limitation 
was written by Margaret Sanger, a 
trained nurse and known as a writer on 
sex hygiene. Her articles on the sub- 
ject in the New York Call, addressed 
particularly to working girls, were finally 
stopped by the Post Office Department. 
Mrs. Sanger then started a paper of her 
own called the Woman Rebel. This 
was in turn suspended by federal action 
and she was indicted on several counts, 
including sending obscene matter through 
the mail and the publication of an article 

Courtesy <>f the Independent 


which is held to have favored assassina- 

Released without bail, Mrs. Sanger 
ran away to England, where the dis- 
cussion of birth control is open and prac- 
tically unhindered. There she wrote the 
pamphlet, Family Limitation, and her 
friends are said to have circulated 100,- 
000 copies of it. 

While she was away a man called 
upon her husband, William Sanger, an 
architect, and asked for a copy of Family 
Limitation. Mr. Sanger is reported to 
have said he was not circulating it, but 
upon the man's insistence that he was a 
friend of Mrs. Sanger's and interested in 
her work, the husband rummaged about, 
found a copy and gave it to him. 

Shortly after the man reappeared 
with Anthony Comstock, secretary of 
the New York Society for the Suppres- 
sion of Vice, who arrested him under 
the New York law which makes his ac- 
tion in "circulating" the pamphlet a 
misdemeanor punishable by a fine of 
$1,000 and a year's imprisonment. His 
motion for trial by jury was denied. 
His wife is said to be coming home soon 
to stand trial on the charge against her. 

Friends of both Mr. and Mrs. Sanger 
have sprung to their defense. The Free 
Speech League of New York, of which 
Leonard D. Abbott, of the Ferrer School 
of Anarchism, is president, is raising a 
fund to bear the expenses of the trial 
and has issued an open letter on the sub- 
ject signed by Theodore Schroeder, Bol- 
ton Hall, Lincoln Steffens and Hutchins 
Hapgood. The letter states that "this 
case involves much more than Mr. 
Sanger and his wife. It involves per- 
sonal liberty and a free press." 

And there is in process of formation 
the Birth Control League whose an- 
nounced objects are: "1. To create an 

intelligent public demand for the repeal 
of all laws prohibiting the giving out 
of information concerning methods of 
birth control ; 2. To distribute accurate 
information on the subject of birth con- 
trol, after it has become legal to do so." 

The call for the formation of the 
league is signed by Jessie Ashley, Otto 
Bobsien, Mary Ware Dennett, Martha 
Gruening, Bolton Hall, Charles T. Halli- 
nan, Paul Kennaday, Helen Marot, 
James F. Morton, Jr., Lucy Sprague 
Mitchell, Lincoln Steffens and Clara 
Gruening Stillman. 

Printed matter sent out by the Birth 
Control League points out that contra 
ceptive devices are advertised in the 
public press in France, Belgium and 
Holland ; that in England information 
is distributed legally to anyone who de- 
clares in writing that he or she is about 
to be married and that the Neo-Mal- 
thusian Society distributes pamphlets, 
holds public meetings and publishes a 
monthly paper, the Malthusian, whose 
sub-title is "a crusade against poverty." 

X-l OW conflicting principles — social, 
sectional, religious — enter into 
these practical problems of censorship, 
is brought out by the various groups in- 
terested, and in some instances by the 
activity of the same people against the 
film and for the pamphlet. 

In exercising social control two agen- 
cies have been resorted to: 1, legal sup- 
pression and censorship; 2, individual 
and collective but voluntary blasts of 
opinion. For example, in the case of the 
film, some of those who would be op- 
posed to governmental suppression, are 
strong in criticizing the play and in cen- 
suring the National Board of Censor- 
ship for not throwing its great weight of 
opinion against the production. 


[See editorial, page 28.] 

I'M sixty-three years old and all my life 

Since I was twelve, I've worked long hours each day. 
My wages have been very small because 

My labor's what they like to call unskilled ; 
And yet I know that once when I was sick 

They had to have two men to do my task. 

But we have not complained, my wife and I. 

We've raised three children and we own our home 
They helped us, for they always brought their pay 

Straight to be added to their mother's store, 
As I did, for she was the prudent one 

And knew best how to make the money last. 

Then they grew up. Our two girls married men 
Who work like me. My son was married, too. 

And then he died and left his wife and child 
With nothing saved, as many a man must do. 

We took them in and my son's wife has helped 
In every way she could to keep our home. 

We even have a little money saved. 

We keep our health and we should have no care. 
But I am growing old; and I can feel 

My strength is not just as it used to be. 
My work seems harder and the days are long 

I cannot stoop and lift so many times. 

I know that soon they'll come to me and say ; 

"We need a younger man to fill your place." 
A.nd I shall go, that night for the last time, 

Home through the crowded streets with heavy heart 
And in the morning have no place to go. 

For no one wants so old a man as I. 

They tell me that, in other countries now, 
A man who's worked his whole life through like me 

! fs not just turned right out to face alone 
The hard conditions of these failing years, 

But is entitled to a pension from the state. 
I wonder! Will that ever happen here? 


Edmund Niles Huyck. 


CPIRIT of steam and steel, 
Spirit of men that feel, 
Spirit of a growing commonweal 

We stood on a swinging beam. 

Me and my pal Joe. 
He says, "That's quite a stream 

Of biped ants below." 

"Look," he says, "to the west, 

Over the drifting smoke; 
That hill is lifting like a woman's breast, 

And a man would be some bloke 
Lf he didn't have thoughts come up in him 
That swell his soul — my eyes are dim." 

Iron to iron, the rivets crept, 

While through the air our hammers swept, 

And Joe drowned out the noise, 

His booming voice sang: "Boys, 

We are they with sweat anointed, 

We are they in faith appointed, 

With straining sinews to achieve 

A glory that the gods conceive; 

Thus to the unformed ages given, 

Thus by an unknown purpose driven, 

We ride with Death where the log-boom breaks, 

We breathe his breath where the furnace shakes, 

We finger his form where the wheels are whirled, 

And soon to his knotted arms we're hurled. 

Our bones in the eddies lost, 

Our bones to the ash-pit tossed." 

The riveting ceased, and ceased the song, 
And Joe looked 'round in his humorous way, 

And said, "I'm glad I'm here where I belong, 
I've landed a job and I get good pay." 

"Well, then," I said, "dig down in your brain, 

And since you must sing, get off o' this strain ! 

I too have work to do !" 

But he kept on with the same refrain: — 

"The mice play far from the cat's cruel claws, 

But the purring mill extends its paws; 

Our children are belched from the mine's grim jaws," — 

He never finished; just then he rose 

Swinging his hammar, he toppled ; — the close ! 

Henry Ackley. 


From the Yiddish of Morris Winchefsky, rendered into English verse by Alice Stone Blackwell. 

11JE who knows and comprehends the music, 

Beautiful, divinely sweet to bless, 
From the lips of guileless babes that issues 
When their hearts are full of happiness; 

He who understands the notes enchanting 

Of the children's prattle, day by day, 
Recognizing, in their happy voices, 

All the meaning of their loving play; 
He who feels the music in the laughter 

When they shout together, full of glee — 
Better than the artist or the expert 

Understands the soul of melody! 

Such a man, methinks, must often sorrow, 
Knowing that there soon will fall a blight — 

That a time will quickly come, enshrouding 
All this liveliness in darksome night; 

That the voice, so musical and lovely, 
Which o'er all our hearts its gladness shed. 

fn the coal-mine deep will sink to silence, 
Where the child will labor for his bread: 

That his words, so free and sweet and joyous, 

Will be changed to curses ever new 
When he sits imprisoned in a cellar, 

Toiling o'er a dress-coat or a shoe ; 

That the playful smile, the winning glances 

Flashing out beneath his youthful brow, 
Will be known to him no more forever 

In the factory, ten years from now. 
It will fly, as on the winds a feather, 

All the joy that filled his childish breast, 
'Neath the music of the wheels, loud roaring, 

Pressing ever on his sickly chest. 

Thf SnRT»T. April a. twin 


in the 


"Treated more as 
wild animals than 
unfortunate human 
beings. . .they con- 
stitute a class of in- 
dividuals for whom 
no possible misfor- 
tunes can have any 





And the Whole Eighteenth- 
Century Mental Attitude of 
the So-called Sane toward the 
Insane, as it Survives in the 
County Institutions of Twen- 
tieth Century Pennsylvania 


Florence L. Sanville 


hospital for the 
in Am erica was 
Pennsylvania in 

■jTHE first 

In 1870 the principle of state 
care for all dependent insane 
was enunciated. 

In 1911,-15 the Public Char- 
ities Association finds that in 
31 counties the insane are still 
housed in the county institu- 
tion, that conditions similar to 
those exposed by Dorothea Dix 
eighty years ago still persist, 
and that if Pennsylvania is 
to hold any measure of the 
leadership in the twentieth 
century, which she had in the 
eighteenth, the ichole common- 
wealth should assume responsi- 
bility for the mentally af- 
flicted and bring the standards 
of the care at every point up 
to and beyond those set by the 
State's most progressive insti- 

ABOUT one hundred and twen- 
ty-five miles from Philadel- 
phia, there is a county alms- 
house which, along with the 
aged, infirm, and resourceless under its 
roof, yearly undertakes to care for from 
thirty-five to forty persons suffering 
from mental diseases. A recent visit to 
this almshouse revealed the conditions 
under which this task is performed. 

The only provisions for the mentally 
sick are cells, with iron-barred doors. 
Through eight by ten inch openings in 
the doors, food is passed to the more 
violent patients. Each cell is furnished 
only with a mattress on the floor and a 
tin bucket for toilet convenience. The 
single exception is the presence of a 
cot in one of these rooms. 

Such unfortunates as are brought to 
this place are cared for by two pauper 
inmates — one of whom, a male cripple, 
cares for the men ; the other, a woman, 
in better physical shape, cares for the 
women. All alleged cases of insanity 
are placed in these cells, the steward not 
wishing to "take any chances." as he 
expresses it. 

He further remarks : "As soon as you 
lock them in a cell, they get worse ; so 
that I know if I didn't lock them up, 
something might happen, and then I'd 
be responsible" — thus, unwittingly stat- 
ing the great truth which underlies non- 
restraint for the insane. 

Some unfortunate persons have been 
locked in a cell in this institution for 

as long as two months without once 
leaving it, awaiting the completion of 
the slow process of final commitment. 
It is all too easy to believe the state- 
ment made in that institution: "If they 
are not insane when they come here, the 
place will make them so." 

About a half hour's ride from this 
place of mediaeval neglect, is a large 
state hospital for the insane. Here, in 
cheerful surroundings, with pleasant 
dining-rooms, served with plentiful food 
on a scientifically planned basis, some 
hundreds of patients are cared for by 
the state of Pennsylvania. Even among 
these large numbers, very few are ever 
restrained or placed in seclusion, and 
then only under the direction of a resi- 
dent physician and for the briefest 
period. Two-thirds (65.8 per cent) of 
the patients are regularly employed on 
the farm or in the garden. The women 
also are engaged in the usual household 
occupations, while the men crush native 

Regular occupational classes for those 
unable to take part in these industries 
will shortly be introduced. Those 
patients whose mental condition pre- 
cludes any occupation, even the sim- 
plest, are taken for daily walks, not in 
enclosed yards, but over ample lawns. 
The physician who superintends the hos- 
pital is assisted by two doctors — a man 
and a woman — both with wide medical 
experience and especial training in the 
Studv and treatment of diseases of the 

mind. From this trio radiates the spirit 
of humane regard and scientific treat 

Geographically, less than fifteen miles 
separates these two institutions; in 
method, they are divided by centuries. 

Herein lies the shame of Pennsyl- 
vania in her care of the insane. It is 
not the absence of high standards which 
makes the lot of the insane in Pennsyl- 
vania one of misery and degradation. 
It is rather the wide variation in stand- 
ards that now characterizes the forty 
institutions which, under state, county, 
and municipal direction, are caring for 
the 17,596 insane of the state. When 
one "goes insane" in one part of Penn- 
sylvania he still remains in the twentieth 
century, while if this misfortune over- 
takes him in another part of the same 
state he is plunged backward into the 
ignorance and inhumanity of the seven- 

The local institutions range from 
licensed county hospitals with nearly 900 
insane patients to smaller almshouses, 
both licensed and unlicensed to care for 
the insane — some with only one or tw 
insane inmates. There are 19 licensed 
county institutions, with a combined 
census of 4.278 insane: and 11 un- 
licensed institutions, with a combined 
census of 82 insane inmates — all of 
these places performing the double func- 
tion of almshouse and insane asylum. 

The more fortunate patient who is 
committed to the care of a hospital fin- 

The Survey, April 3, 1915 


• > a male patient wan found 
y * locked in his room, 
both bed and floor being in 
a foul condition, as well as 
patient's person, but the door 
to the room was again locked, 
without comment being made. 
Another man locked in his 
room teas found nude on a 
mattress, the only article in 
the room. . . . Another 
secluded man was noisy and 
pounding on the window-sill 
with a tin cup, no effort be- 
ing made to take it from 
him. A secluded woman had 
bits of food on the bed and 
smeared on her person, and 
every patient found secluded 
was either nude or partially 
so; while such clothing as 
they possessed was in most 
cases soiled." 


»i E~IRE risk is especially 
1 great, and fire, at 
night, especially, would in- 
evitably mean loss of life. 
Lighting is by kerosent 
lamps. There are no fire- 
escapes, hose or stand pipes, 
one of the inside stairways 
has been removed and the 
stair wall used for stores, 
while a wooden ventilating 
flue extends to the roof from 
the second floor, and both 
would act as flues, in case 
of fire. With windows guard- 
ed with iron bars, patients 
are locked in their rooms at 
night, and left without any 
night attendants. . . . A 
year ago a bam was burned, 
resulting in total loss, al- 
though an outside hydrant 
stands much nearer than to 
the building for insane." 


n 'T'HE practice exists of 
keeping untidy patients 
in the toilet sections, and 
on day of visit four male 
patients iwere found there 
seated on a bench and re- 
strained. One such patient 
was said to be constantly 
restrained — two of them were 
fastened to the bench by 
leather straps about the 
waist, and one had his hands 
secured by leather muff. The 
latter also had a wire screen 
cage over his head resting 
on his shoulders, it being 
explained that even when re- 
strained he tore his clothing 
with his teeth. These pa- 
tients, together with an un- 
restrained stupid patient sit- 
ing with them, were bare- 
footed, their feet resting on 
the concrete floor." 


">d so-called 'bull pen' is a 
■*" locked dormitory 
where eight inmates were 
found, one nude, and all in 
a state of personal unclean- 
liness. . . . Cells have 
no furnishings except a mat- 
tress and a blanket thrown 
on the floor, except in a sin- 
gle instance, where a small 
cot is provided. 

"The pauper assigned to 
care for the male insane is a 
cripple; so is physically un- 
able to cope with an excited 
case, but should he deem it 
necessary to enter the cell 
of an excited patient he calls 
to his aid a sufficient number 
of other inmates to subdue 
the patient by force of num- 
bers. Informant remarked: 
'If they are not insane when 
they come here, this place 
will make them so.'" 

anced and directly controlled by the 
state, may be reasonably certain of hu- 
mane and curative treatment under 
modern conditions. The afflicted person 
from whom this chance is withheld, 
either through discrimination or force 
of circumstances, runs a gauntlet of 
chance for future welfare that extends 
all the way from an environment of ef- 
ficiency and humanity, to one of incred- 
ible brutality and neglect. 

There is a total lack of uniformity in 
these institutions. Some have a slight 
amount of state supervision ; others are 
supported and directed solely by in- 
dividual cities, or even by townships. In 
some, the diet provided is almost beyond 
criticism. On the other hand, in one in- 
stitution, at least, it was recently dis- 
covered that two of the meals every day 
of the three hundred and sixty-five con- 
sisted of a "hunk" of bread, a ladle of 
molasses and a cup of coffee for each 

In some instances, strait-jackets, 
muffs and other forms of mechanical re- 
straint are practically never used. In 
others they are in constant use and for 
a large percentage of the patients. Some 
of the institutions are completely equip- 
ped with modern apparatus for giving 
the patients the so-called continuous 
baths and various other forms of hy- 
drotherapeutic treatment which have 
been found so exceedingly efficacious 

in quieting certain types of disturbed 
patients. Most institutions have no such 

In some of these institutions, especially 
equipped teachers are employed to in- 
struct the patients in physical culture, 

i < 7} RE ARY, desolate 
wards, lack of recrea- 
tion or other means of excit- 
ing or maintaining active 
interest are alone sufficient 
not only to hinder improve- 
ment or recovery but must 
necessarily result in actual- 
ly hastening the terminal 
process of deterioration." 

gardening, arts and crafts, music, danc- 
ing, etc. In others, practically none 
of tliese things are even attempted. In 
some institutions, an earnest effort is 
made to provide interesting and profit- 
able employment for every inmate cap- 
able of profiting in any way by sucb 
treatment. In others, the majority of 
the inmates have nothing whatever to 
do from one end of the year to the 

In a very few institutions, it is ap- 

parent to the most superficial observer 
that the problem of the insane is looked 
upon as primarily a hospital problem 
and that the insane are regarded as a 
class of sick folk needing primarily an 
expert physician's care and treatment. 
In a large number of the institutions, 
however, it is equally apparent that 
those in charge still view the problem 
of the insane as primarily a custodial 
one and think of the insane under their 
care as more closely allied to the crim- 
inal classes than to the sick. 

Some of these Pennsylvania institu- 
tions separate chronic from acute cases, 
segregate the tuberculous, and are on 
the alert to utilize still further classifica- 
tion wherever this will serve any use- 
ful purpose; in others, there is no at 
tempt to segregate even the tuberculous 
from other patients. 

There is great difference in the rela- 
tive number of attendants employed in 
these various institutions; in the equip- 
ment and use of laboratories for re- 
search ; in the form and character of 
records kept as to the heredity, environ- 
ment, and history of each patient. 

Thus, although there are institutions 
in Pennsylvania which are abreast of 
any in the country for the dependent 
insane, it is none the less true that at 
this day in Pennsylvania, individual in- 
stances can be found of conditions ex- 
actlv like those which aroused the com- 


<< rjf one of the exercise 
J yards five concentric 
rings about a tree beaten in 
the earth by the ceaseless 
pacing of patients. 

"Number of patients bare- 
footed, and, from appearance 
of feet, had been so for many 
weeks. There are no recrea- 

"A woman patient has an 
open, undressed cancer, and 
another woman patient has 
recurring ulcerations of the 
nose, apparently of luetic 
origin. Neither these pa- 
tients, nor the single tuber- 
cular patient are isolated, 
they mingling freely with 
the others." 


<« A paralyzed man was 
■** found locked in his 
room with both the hid and 
the floor in a foul condition, 
but the door was again lock- 
ed. the condition found caus- 
ing no comment. 

"That patients do not re- 
ceive sufficient medical atten- 
tion is evinced by the con- 
dition in which a stupid 
male patient was found. He 
had a large abscess on the 
siiie of his neck, evidently 
of considerable duration, us 
the pus had buvvoired eon 
sidivahle distance through 
the tissms. fobody teas 
found who knar anything 
about how long the condition 
had existed." 


a -THERE are but two phy- 
sicians to care for over 
500 insane patients, aside from 
the sick in the almshouse, hut 
it is said another physician is 
to be added to the staff. Xo 
provisions for dmtai work." 


n/I.V day of visit a man 

L was restrained with 

stul handcuffs, fastened 

tightly about his Wrists, be- 

OOUSe, as it iras exjtlained 
'if they irerc loose, he would 
free himself.' Both wrists 

were abraided. He re p e al 

edhi asked to be freed. . . . 
■Hi was said to be a re- 
current maniacal case and 
able to tell the day before 
whin an attack is impend- 
ing. He will then spend 
considerable time dashini) 
cold water over his head, 
hut such efforts on the part 
of the patient do not appear 
to hare evev caused his car, . 
takers to think of usina 
showers, wet pack* or such 
forms of hydrotherapy as 
are possible without special 

Social Legislation in the Keystone State 


■ < IJOOMS for the insane 
-"* have iron bars over 
rvindows while the doors are 
heavy toood with iron braces 
— in center of door is an 
aperture covered with an 
iron grating, and a wooden 
slide for peek holes, while 
lower down in the doors are 
open apertures through which 
food is introduced when an 
excited patient is secluded. 
Doors fastened with heavy 

"Fire risk appears especi- 
ally great. The illumination 
is by open flame, gasoline 
gas jets. Water pressure is 
sufficient only to carry water 
to the second poor. Build- 
ings old; doubtful if inmates 
on the third and fourth 
floors eould escape." 


npXCEPT in the severest 
*— winter weather heat 
is shut off from 9 p.m. to 5 
a.m. While it ivas admitted 
that patients often complain 
of the cold, they are then 
supplied with extra blankets. 
"A condition in the alms- 
house which should be cor- 
rected is the mingling of a 
Negro boy, with an acute 
syphilitic skin lesion, icith 
the other Negro paupers." 


i i A N unpleasant spectacle 
■'' was afforded by a 
number of coffins piled one 
on top of the other in a 
small storeroom just outside 
the entrance to one of the 
almshouse wards, the door 
of which was left open 
through day of visit." 


>i A HIGH iron picket-fence 
**■ surmounted by barbed 
wire encloses the exercise 
yard. A bare path worn in 
the earth about a tree in 
yard where patient mechanic- 
ally trots day after day, an 
instance of misdirected ener- 
gy, which under proper con- 
ditions could be rendered 
productive, again illustrating 
the futility of that attitude 
which regards chronic cases 
unworthy of special atten- 

passion and indignation of Pinel in 
France, more than one hundred years 

The actual conditions prevailing in all 
institutions having control of insane or 
mentally defective persons in Pennsyl- 
vania, have been accurately ascertained 
in an exhaustive study just completed 
under the direction of the Public Chari- 
ties Association of Pennsylvania. The 
study has been made by Dr. C. Floyd 
Haviland, of King's Park State Hos- 
pital for the Insane, New York, who, 
since the first of June, has visited and 
thoroughly inspected fifty institutions. 

As an example of a county institution 
licensed to care for the insane, the facts 
for one almshouse housing forty-three 
insane inmates may be cited from Dr. 
Haviland's report. 

It is of a fair average in size, housing 
these unfortunates in two separate 
buildings in the rear of the almshouse 
proper, with the sole outlook of the 
almshouse buildings across the earthen 
yard. Classification of patients — that 
essential need of keeping the disturbed 
from the more quiet, and segregating 
the acute and the chronic sufferers, as 
well as the terminal and incipient cases 
— is altogether impossible, since only 
two wards are provided for each sex. 
As a result, the only available means of 
separation is that of sending the more 
violent patients to the rear building. 

As the only seating facilities in this 
building consist of a few benches placed 
in the alcove which is used as a dining- 
room, the patients often risk serious 
injury by sitting on the flat tops of the 
screened radiators — a practice which the 

<< 1/f/ITB. but few excep- 
tions, the county in- 
stitutions have no special 
medical facilities. As result, 
mechanical means of re- 
straint and confinement are 
substituted for proper per- 
sonal treatment and atten- 
tion directed to improve- 
ment or recovery." 

man in charge greatly deprecates and 
which he plans to overcome by the sub- 
stitution of sloping pieces of board 
which it will be impossible to use for a 
seat. The substitution of a few chairs 
seems not to have occurred to him. 

In neither building is a dining-room 
provided. The patients, men and wom- 
en together, take their meals in a square 
space where two halls cross, and whith- 
er the food is carried in tin buckets 
across the yard from the administration 

building in which the kitchen is lo- 
cated. This cooling process is still 
further extended for the more violent 
patients who eat on the second story 
of the rear building and whose meals 
must undergo still further transporta- 

The morning and evening meals con- 
sist of bread, molasses, and coffee. The 
mid-day meal has a greater variety, but 
apparently changes little from week to 
week. The food is plentiful — in fact, 
much waste results from its being served 
in bulk, a waste which might properly 
be diverted into securing a greater va- 
riety. The yearly expenditure in this 
institution showed $106 for molasses, 
$766 for bread, cake and rolls which 
are bought from a bakery, and $545 for 
coffee. Against this, $86 was spent for 
clothing and underwear, and $84 for 
shoes, hats, and gloves. 

In charge of these forty-five insane 
patients are two married couples — one 
for day duty, the other for night duty. 
The men of these couples are, in one 
case, a farmer and in the other, a car- 
penter by trade; but both have acted as 
attendants in the institution for a year 
or more. Neither of the women has 
had any previous experience in nursing 
the insane. The duties of the keeper 
have a wide range in variety — from 
doing laundry work, with the help of 
some of the patients, to occasionally 


n'T'IIE punitive idea is here 
1 prominent ; two women 
were found strapped to the 
chair with a leather strap, 
and a third was so strapped 
to a toilet chair. It was 
readily explained that in one 
case at least the patient was 
strapped 'as a little punish- 
ment'; it was added: 'You 
hare to punish them a little 
sometimes, it does them 
good.' Later a male attend- 
ant remarked in reference to 
restraint: 'We use it simply 
to conquer them.' " 


i~/~)NE of the most serious 
L ^ faults is the substitu- 
tion of close confinement for 
personal attention. There is 
but a single male attendant 
and no women attendants. 
The opinion was expressed 
that seclusion was a good 
practice in certain cases, for 
if patients got troublesome it 
was only necessary to shut 
them up and allow them to 
go without a meal or two, at 
the same time giving them 
plenty of water to drink, 
when 'they will follow the 
point of your finger around 
like a dog.' 

"A deplorable feature of 
this institution is the pres- 
ence of nine children in the 
almshouse, it being remem- 
bered that paupers and in- 
sane eat in the same dining- 


< < JA/HILE the superintend- 
ent is active and ap- 
parently anxious to do the 
best possible for the patients, 
his idea of the care of the 
insane is evinced by the 
question: 'What is the best 
form of restraint V It ap- 
pears unfortunate that he 
should be regarded as speci- 
ally qualified for the care of 
the insane by reason of ex- 
perience obtained as turn- 
key in the county jail, where 
he was obliged to care for a 
certain number of insane per- 


" J/T/ mLE unused, two so- 
"" called 'standing cells' 
are an interesting relic of the 
past; they are merely two 
small closets, just large en- 
ough for an adult to stand 
erect in them with the door 
cloved. If a person once 
sank down, it would thus be 
impossible to again assume 
an erect posture; it was ad- 
mitted that the quieting 
effect of such confinement 
eould only have resulted 
from exhaustion, and it was 
said their manifest barbarity 
caused their abandonment." 


The Survey, April 3, 1915 

drawing painful teeth of the inmates. 

It is obvious that with such lack of 
attention the physical condition of the 
patients must deteriorate : in fact, two 
patients — one with an open cancer and 
the other with necrosis of the nose- 
bridge — receive no treatment, and are 
allowed to mingle freely with the other 
patients. The visiting doctor calls once 
a week, but makes no examinations, and 
no records of his visits are kept. 

Moreover, the lack of attendants and 
of any modern equipment for dealing 
with disturbed patients, such as continu- 
ous baths, or hydrotherapy and electro- 
therapy, invites the use of seclusion and 
restraint. This is used at the discretion 
of the keeper. In certain of the rooms 
which are provided with iron-barred 
doors and are called cells, disturbed 
patients are isolated continuously for 
from six to eight weeks, as the occasion 
seems to require. For restraint, straight- 
jackets and leather muffs are used, an 
application of either of which for two 
or three days, the keeper states, is 
usually "enough to make them come 

The patients exercise in two small 
yards with high whitewashed fences. 
There is a tree in each yard, around one 
of which the grass is worn off in five 
concentric rings, from the pacing of the 
sufferers. Only three patients are reg- 
ularly employed — female in laundry work 
or sewing, male at farm work. This 
institution reported no recoveries for 
the year 1913. 

Another licensed county institution of 
about the same size was reported as 
having 11.3 per cent of the inmates 
either restrained or secluded. Within 
recent months, two sufferers died after 
being constantly restrained. One of 
these patients, the steward declares, was 
"worried to death." He was handcuffed 
with his hands beneath his knees or be- 
hind his back, strapped in the meantime 
to the bed, but even so he would manage 
to free himself. And yet, in his wildest 
moods, he could be quieted when talked 
to "in a sensible manner" as the steward 
expressed it. Because of the lack of fa- 
cilities for such personal attention, the 
patient was practically tortured to death, 
in the endeavor to control him by me- 
chanical means. Other cases of treat- 
ment, which reek of the cruelties of cus- 
todial days, have characterized this same 

Enough has been suggested in con- 
nection with both of these so-called 
"hospitals," licensed by a great and en- 
lightened state to care for the insane — 
those most unfortunate of her citizens — 
to indicate to what depths of barbarism 
the present lack of uniform standards 
in Pennsylvania exposes the dependent 
and helpless insane. 

Unfortunate as are the conditions 
which surround many of the insane in- 
mates of the licensed county hospitals, 
these persons are often less to be pitied 

What one county pro- 
vides in its alms- 

tc A small, single story, detached build- 
1 ing is known as the 'mad-house,' 
and Is in charge of an imbecile inmate. 
The yard about such building is en- 
closed by a rough, white-washed board 
fence, and contains the usual ground 
vault toilet, with an old rusted iron 
bathtub, in an old shed of unpainted 
boards. This building is in worse con- 
dition than the main one and rubbish 
everywhere in evidence, papers, sticks 
and boxes being scattered indoors and 
outdoors; beds and bedding dirty and 
disordered ; heated by an old battered 
coal stove ; a few broken chairs and a 
bare table constitute the only furniture. 
There are several small cell-like rooms, 
with no outside windows, formed by 
whitewashed board partitions and with 
the upper half of doors set with white- 
washed, wooden slats. 

"The steward and his wife, the ma- 
tron, are the only inside employes, so 
inmates can receive little personal at- 
tention. In the "mad-house,' aside from 
the imbecile in charge, two male idiots 
were found, an epileptic dement and an 
advanced paretic ; the latter two were in 
bed, although fully dressed, even to 
their shoes; the paretic was found in 
one of the small unlighted rooms, be- 
cause, it was said, of his untidy habits, 
and he was in a state of personal un- 
cleanliness when seen. 

"While primarily for men, the 'mad- 
house' being the only available place in 
which to separate mental cases, it was 
necessary to recently confine an epilep- 
tic girl there, when she became excited 
following convulsions. She was re- 
strained with handcuffs and locked in 
one of the small rooms, despite the 
presence of male inmates in adjoining 
small rooms, it being remembered that 
the upper halves of the doors are pro- 
vided with open slats. Her cries and 
screams are said to have been so con- 
stant and so loud that she disturbed 
not only everybody In the 'mad-house,' 
but in the main building, some distance 
away. Her hands became much swollen 
in her effort to break down the door 
and scars from the handcuffs were per- 
ceptible at the time of visit. 

"Separation of sexes is poor, while 
aexes live on opposite sides of the main 
building, doors open directly from one 
side to the other and women inmates 
found doing the housework on the male 
side, wjth some of the men still in the 
wind, although no employes present. 
An hallucinatory woman lives with 
other inmates, receiving no special at- 
tention. There is little medical at- 
tention, visiting physician only respond- 
ing as steward, a former tanner, deems 
n ssary." 

than those helpless dependents whom 
evil chance has sent into one of the un- 
licensed almshouses — that is, into in- 
stitutions so poorly run that they have 
been barred from state appropriations. 
These unfortunates are either tempor- 
arily awaiting commitment elsewhere, or 
are indefinitely forgotten atoms of hu- 
man misery. 

The largest number of insane inmates 
of any of these almshouses at one time 
is about thirty-five. These institution? 
usually have no facilities for separate 
housing or care of insane inmates, ex- 
cept more strongly fortified or isolated 
rooms than those used by the mentally 
sound. Thus, those whom poverty and 
mental disease combine to make helpless, 
are exposed to such conditions as prevail 
even yet in that almshouse described in 

the opening paragraphs of this article. 

To quote from the report of Dr. Havi- 
land, from which these facts are taken: 
"Treated more as wild animals than as 
unfortunate human beings, . . . 
they constitute a class of individuals for 
whom no possible future misfortunes 
can have any terror." And this is in 
the state of Pennsylvania — eighty years 
after the first terrible revelations made 
by Dorothea L. Dix led to the founding 
of the state asylum at Harrisburg ! 

An insane inmate of one of the low- 
standard county institutions, fortunate 
enough to be transferred to a state 
hospital, will find a new world of hope 
open before him. One of these hospitals, 
with about 1,500 patients, is fairly typi- 
cal of the advantages of its class. With 
its capacity of 1,300 stretched to accom- 
modate 200 more, there follows neces- 
sarily some overcrowding of the wards, 
as well as an insufficient supply of wash- 
basins and conveniences. Also there 
still exists in this institution some left- 
over plumbing of a now discarded type. 

However, the new patient finds him- 
self transferred from a maddening 
and conglomerate environment into a 
group of persons who fit best with his 
own tendencies — this classification being 
rendered possible by the division into 
twenty-two wards. He dines comfort- 
ably with this smaller group, in a 
separate dining-room, adjoining which 
is a serving-room. He finds a large 
number of his fellow-patients employed 
in some form of occupation — the women 
working on power machines, or busy 
with needle or art work, pottery, paint 
ing, and clay modeling, occupations for 
which a special instructor is provided. 
Two farm colonies engage the energies 
of a large number of the men. 

All who are physically able, are re- 
quired to take daily exercise out of 
doors; and fully one-half of the patients 
take advantage of the weekly moving- 
picture show, or the picnic, sleigh-rides, 
or games, varying with the seasons. 

\dded to these provisions for normal 
activities and interests, is a complete 
hydrotherapeutic equipment, in two 
separate buildings for the two sexes. 
with two especially trained attendants. As 
a result of these wholesome surround- 
ings, and of the personal attention which 
is made possible by the comparatively 
adequate number of nurses and atten- 
dants, there is practically no recourse 
to the maddening devices of mechanical 
restraint and seclusion. There are only 
eighteen cases for whom occasional 
seclusion is ordered by the physician. 
and no restraint is practiced. One pa- 
tient — a murderess with homicidal ten- 
dency — is kept in constant seclusion, but 
is taken out for exercise by a sp 

When, in response to this constructive 
policy of curative treatment, a patient is 
considered convalescent, he or she joins 
the convalescent group in a separate 

Social Legislation in the Keystone State 


house, with a separate shaded lawn. 
Here, in the attractive environment of 
single rooms and a cheerful dining-room 
filled with small tables, the patient is 
helped through the final stages to com- 
plete recovery. 

The staff governing this hospital con- 
sists of a physician as superintendent ; 
five medical assistants, one of whom is 
a woman ; and a pathologist. In addition 
to 128 attendants, there are 32 nurses, 
some of whom are graduates and others 
still attending the two-years' course of 
training at the hospital. 

Four mornings a week, a staff con- 
ference is held to discuss new cases, 
possibilities of parole and discharge, 
and cases of particular interest or im- 
mediate need. Much attention is given 
to the pathological work and scientific 
research in a well-equipped laboratory. 
There is also a field worker who is mak- 
ing a special study of heredity, home 
surroundings, history after discharge, 

This hospital, in its essential charac- 
teristics, stands fairly for the eight of its 
class which today house over 10,000 of 
the insane of Pennsylvania. In impor- 
tant requirements, point for point, a com- 
parison between these hospitals and the 
haphazard county institutions demon- 
strates that only an institution planned 
and conducted solely for the care and 
treatment of the insane may hold out 
reasonable hope of improvement and 
cure, and provide adequately for the 
safety and comfort of those for whom 
permanent institutional life is necessary. 

For instance, all the state hospitals 
are equipped for hydrotherapeutic treat- 
ment of patients, with the exception of 
one institution still in the process of 
construction : on the other hand, of 
thirty county institutions only two had 
even partial equipment of this kind — 
one hospital with over 800 patients 
wholly lacking this important feature. 
Again, of the state hospitals, restraint 
and seclusion have been wholly abolished 
in two, and in the remainder exist t« 
the limited extent indicated in the in- 
stitution just described. Information 
on this subject was obtainable for 
twenty-six county institutions, and re- 
vealed that twenty-three of them re- 
gularly resorted to those devices in vary- 
ing degrees of severity and rigor, some- 
times with barbarous cruelty. 

In meeting the essential need of oc- 
cupation and employment, all the state 
hospitals come up to a fairly satisfactory 
standard, providing regular employment 
for over 60 per cent of the patients, with 
none falling below a standard of 40 per 
cent (excepting one which falls to 39.1 
per cent). The county hospitals, how- 
ever, supply regular occupations to a 
very limited degree — all except a half 
dozen wholly neglecting this most im- 
portant feature of any curative program. 

Finally, the emphasis on the scientific 
•side is almost wholly lacking in the 

What the larger munici- 
palities of Pennsyl- 
vania provide 

institution No. 7 is so unsuited archi- 
x tecturally for the care and treat- 
ment of insane patients that its use 
should he abandoned at the earliest pos- 
sible moment. The great overcrowding 
here existing only emphasizes structural 
defects. The abnormally high death- 
rate must, in part at least, he caused 
by structural conditions, as the medical 
work appears fairly efficient. 

institution No. 8, a branch of No. 7, 
1 provides the great boon of outdoor 
exercise and occupation lacking in the 
latter. Methods of transportation are 
not yet adequate, the accommodations 
are crude, the water supply is deficient, 
and the sewage disposal is unsanitary, 
although the two defects last mentioned 
will apparently be remedied by the com- 
pletion of plans now under way. The 
fire risk is considerable. The defects and 
disadvantages indicated are ail remedi- 
able, however, and there would seem 
to be marked possibilities for this insti- 
tution under state rather than municipal 

institution No. 9 has heretofore pro- 
vided only the most crude custodial 
care. The fact that no patients have 
been discharged as recovered for seven 
years tells the whole tale ; however, a 
new administration has been inaugurat- 
ed, and not only will the material condi- 
tions of patients bo improved hut they 
will receive active medical treatment di- 
rected to the alleviation of their mental 
ills, something never before provided in 
this institution. 

institution No. 10 is poorly located 
A in association not only with an 
almshouse but a county workhouse. 
While buildings are good, there are 
no facilities for the medical treatment 
of insanity and even in the treatment 
of physical ills the baneful practice has 
arisen of treating surgical and advanced 
tubercular cases In the almshouse, where 
no distinction is made between them 
and the paupers. Under the circum- 
stances, it appears fortunate that this 
hospital is to be consolidated with No. 

/"Jenkral Considerations: in review- 
VJ ing the conditions found in this 
group of institutions it would appear 
that none have been properly perform- 
ing their function as institutions for 
the treatment and possible cure of in- 
sanity. Political and secular Interests 
have apparently submerged the medical 
spirit and as a result It is certain that 
many unfortunate insane persons have 
failed of recovery through lack of proper 
medical facilities and treatment. The 
conviction appears irresistible that what- 
ever may have been past policies the 
welfare of the community would be best 
■served by removing these hospitals from 
municipal control. 

county institutions. Only three of these 
provide laboratories in any form ; and 
of these three, one is not in use and the 
others are of extremely poor quality. 
The larger and more modern view of 
insanity, as a disease requiring exhaus- 
tive study and research, cannot be de- 
veloped without such facilities as are 
now supplied in all the state hospitals, 
with the sole exception of the still in- 
complete one. 

It has been demonstrated that the 
advantage often urged in behalf of 
local institutions for the insane — proxi- 
mity to friends — is unfounded. Personal 
attention in smaller institutions, as we 
have shown, breaks down utterly in the 
face of actual facts. There seems now 
to separate these two classes of institu- 
tions a chasm which may mark the dif- 

ference between hope and despair; be- 
tween barbarous terrorism and humane 
treatment; between ignorant neglect and 
scientific study. This chasm must be 
bridged and all sufferers led with equal 
security into the safe keeping of the 

Such a reconstruction forms a natural 
development in the attitude of the state 
toward this class of citizens. 

Until the middle of the last century 
the care of the poor in Pennsylvania 
(whether well or sick) devolved alto- 
gether upon the poor district. This in 
some cases comprised the county, and 
in others a combination of townships- 
Dorothea Dix, in her Historical Memo- 
rial to the Pennsylvania Legislature, 
as long ago as 1845, showed clearly that 
this plan was unsatisfactory; that the in- 
sane, not being amenable to ordinary 
almshouse treatment, were housed in 
buildings entirely unfit in many cases 
for human habitation; and that a large 
percentage of patients were under con- 
tinual restraint. 

As a result of this address and the 
consequent publicity, the legislature de- 
cided that the state would have to take 
a hand in caring for the insane within 
its borders and, accordingly, it authorized 
the establishment of the Pennsylvania 
State Lunatic Asylum at Harrisburg 
(act of April 14, 1845). The various 
local governmental units were allowed 
to send patients to this asylum in the 
proportion which the number of their 
insane bore to the total number within 
the state. The state furnished the build- 
ings and the administrative force, but 
the counties were financially responsible 
for care and maintenance. 

In 1868, the hospital at Danville was 
authorized; in 1873, that at Warren, and 
in 1876, the one at Norristown. As the 
financial burden on the counties had 
become very heavy, the legislature oi 
1883 again came to the assistance of the 
counties and provided that one-half of 
the cost of maintenance of the state in- 
stitutions for the insane should be borne 
by the state. 

In 1895, the legislature passed a county 
care act, by which the state agreed to 
pay $1.75 per week per patient to any 
county caring for its own insane. This 
was the same allowance as was appro- 
priated to state hospitals for the support 
of insane patients. The requirements of 
this act were very severe as to proper 
medical attention and other details, and 
they were consequently reduced by the 
succeeding legislature. In 1907, based 
on the cost at that time, the amount to 
be paid by the counties was fixed at 
$1.75 per patient per week. The amount 
to be paid by the state was increased 
from $1.75 to $2 for each patient per 
week during the session of 1909. 

Therefore, although the state govern- 
ment has come to the assistance of its 
various localities, both by providing 
state institutions and by aiding local in- 


The Survey, April 3, 1915 

stitutions, it has not at any time released 
the counties from their local responsi- 
bility for the care of this group of de- 
pendents. We have seen with what a 
variety of standards this responsibility 
has been met. 

Moreover, it must be borne in mind 
that to the present insane population of 
nearly 18,000 it is officially estimated that 
500 to 600 men and women are added 
each year. The cost of caring for this 
annually increasing army amounts to a 
head tax of sixty cents on every man, 
woman and child in the state. The ap- 
plication of a far-sighted statesmanship 
is needed where not only such a great 
financial burden, but such cumulative 
human tragedies are at stake. 

We are brought up, first of all, against 
the deep underlying and interacting con- 
ditions of modern life — conditions of 
living and of working; of recreation, 
education, and social intercourse. Has 
the 12-hour shift at the steel mill con- 
tributed more than its quota to the af- 
flicted army? Is the city half-acre popu- 
lated by 2,000 souls a greater or less 
source of insanity in our institutions 
than the isolated farm tract, divided by 
five miles of rutted roads from the 
nearest neighbor? 

There is also a less direct reaction of 
conditions upon mental soundness. To 
alchoholism and syphilis, some experts 
ascribe about one-third of the total num- 
ber of insane. Yet these social sores are 
largely symptoms of conditions which 
create and inflame them, rather than 
primary causes in themselves; and per- 
haps the last scar may be removed from 
the body social by a lessening of the 
abnormal intensity and strain of in- 
dustry, or by substituting sound recrea- 
tion for the deteriorating influences of 
city life or country isolation. 

There is, however, an apparently ir- 
reducible minimum of insane whose in- 
firmity is brought about by causes not 
yet within the power of society to reach. 
For these, early recognition of the ap- 
proaching malady and prompt treatment 
may represent all the difference between 
restoration to normal existence and 
mental wreckage. This represents a 
second step in planning adequate care 
for the insane. To secure it, there 
should be available to the people an 
opportunity for diagnosis and treatment 
commensurate with the provision made 
for treating other serious diseases. 

This means the addition of psychopathic 
departments to the general hospitals — 
authorization for which was granted by 
an act of the legislature in its session 
of 1911 and amended in 1913; but, prob- 
ably owing to the extra expense in- 
volved, only two hospitals have thus far 
availed themselves of this opportunity. 
Early treatment means also that the op- 
portunity for voluntary commitment to 
institutional care shall be available to 
dependent incipient cases in the same 
degree as to paying cases — a situation 




From the report of Dr. Arthur P. 
Herring, secretary Maryland State 
Lunacy Commission to the gover- 
nor of South Carolina. See page 13. 

1. Direction of the administration of 
the hospital and leadership in its medical 
work by a physician trained in diagnosis 
and treatment of mental diseases. 

2. An adequate medical staff, organ- 
ized so that duties are divided in accord- 
ance with the training of its different 
members and with the requirements of 
the clinical work. 

5. Regular and fr.equent conferences of 
the medical staff at which the diagnosis, 
treatment and prognosis of each new 
case admitted are considered, and at 
which cases about to be discharged are 
presented; training in psychiatry for 
new members of the staff. 

h. The reception of all new cases in a 
special department or in special icards 
where they may receive careful individual 
study, and where those with recoverable 
phychoses may receive continuous indi- 
vidual treatment. 

o. Classification of all patients with 
reference to their special needs and their 
mental condition, such classification be- 
ing flexible enough to permit frequent 

6. A system of clinical records which 
permits study and review of the history 
nf cases even after they have been dis- 

7. A laboratory in which some of the 
most useful tests required for the study 
and diagnosis of mental diseases as well 
as those required in general clinical 
diagnosis run he made and in which path 
alogical material ran be studied. 

8. Provision for special treatment, 
such as hydrotherapy, electrotherapy, 

9. Provision for examination and treat- 
ment by dentists, opthalmologists, gyne- 
cologists, etc. 

10. An adequate number of tralm i 
nurses and the maintenance of a school 
for nurses, under the direction of a su- 
pervisor of nurses, who should have not 
only training in general nursing, but 
special training in nursing those with 
mental diseases. 

11. The employment of female nurses 
in the reception and infirmary ward for 

12. The systematic use of occupations 
fur their therapeutic effects wider the di- 
rection of workers especially trained for 
this duty. 

IS. Special attention to recreations and 
diversions with reference to their ther- 
apeutic value. 

H. Liberal use of parole, especially for 
quiet, chronic patients who can lire in 
farm houses. 

la. Special provision for the tubercu- 
lous patients. 

10. Special precision for the pellagrins. 



uTN 11 almshouses which had no 11- 
1 censes to cure for such Inmates 
K2 insane patients were found. They 
were housed without discrimination 
with the other paupers. In addition to 
the Insane. 196 defectives were tunnel 
ranging from the lowest grade Idiots to 
high grade lml>eclles. There wine also 
a large numher of dotards and S3 chil- 
dren, while In one almshouse the con- 
glomerate mass of humanity was found 
increased by the practice of the courts 
in committing thereto incorrigible girls." 

which unfortunately does not now obtain. 

The third essential step in sound plan 
ning is to secure uniform standards of 
treatment for the insane. The very man 
who framed the first county care act, 
now registers his opinion that the in- 
equalities of such provision for the in- 
sane must — in the light of scientifically 
established needs — give way to the more 
stable equilibrium maintained by the 
greater resources of the state. The 
realization of the need of this has been 
dawning and crystalizing through the 
years. An early and most forcible ex- 
pression was put forth in 1870 by the 
Pennsylvania State Board of Public 
Charities, presided over by George L. 
Harrison which protested against alms- 
house care, and that classing of the in- 
sane with paupers, which "hindered the 
public from estimating aright their 
claims to sympathy and remedial treat- 

The Public Charities Association of 
Pennsylvania has formulated a program 
and is asking certain definite steps of 
the legislature in its present session. 

First of these is such an amendment 
to existing laws as will (1) commit 
Pennsylvania immediately to the prin- 
ciple of state care for all the dependent 
insane; and (2) provide a method for 
the gradual realization of this principle 
within the shortest feasible period of 

Second, the legislature will be asked 
to authorize the governor to appoint 
boards of managers for two new state 
hospitals for the insane — one in the 
southeastern, and the other in the south- 
western section of Pennsylvania. 

The plan is, that each board be given 
power of selection and appointment. 
with the governor's approval, of a sup- 
erintendent for its hospital; and that 
with the aid of these superintendents, 
each board shall select a site for its own 
institution. The purchase of these sites 
is provided for by appropriations. 

Pennsylvania has every reason to take 
the lead in humane progress toward com- 
plete and adequate care of her insane 
The first asylum for the insane in the 
United States was built within her 
borders in 1752; and a group of her 
citizens, in 1813. were the first to call 
the attention of Americans to the new 
science of care and treatment developing 

The existing shortcomings are not due 
fundamentally to a lack of ideals or to 
inefficiency in the management of in- 
stitutions. Superintendents and man- 
agers alike usually recognize the defi- 
ciencies of the present system, and would 
gladly improve conditions were adequate 
funds available, uniform standards pre- 
scribed, and state-wide support given to 
them in their endeavors. The honor of 
the state requires that the present legis- 
lature provide these essential instru- 
ments to secure humanity and efficienev 
of treatment 



ALTHOUGH many states, under 
the influence of waves of popu- 
lar interest, have done for 
their insane in a year what it 
would have taken ten years to accom- 
plish at the usual rate of progress, it 
has remained for South Carolina, dur- 
ing a single session of the General As- 
sembly lasting only forty days, to take 
steps which will transform the care of 
the insane from the standards of 1860 
to those of the present time. 

Intermediate steps which have been 
taken painfully, one at a time, in other 
states during the last fifty years, are to 
be omitted altogether in the work which 
South Carolina has authorized, and the 
transition will be made so quickly and 
so completely that patients who entered 
an obsolete asylum a few months ago, 
may, within the same walls, receive 
treatment in a modern state hospital for 
the insane before the end of the pres- 
ent year. 

As a result of several causes which 
are not important in this connection and 
which are not in any way peculiar to 
South Carolina, progress in that state 
did not include the public institution in 
which the insane are cared for. Al- 
though the care of the insane in the state 
remained stationary, the citizens of 
South Carolina, however, shared fully 
in the general enlightenment which has 
advanced the care of the sick and, in 
1909, the General Assembly was in- 
duced to pass an act providing for a 
committee to investigate the past and 
present affairs of the state hospital at 
Columbia and to make such recommenda- 
tions for the welfare of the patients as 
their findings justified. 

The report of this committee, which 
was published in 1910, shows that its 
members undertook their task with zeal 
and intelligence. They made a study of 
the administration and the financial af- 
fairs of the hospital ; they examined 
carefully its physical features and, as 
far as they were able to do so without ex- 
pert guidance, they observed the person- 
al care and treatment which the pa- 
tients received. They visited hospitals 
for the insane in North Carolina, New 
York, Maryland, and Ohio, and thus se- 
cured a background against which ob- 
servations made in their own state stood 

i n 

Zj.O Days 

The advance made by Gov- 
ernor Maiming and the 
Legislature of South 

Thomas W. Salmon, M.D. 

Mpdical Director National 
Committee fok Mental Hygiene 



<? nil MM 


MM \f J 


" ■ 

- %, 

. . m 



Photographs from the report in 
1910 of the legislative committee ap- 
pointed to investigate the South Caro- 
lina State Hospital for the Insane. 
Conditions remained as bad or worse 
until 1915. 

Center : Method of treating vio- 
lent patient. The locked door was 
opened and a flashlight taken of the 
room just as it was found — the pa- 
tient with torn clothing, a heap of 
straw to sleep on, a tin dish to eat 
from. Other patients were found in 
this ward in as bad or worse condi- 

Left, above, old-style furnace which 
asphyxiated two women in 1909. 

At right, toilet and bath used by 
129 patients. 

out in bold relief. 

The report of this committee revealed 
conditions which are almost beyond be- 
lief. A few of the illustrations included 
in the report are reproduced here. Old, 
dilapidated, insanitary buildings were 
found, into which the patients were 
crowded without regard to proper classi- 
fication, air space, floor space, or condi- 
tions of safety or comfort. The com- 
mittee summarized its findings by the 
statement that the institution was unfit 
to be used even as a place of detention. 

The recommendations of this commit- 
tee included the expenditure of an in- 
creased amount for maintenance, the 
sale of the present hospital and site, and 
the erection of two other buildings, the 
issuance of bonds to provide the funds 
required for these new hospitals, and 
certain changes in the system of admin- 
istration and care. They were published 
in the newspapers, and in the annual re- 
port of the institution to the General 
Assembly. The superintendent urged, as 
he had done long before the creation of 
this committee, that the appalling condi- 
tions be remedied ; but in the turmoil of 
party strife his recommendations were 
unheeded. One of the last acts of Gov- 
ernor Blease was to remove him from 

Thus, as far as any practical results of 
this committee's report were concerned, 
the matter rested just about where the 
committee had left it until, Governor 
Richard I. Manning took office on Janu- 
ary 19, 1915. 

Even before Governor Manning was 
inaugurated, he planned the most ef- 
fective means for dealing with a situa- 
tion which deeply involved the hon- 
or of his state. He realized that an ac- 
curate diagnosis must precede treat- 
ment, and that both diagnosis and treat- 
ment were the work of an expert. 
Through the National Committee for 
Mental Hygiene, which had been follow- 
ing the situation in the hope of being of 
service, it was possible to secure the 
services of Dr. Arthur P. Herring, sec- 
retary of the Maryland State Lunacy- 
Commission to make a careful study of 
the situation. Dr. Herring not only pos- 
sesses a sound knowledge of psychiatry 
and of the administration of institutions 
for the insane, but. in taking the insane of 



The Survey, April 3, 1915 

Maryland out of the county asylums and 
almshouses and providing for them in 
state hospitals, he had acquired just the 
kind of experience and resourcefulness 
demanded for the task of finding a prac- 
tical way out in South Carolina. 

On the day that Governor Manning 
took office, Dr. Herring commenced work 
and within a month his report had been 
transmitted to the General Assembly in 
a special message. It is impossible to 
give here a detailed account of Dr. 
Herring's findings; but in order to make 
clear the heroic task which the state has 
assumed in its determination to provide 
modern hospital treatment for its insane, 
it seems worth while to summarize them. 

Some of the fundamental requirements 
which must be provided for the care of 
any sick persons, whether they are in 

cians to look after nearly 1,700 patients 
in addition to other onerous clinical 
duties, only two of whom devote all their 
time to the work, is not only a physical 
impossibility, but is evidently so unjust 
and absurd, both to the patients and to 
the physicians, that it needs no argu- 
ment. ... A pathologist and a 
dentist spend a part of each day at the 

4. The receiving wards for the white 
men and the white women are not 
equipped for the proper examination and 
treatment of the patients. 

5. There can be no satisfactory classi- 
fication of the patients under present 
conditions [of] overcrowding and lack 
of attendants. 

6. The system of clinical records is 
not uniform, some departments using a 
book, while others use a history sheet. 
A great deal of the clerical work must 

k | m w\ 


^^^^ * 

■■■■■■■-■" ■■, 


* • AlL F*j 



I 1 

■'■- '■"■ 




Reading from left to right: Camisole, mits and wristcrs, wristers, muffs and 
wristers. The legislative committee of 1910 found over a hundred men and women 
(or 7 per cent) regularly in restraint of this kind. Modern hospitals use less 
than 1 per cent of such restrictions. 

an institution for the insane or in one 
for any other purpose, are : safe and 
sanitary housing, good food and suffi- 
cient attendance to insure the perform- 
ance of the ordinary services which the 
disability of the sick makes them un- 
able to perform for themselves. 

Not even these requirements were met 
by the facilities of the Columbia insti- 
tution. The buildings were veritable 
fire-traps, the danger from which was 
immeasurably increased by the use of 
over eighty separate stoves and fur- 
nices. Toilet and bathing facilities 
were inadequate; the food was poor and 
wastefully served; the attendants were 
insufficiently trained, and too few in 

The lack of provision for special care 
is reported by Dr. Herring as follows, 
the figures referring to his table of 
standards [page 12] : 

2. ... To expect four physi- 

l>e done by the doctors. 

7. A laboratory has been recently 
established in the main building where 
a limited amount of satisfactory work 
can be performed. There is, however, 
sufficient work in a hospital of this size 
to require the services of an experi- 
enced pathologist. 

8. There is no provision for any form 
of special treatment. 

9. There is a dentist in regular at- 
tendance, but no regular visiting consult- 
ing staff. A small operating room, 
equipped in the hospital ward of the 
women's department, is neat, clean and 
apparently satisfactory for present needs. 

10. The superintendent of nurses is 
a graduate nurse and well-equipped for 
her duties of general nursing. Un- 
fortunately she has had no previous ex- 
perience in a hospital for the insane. 
The male nurses are not required to 
take the training nor do they wear any 
distinctive uniform. 

12, 13. The most distressing phase 
of life in this institution is the utter 

lack of work and play for the patients, 
under supervision of a teacher. Week- 
ly dances are given in winter and moving 
picture shows during the summer. 
Diversional occupation is unknown. 

14. During the past year, 224 patients 
were discharged as improved, 109 as 
unimproved, while 560 died. There is 
no after-care or placing-out system. 

15, 16. There is no special provision 
for tuberculous or pellagrous insane. 

The report of Dr. Herring differs 
from that of the legislative committee 
of 1909 chiefly in that fact that his ob- 
servations are those of a trained ob- 
server who is fully familiar with all 
phases of the care of the insane and 
can compare the conditions observed 
directly with those which he knows are 
required. His report was termed a "dis- 
passionate review" by the Columbia 
State, but it carried such conviction with 
it that, under the leadership of Governor 
Manning, the General Assembly adopted 
the broad constructive recommendations 
of Dr. Herring for administrative re- 
form and, without a dissenting vote, au- 
thorized the sum required ($600,000) 
to reconstruct the buildings of the in- 
stitutions in accordance with the plans 
presented by Dr. Herring. These recom- 
mendations provide for a method of ap- 
pointment of the superintendent and in- 
ternal administration of the hospital, 
which will safeguard them against politi- 
cal influence; a commitment law which 
will open the doors of the hospital for 
those who need treatment, and know 
that they need it, without the necessity 
of court procedures ; a separate institu- 
tion for the Negro insane, the mentally 
defective, the tuberculous, and the pellag- 
rous; the reconstruction of the build- 
ings of Columbia and the provision of 
a reception hospital on the grounds of 
the existing institution, where recently 
admitted patients can be treated in ac- 
cordance with the best methods known. 

The General Assembly is committed 
to the support of this kind of an insti- 
tution. This means more physicians, a 
training school for nurses, better at- 
tendants, better equipment, and a higher 
maintenance cost ; but South Carolina 
will cheerfully pay the price. 

It was Dr. Herring's privilege to 
bring the care of the insane in 1860 
and the care of the insane in 1915 face 
to face before a legislature intelligent 
enough to see the contrast and big- 
hearted enough to provide that those 
sons and daughters of their state who 
may, in the future, suffer the dreadful 
misfortune of mental disease, shall not 
have added the misery and despair of 
the madhouse. 

Governor and legislature can do in 
any state what Governor Manning and 
the members of the General Assembly 
have done in South Carolina, if they 
have just one effective tool to use — a 
clear, impartial inquiry into the actual 
living facts made by a man who really 

Some Social Problems of Public 

Outdoor Relief 

By Gertrude Vaile 

RELIEF of the poor, originally a 
function of the church, is now 
almost everywhere in larger or 
smaller measure a function of 

In the United States this is a county 
function, administered through the coun- 
ty commissioners, except as the state 
has taken over certain phases of the 
problem through state institutions. 

In some large cities, where private 
charities are strong and well-organized, 
the public outdoor relief — that is, re- 
lief outside of institution doors in the 
homes of the people — has been abolished. 
In most cities, relief given by the coun- 
ty is carried on side by side with much 
privately administered relief. But in the 
outlying districts, the county commis- 
sioners are the chief and practically only 
source of poor relief. 

The principle upon which relief is giv- 
en from public funds is probably pri- 
marily the duty of government to pre- 
serve life and order. It must be pro- 
vided that no one shall die or be driven 
to violence for lack of the necessities 
of life. But another reason of broader 
humanity and justice also comes in — 
the thought that serious preventable suf- 
fering must not be permitted and that 
the burden of relieving it should not 
rest upon the shoulders of a generous 
few, but be equally distributed upon the 
whole community. 

And more recent thought adds yet an- 
other consideration of social justice: 
that when so many of the causes of 
poverty are social rather than individual, 
organized society as a whole should bear 
the cost. There would thus seem to be 
ample and satisfying reasons why pov- 
erty should be relieved from public 

But the question arises, how does it 
actually work? What results are fin- 
ally attained by public relief in the 
homes of the poor? The experience 
of England under the old poor law 
prior to 1834, stands as a warning to all 
time. It was a recognized principle 
that when a person could not earn 
enough to support his family he should 
be helped to further necessities from 
the public fund. Employers thereupon 
proceeded to pay their workmen a pit- 
tance and let taxation do the rest. Chari- 
table relief became a recognized part 
of the industrial system, and the de- 
moralization of labor was complete — 
the laborer turned to charity without 


On the other hand, the poor rates 
rose until they almost devoured the prop- 
erty of the land owners. 

In the United States that experience 
of England has been somewhat taken 
to heart and little public relief has been 
given to the families of able-bodied men. 
Yet, except under the most harsh and 
repressive administration, public relief 
tends ever to increase. The recipient 
tends to become more and more depend- 
ent upon it and insolent in his demands. 
As has been well said, "With easy aid, 
you can have just as many paupers as 
you choose to pay for." 

The founders of the charity organiza- 
tion movement, about 1878, were deep- 
ly impressed with the feeling expressed 
by the Scottish clergyman, Thomas 
Chalmers, that all material relief was 
an evil, and public relief an unmiti- 
gated evil. Certain it is, that any large 
fund set aside for relief swiftly and in- 
evitably draws applicants for its benefits, 
every well-advertised campaign for 
funds for any private relief society 
draws in its train a heavily increased 
demand upon that fund. 

And if this is true with a known pri- 
vate fund, it is far more true of a pub- 
lic fund. The public fund is to the popu- 
lar imagination inexhaustible. More- 
over, since this fund is set aside from 
taxation for the aid of citizens in dis- 
tress, every citizen may turn to it in 
time of need as to a right. Now it 
may be his right. But it is certainly 
the destruction of his foresight and his 
independence when he assumes that it 
is his right and is waiting ready for him 
at every crisis. 

The effect also upon the friends and 
relatives of the needy person and upon 
the whole community may be equally 

There is in every community a large 
and unmeasurable "invisible relief fund," 
as it has been called, provided by the 
friends and relatives of the unfortunate. 
Do we not all of us, when through fol- 
ly or necessity we exceed our incomes, 
turn first to our own family and friends? 
But if a brother can say to his brother 
in distress, "Behold, I have already paid 
taxes to meet just such needs as yours ; 
go now and claim your portion of it," 
then even as the public fund increases, 
does that invisible fund tend to dimin- 
ish, and with it that saving sense of 
mutual responsibility. And so we may 
have the strange experience that the ne- 
cessities of the poor actually increase 

even as the apparent funds for their re- 
lief increase. It is also true that relief 
thus received from artificial sources is 
more demoralizing to the recipient than 
the same amount of relief from the 
natural sources of kinship and common 

A consideration of these facts has for 
a number of years made thoughtful 
friends of the poor deeply distrust public 
outdoor relief, and believe that even 
when conscientiously administered it 
tends to increase the evil it seeks to alle- 
viate. Accordingly, a considerable num- 
ber of cities have abolished public out- 
door relief altogether — Brooklyn, New 
York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, San 
Francisco, Washington, and others. 

This movement is still going on. But 
side by side with it has sprung up sud- 
denly another movement to the opposite 
extreme, demanding larger and larger 
public relief for more and more people. 
It is claimed, and justly, I believe, that 
private philanthropy has proved unequal 
to the burden. But the spirit that ani- 
mates the demand is not simply that. It 
is a change in the whole attitude toward 
the functions and duties of government. 

It is increasingly felt that the welfare 
of the individual is the concern of gov- 
ernment. Demand is made upon the gov- 
ernment, not only to create right general 
conditions within which it may be hoped 
that all people can prosper, but to deal 
specifically with those individuals who 
are unable to adjust themselves. We see 
this idea strongly developing in the 
movements for probation, for special 
education, for various kinds of medical 
care. The conviction earlier mentioned 
is gaining ground that the causes of 
poverty are so largely social that or- 
ganized society as a whole must grapple 
with the problem and must pay the price 
for the care of those individuals now 

And so we find group after group 
being added with startling rapidity to 
those already dependent upon public 
funds. We hear of old-age pensions, 
mothers' pensions, pensions for the 
blind, free lunches for school children, 
special allowances to withdraw working 
mothers from industry before child-birth 
— and I know not what other special 
benefits. One stands almost aghast be- 
fore those demands, especially in view of 
the history of public outdoor relief al- 
ready cited. 

Must one then join the ranks of the 
reactionaries and try to stem the tide? 



The Survey, April 3, 1915 

In the first place, I am convinced that 
that can not be done, that something has 
started that can not be stopped, though 
it may perhaps be directed. 

But in the second place, I am myself 
convinced that something new has really 
come which modifies past experience and 
gives ground for new hope that these 
things can be done with good and not 
evil, effect. That new thing is the spirit 
and the method of personal social ser- 
vice which seeks to deal helpfully and 
constructively, case by case, with the 
needy individual. 

Under the old method of public poor 
relief — and unfortunately, still the al- 
most universal method of county com- 
missioners — there was merely a dole of 
material relief, coal or groceries or rent, 
when the family seemed sufficiently 
destitute. There was no attempt made 
to seek out the cause of the trouble and 
change it — no effort to see that the per- 
son had medical aid, or more suitable 
employment, or personal instruction, or 
legal help to escape a loan shark, or dis- 
cipline, or whatever the case required. 
There might be an attempt to compel 
legally responsible relatives to assume 
their obligation of support, but there was 
no attempt to secure the sympathetic help 
and counsel of friend or church or rela- 
tive. In short, there was no attempt to 
understand the individual and lift him 
out of his condition. 

That sort of personal service to the 
poor is the special contribution that 
has been made by charity organiza- 
tion societies. Many people feel that 
such individual treatment can not 
be hoped for in relief work under public 
administration. It is, however, now 
being given and the necessity for it rec- 
ognized in other departments of public 
administration that deal with people out 
of proper adjustment — by probation 
officers, by school attendance officers, by 
health department nurses. Is it not 
equally possible in relief work? 

The burden of this paper is that only 
in constructive, individual, case-by-case 
treatment lie the hope and safety of pub- 
lic outdoor relief. Public relief we have, 
and are going to have for a long time to 
come, and with wondrous and dangerous 
and expensive ramifications. Unless 
there is careful effort with each in- 
dividual to change his condition, it be- 
comes a mere blindly administered 
opiate, to which its users become ad- 
dicted and their last estate is worse than 
the first, while the taxpayers pay the bill. 
With personal service to each individual 
case, wonderful and far-reaching possi- 
bilities of good open before us. 

Let me give one example of what I 
mean by individual case work. A family 
was reported to a charitable society as 
destitute — frail mother, four very small 
children, father out of work and gen- 
erally worthless. A visit found the 
family in a wretched dark, rear basement 
tenement, cold and hungry, everything 

about as bad as possible, all accounts of 
the man about as bad as possible. He 
wouldn't work when he could; he abused 
and neglected his family. He had already 
been brought into court for non-support, 
but it seemed to have done no good. 

Now the man had two brothers. The 
wife said it was no use to see them, for 
they were poor themselves and already 
worn out and disgusted, and unwilling to 
do anything more. But the visitor went 
to see them, and found them as described. 
They had helped all they could, they had 
labored over their brother and found him 
jobs, but they had come to the end of 
their resources, and they could not, they 
would not do anything more. 

But through the discussion, the visitor, 
eager for some clew to explain and help 
the situation, caught the note of exas- 
perated, humiliated perplexity. They 
could not understand how their brother 
could behave so. He did not use to act 
that way. This raised the question how 
he used to act, and when and why he 
seemed to change. A visit to the church 
of which he was a member brought the 
same idea. They had labored with him 
until they had lost all patience. But he 
seemed a decent man when they first 
knew him. 

And so, by a persevering investigation 
that sought to understand the trouble, 
the visitor became convinced that some- 
thing had happened to that man and 
perhaps he was not quite himself. Next 
the services of an alienist were secured. 
But then to get the man to the doctor. 
He never could be found. He refused to 
meet appointments. Finally, one morn- 
ing the visitor got to his house before he 
could finish breakfast, and somehow with 
the help of the wife persuaded him that 
he needed to see a doctor, and stayed 
cheerfully by until she got him there. 
The doctor pronounced him insane and 
persuaded him to go as a voluntary pa- 
tient to the State Insane Asylum. 

Then the whole atmosphere changed. 
The visitor returned to tell the brothers, 
who became all sympathy. She went 
with the man to arrange about the legal 
papers. The church friend was seen and 
agreed to take the journey with the man 
to see him safely into the asylum. Then 
the brothers and the society conferred 
about the family, seeking plans for liv- 
ing, for work, for care of the children. 
The eager efforts of one of the brothers 
were first successful. He found a well- 
located place where the wife could earn 
an excellent heated apartment by doing 
the janitress work. The society was able 
to give her some other opportunities for 
incidental work, and the brothers pro- 
vided the rest. 

Now the material relief given by the 
society in this case was almost neg- 
ligible, perhaps one-half a ton of coal 
and a couple of grocery orders. I do not 
remember exactly ; probably $6 would 
cover it. The cost of the service must 
have been at least three times as much 

But $6 would have fed and warmed their 
bodies for a few days and then left them 
as cold and hungry as before, the situa- 
tion growing daily more desperate, the 
continued need of coal and groceries 
daily greater. The $18 worth of service 
made them independent of further 
charity, gave to a man still young, and 
with a very young family, the chance for 
mental and physical and moral regenera- 
tion, restored broken family ties, and 
surrounded those helpless, distracted 
people with all the resourcefulness and 
affection and financial ability of their 
entire natural connection. 

It is only work of that sort and spirit 
that can safeguard a public relief fund, 
and save from worse demoralization the 
people who must appeal for relief. I 
believe that this is peculiarly true of 
those newly developing forms of relief 
like the mothers' pensions, which deliber 
ately aim to remove the stigma of depen- 
dency from the recipients. 

A year's experience in administration 
of mothers' pensions has seemed to me to 
show two things: first, that great num- 
bers of people who would not apply for 
ordinary relief and never should apply 
for relief at all, do apply for the pension , 
second, that the very fact that it is 
easier to apply for the pension than for 
other relief and seems more dignified 
to do so does bring applications from 
mothers who should have been receiving 
help but who are still bravely struggling 
to perform the unnatural and impossible 
task of being both father and mother, 
but at a cost to themselves and their 
ehildren heavier than the state can safe- 
ly permit. 

It seems to me that the existence of a 
special public fund recognizing just that 
type of need does make possible a far 
reaching preventive protective work that 
can only so be done. Therefore, I be- 
lieve in public pensions for destitute 
widowed mothers. But it will take very 
careful case-by-case work both to meet 
the excessive demand upon such fund 
and to see that the money when ex- 
pended is really effective in giving to the 
ehildren such home and care as the 
state should properly maintain. 

A warning is now being persistently 
sounded through the country that these 
extensions of the relief functions of gov- 
ernment will only serve to delay efforts 
to remove the need for relief — such as 
insurance measures and health and in- 
dustrial-accidents legislation. True, it 
there is merely a pouring out of relief 
to quiet the pain of need. But again 1 
say that good case-work is the only sal- 
vation — case-work that can give a broad 
knowledge of facts and a possibility of 
true interpretation. 

At a national conference of charities 
in 1910, Sherman C. Kingslev read i 
paper on "Industrial Accidents and Who 
Bears the Cost." It was a statement of 
tacts drawn from the records of certain 
charity organization societies it seemed 

Some Social Problems of Public Outdoor Relief 


to me that every person who heard those 
figures of family after family broken 
and cast upon charity must henceforth 
be bound to work for legislation to pre- 
vent such accidents and to place back 
upon the industry the cost. 

If the cost of pensioning widowed 
mothers stands clearly out, with the facts 
accurately known and thoughtfully in- 
terpreted, it reasonably ought to lead 
taxpayers to that same exclamation with 
which Mrs. Florence Kelley electrified a 
conference considering widows' needs — 
"But why have widows?" 

Why, indeed, spend thousands in relief 
if the causes of the need are carefully 
analyzed and shown to be preventable? 
The day of the budget exhibit is at hand ! 
A relief office, public or private, is the 
great social laboratory into which come 
for study all the ills of the present social 
system. If the work can be well enough 
done, the facts carefully enough gathered 
and interpreted, public responsibility for 
the work and the cost ought to be a 
powerful force, not to delay but to 
hasten needed community action. 

But this sort of constructive case-by- 
case work, which I have set forth as the 
only means of saving the good and 
averting the evil of public relief, is an 
almost new adventure in public poor 
relief. The officials are not yet equipped 
to do it. It seems an expensive method. 
There are still many people who would 
cry out regarding such cases as the one 
cited, "It took $3 to give $1 away !" — for- 
getting that the $3 service was the real 

charity that saved the situation and the 
$1 groceries were an incidental expense 
along the way. 

If such work is to be done at all by the 
public office it can be done only as the 
generous public-spirited citizens make it 
possible, by holding up the ideal, by mak- 
ing an effective demand for such work, 
and by giving personal service to further 
it. No relief agency that undertakes to 
vanquish the ills that beset any family 
can accomplish much if it attempts like 
Mowgli to "hunt in the jungle alone." 
The difficulties are too many, the paths 
too intricate. 

Least of all is any public department 
as yet prepared to care single-handed for 
any family in distress. It needs the help 
of benevolent individuals to do friendly 
visiting and endless errands of mercy, to 
serve on advisory committees. It needs 
the help of benevolent organizations to 
give all manner of specialized service, 
nursing the sick, caring for children, in- 
structing ignorant mothers, advising on 
troublous legal matters. It needs help at 
innumerable points where its own 
means of service is lacking, in money, 
institutions, workers, and wisdom. And 
it is only by such co-operation of the best 
people that the work of any public relief 
office can be kept steady and permanent ; 
else it may be thrown off into space by 
the next turn of the political wheel. 

The social problems of a public out- 
door relief department are only the pro- 
blems of any agency that has to deal 
with needy persons — thorough investiga- 

tion that seeks to discover the real needs 
and resources, co-operation with all 
helpful forces, individual or organized, 
and patient, persistent, thoughtful treat 

When these same problems come 
under public administration, they become 
more intense and difficult, and the conse- 
quences of failure more disastrous and 
far-reaching. I believe, however, that 
they must and can be met. 

In closing, let me reiterate my thesis — 
that all public outdoor relief is dan- 
gerous, and peculiarly those new forms 
which make application easy and seek to 
remove all stigma of dependency; that, 
nevertheless, public outdoor relief we 
have and will long continue to have ; that 
public outdoor relief is necessary and a 
matter of social justice, and that through 
its various forms there may be the finest 
and most wide-spread prevention of 
wrong and suffering; that further- 
more the dangers can be averted 
and the good secured only by the 
most thorough and constructive deal- 
ing with case by case; that even so 
it can only be kept within bounds as the 
results of such work are carefully 
studied and made a basis of effort to 
change the social and industrial con- 
ditions which contributed to the need ; 
and, finally, that all this can be accom- 
plished only as the best thought and 
efforts of public spirited individuals and 
social agencies are brought to bear on 
the problem together to make the work 
sane and effective and lasting. 


Esther Morton Smith 

WE scarce dare think, we scarce know what to pray, 
The horror of this blood-lust in the world 
Sickens the heart, as day still follows day 
And war's fierce lightning's ruthlessly are hurled. 

The heritage come down to us of old, 
Tested by suffering and stress and years, 

The faith our fathers gave us — will it hold 
Before this agony of blood and tears? 

Is he omnipotent, the God of Peace, 
Yet suffers carnage that appals the soul, 

Speaks not the word, bids not the slaughter cease, 
While tens of thousands pay the daily toll? 

Brothers, of all the nations of the earth, 
And brothers, still, though only met to slay, 

Have we upheld the land that gave us birth, 
And bid her seek the high and God-like way ; 

Quickened her righteousness and love of truth 
Striven in her strife for kingly self-control, 

Helped her to guide the glory of her youth, 
Out of the sins that blast a nation's soul? 

Still stand the old commandments of the Lord, 
"Thou shalt not covet," and "Thou shalt not kill," 

Yet all too swiftly, turn we to the sword, 
And all too fiercely covet, where we will. 

Father and God, of nations and of men, 

Against thy laws we've sinned and madly striven; 
Through blood and battle, bring us back again, 

Back to the old commandments thou hast given. 


\VTAR has riven the great working class 
** party in Germany. How its members 
have responded to the appeal of the father- 
land on the one hand, and to internationalism 
and peace on the other, is personified in the 
stand taken by two Socialist leaders, fellow- 
members of the Reichstag, 


rmviG FRANK 

1^"ARL Liebknecht, whose solitary "No," last Decem- 
■*■ "■ ber, rang round the world; an appreciation by William 
English Walling, author of The Larger Aspects of Socialism, 
Progressivism and After, etc. In March he again raised his 
voice in protest, and the Copenhagen c Polilik.en asserts he has 
been placed under military surveillance. He is not to write or 
attend public meetings, excepting the Reichstag and Landtag. 

f UDWIG Frank, who died at the front ; an appreciation 
*— 4 by Gerhart von Schulze-Gaevernitz, professor of eco- 
nomics, University of Freiburg, member of the Reichstag 
from Freiburg, who himself went to the front as a volunteer, 
translated from the Frankfurter Zeitung, by Edward A. Rume- 
ly of the Interlaken School, La Porte, Ind. 


KARL Liebknecht gained the at- 
tention of the whole civilized 
world by his courageous "No" 
in the Reichstag on December 
2, when the Kaiser for a second time de- 
manded popular support in financing the 

Liebknecht was not all together alone. 
as is sometimes supposed. With the tacit 
consent of the majority of the 112 social- 
ist members, fourteen other Socialists 
were intentionally absent from the ses- 
sion. How many were in complete 
agreement with Liebknecht as to tin- 
war, cannot be stated ; for the most 
courageous part of Liebknecht's action 
was not his opposition to the govern- 
ment but his violation of socialist party 
discipline, an act in which the other 
fourteen were unwilling to follow him. 
Nor must Liebknecht be taken as 
an innovator in the socialist party. On 
the contrary, he represents the tradi- 
tional internationalism and revolution- 
ary anti-militarism which dominated it 
for fifty years and began to break up 
only one year before the present war. 
11 is principles and policies are identical 
with those of his famous father, Wil- 
helm Liebknecht, who as long as he lived 
shared with Rebel the political leader- 
ship of the party. So when the socialist 
Reichstag group condemned him for his 


Karl Liebknecht 

By William English Walling 

action on December 2, he defended him- 
self as follows : 

"I voted against the war credits be- 
cause according to my conviction they 
were sharply opposed not only to the 
interest of the proletariat, but to the 
program of the party and the resolutions 
of the international socialist congresses, 
and because the socialist Reichstag 
group has no right to demand a viola- 
tion of the program and of party resolu- 

In passing, it must be noted that ap- 
proximately one-third of the executive 
committee of the Reichstag group re- 
fused to vote in favor of the resolution 
condemning Liebknecht for his violation 
of party discipline. The fact that such 
a violation is not altogether unheard 
of in the party, indicates that approxim- 
ately one-third is ready to go to very 
great lengths to support Liebknecht. 

In trying to suppress Liebknecht, the 
socialist party machine will doubtless 
meet the same difficulties as has the 
Cierman srovernment. which has been 

persecuting him for years. Liebknecht 
is a conservative radical ; a brilliant, but 
extremely systematic and cautious law- 
yer, with a large practice among the 
people, and the highest reputation with 
friends and enemies alike. The govern- 
ment has persecuted him because he has 
been the most formidable leader and or- 
ganizer of the anti-militarist movement : 
but it has only been able to imprison 
him once, and then only by the most ex- 
traordinary stretching even of the ex- 
tremely severe German law. 

Liebknecht's position must be present- 
ed systematically, to be understood in its 
full importance. 

First of all, he is simply carrying on 
the work of his father, and of the social- 
ist party of a few years ago which was 
entirely of his father's opinion. Wil- 
helm Liebknecht was an internationalist 
opposed to all compromise. Me was not 
a labor unionist like Rebel, interested 
primarily in labor legislation and with 
views circumscribed in very large meas- 
ure by the horizon of his own country 
In the war of 1870. for example. Lieb- 
knecht wished, like bis son today, to 
vote against the war loan, but because 
of Rebel's objections, they finally de- 
cided to abstain from voting at all. 

Ever since his early youth Liebknecht 
has "specialized" on anti-militarism. Tie 

Thf Si i:\tv. April ::. Iftll 

Two Germans 


has made a study of militarism and the 
means to combat it, and he has become 
a master of the practical methods nec- 
essary for such work in semi-absolute 
Germany and absolute Prussia. His an- 
ti-militarism has been carried on largely 
through the organization of German 
youth for the purposes of general cul- 
ture. Anti-militarism could not be 
directly taught; but it was soon dis- 
covered that all teaching on a higher 
plane led naturally in that direction, and 
the socialist leaders of these educational 
organizations did not neglect their op- 
portunities. They are accordingly the 
subject of ceaseless, petty persecutions 
by the government, often of the most 
incredibly outrageous character. 

Having led in this difficult and dan- 
gerous work for twenty years, Karl 
Liebknecht is the ideal of the majority 
of the younger German Socialists. If a 
vote were taken there would be little 
question that he would get at least half 
of the suffrages of socialists under mid- 
dle age, though it is possible that his 
brilliant opponent, Frank, who was killed 
while a volunteer in the present war, 
might have divided the vote evenly with 

IEBKNECHT first came before the 
world at the time of his prosecu- 
tion for the publication of his pamphlet, 
Anti-Militarismas. It need not be said 
that Liebknecht by no means endorses the 
insurrectionary militarism of Gustave 
Herve. He believes the general strike 
at the beginning of a war to be al- 
together the most costly and least prom- 
ising method of fighting militarism. 
There was nothing seditious in the 
pamphlet. But Liebknecht went just as 
far as the German law allows. He was 
logical, vigorous, and bitter. There can 
be no question that the real reason why 
he was forced to spend a year as a 
political prisoner was not because of any 
real or technical violation of the law, 
but because of the successful manner in 
which he had exposed the bloodthirsty 
intentions of the ruling classes to use 
the army to repress any republican or 
democratic movement. He quoted from 
the memoirs of some German of high 
position, a conversation between Bis- 
marck and the present Kaiser, approxim- 
ately as follows: The Kaiser had said 
that he intended to make no momentary 
concessions to democracy as his grand- 
father had made in 1848. Bismarck an- 
swered that if he did make any such 
concessions, it would be necessary to 
wade up to his knees in blood to put 
the popular movement down again. 
These are the opening sentences of the 
Liebknecht pamphlet. 

The reader will want to know why 
the younger Liebknecht has "special- 
ized" in anti-militarism. Is it because 
the world is his country and he is more 
interested in all nations than in any one? 
Undoubtedly Liebknecht is a genuine 
and ardent internationalist, but it may 

be questioned if this is the bottom of his 
thought. In fighting against militarism, 
Liebknecht is also fighting in the most 
effective way monarchy, nobility, bu- 
reaucracy, clericalism, landlordism — in 
a word, the whole social system of Ger- 

Even in his method of fighting war, 
Liebknecht is but applying one of the 
traditional principles of the German So- 
cialists. In the party press and party 
congresses it has been stated on count- 
less occasions that the struggle of the 
German people against the highly ef- 
ficient and agressive despotism that op- 
presses them is hopeless unless help is 
secured from without. It has been free- 
ly stated publicly, and still more fre- 
quently in private, that the best hope lay 
in the probability that as socialism grew 
more and more powerful, the govern- 
ment would become desperate and would 
hurl Germany into war, which — pro- 
vided the government were not victori- 
ous — would result in revolution. 

This threat was made by Bebel at the 
International Socialist Congress of 
Stuttgart, in 1907, and was unanimously 
adopted as the position of the whole of 
the international movement at the special 
International Congress held at Basel in 
1912, to prevent the spread of the Balkan 
war into a general European conflagra- 

I shall indicate only the leading points 
of Liebknecht's celebrated declaration 
on December 2. He declared that Ger- 
many for many years has been "the ac- 
complice of Czarism and the model of 
political backwardness" ; that the war 
was in no sense a war of defense, but 
was "mutually fostered by German and 
Austrian war parties in the darkness of 
semi-absolutism and secret diplomacy in 
order to steal a march on the adversary." 

It might appear, then, that Liebknecht 
takes the position of the Socialists of 
France and Belgium — that this is a war 
against German militarism. But this is 
not the case, for he specifically repudi- 
ates that view in his declaration and at- 
tributes the war on both sides to the de- 
sire of capitalists of all great nations 
for new markets and fields of invest- 
ment. Moreover Liebknecht favors im- 
mediate peace, which would undoubted- 
ly mean a return to the status quo that 
existed before the war, another point on 
which the Socialists of France and Bel- 
gium would refuse to agree with him. 

' I K what then is due the extraordinary 
importance of the Liebknecht posi- 
tion? It is due, not to his conclusions, 
which are forced upon him by circum- 
stances in which even the revolutionary 
Socialists of Germany find themselves, 
but to the extremely radical character of 
his opposition to his government. He is 
for immediate pesce, but he is ready to 
aid in the process of forcing the Ger- 
man government to make that peace. 
This can only mean that he is fully 
prepared that his government should re- 

ceive a moral defeat — though, of course, 
he does not want it to be so overwhel- 
ming as seriously to injure the German 

It is also beyond question that he 
shares a view, privately expressed by 
many German Socialists that it is de- 
sirable from the standpoint of the Ger- 
man people, that Germany should win 
against Russia, but lose against Eng- 
land and France. German leaders even 
better known that Liebknecht have ex- 
pressed this hope, and I am able to guar- 
antee the truth of this report on the 
most absolute authority — though, natur- 
ally, I am unable to mention the names 
or to say definitely whether this is also 
Liebknecht's view. 

LIEBKNECHT'S tremendous "No" 
in the Reichstag has gained the 
most currency abroad, but his work in the 
Prussian Landtag has perhaps had even 
more influence in Germany. In the ses- 
sion of October 22, 1914, he was able to 
carry only half of the 10 members with 
him in his demonstrative protest against 
the government; but in the Landtag 
meeting of February 9, the ten socialist 
members were unanimous in declaring: 
"We know that this war is not desired by 
the people in any of the countries par- 
ticipating in it." And when the conserv- 
ative leader said something about the 
unanimity of the German people, Lieb- 
knecht shouted that he had no right to 
speak in the name of the people, and the 
Landtag almost broke into a riot. 

In the session of the Prussian Land- 
tag on March 2 these scenes continued. 
Liebknecht declared: "Democratic con- 
trol by the people would have prevented 
the war" — and it is well known that the 
Socialists were unanimously opposed to 
the declaration of war to the very end. 
On the following day, Vorwaerts repeat- 
ed the statement of Liebknect, in spite 
of the censor, using his very words : 
"Democratic control by the people would 
have prevented the war." 

This reminds us once more that Vor- 
waerts, the official organ of the party 
and the accurate reflection of the views 
of the majority of the Socialists of 
Greater Berlin, has supported Lieb- 
knecht's position from the very begin- 
ning, and supports it today, in spite of 
the protest of the executive committee 
of the Federation of Labor Unions, 
which is in control of the executive com- 
mittee of the socialist party. Legien, 
the head of the unions, has demanded 
the expulsion of Liebknecht, but has 
secured little support. On the other 
hand, Ledebour, a member of the execu- 
tive committee of the party, has re- 
signed in protest against the nationalis- 
tic stand of that body. The length to 
which the pro-government and pro-war 
faction has gone may be indicated by 
the fact that Scheidemann, who shares 
with Haase the official leadership of the 
party, has declared publicly that such 
people as Liebknecht are doing the work 


The Survey, April 3, 1915 

of spies, and has called them a name, 
"quertreiber," which is not very far in 
its implication from the American ex- 
pression, "crook." 

It may be seen that from such hos- 
tilities that the party is ready for a split. 
In Wurtemberg, the split has already oc- 
curred, the Stuttgart organization, which 
has passed a resolution publicly support- 
ing Liebknecht, being already practically 
separated from the organization of 

Liebknecht's stand not only the 
majority of the Socialists of Berlin, 
Leipzig, and Stuttgart, but also very 
large minorities in other leading cities, 
such as Hamburg, Bremen, and Frank- 
fort. Recent party votes have shown 
the division to be very close in all these 

Highly significant is the fact that the 
German socialist press of America is 
almost unanimous in its support of Lieb- 
knecht against the rest of the German 
party. Most of these papers are week- 
lies. The only daily, the New York 
Volkszeitung has led in the pro-Lieb- 
knecht campaign. The Milwaukee 

AFTER the Battle of Saarburg, 
the French, who seemed at 
first to be retreating, rallied 
in that richly wooded moun- 
tain country known as the French 
Vosges, which stretches out in front 
of the fortresses of Epinal, Nancy, and 

By means of fortified artillery posts, 
the French had here made a defensive 
line of the first order, which rendered 
our advance through Belgium an un- 
avoidable necessity. The Germans ad- 
vanced from Schirmeck and Saarburg 
as far as the valley of the Meurthe. 
They occupied Raon l'Etape and Bac- 
carat, and from there, advancing step 
by step, attempted to cross the highland 
which separates the valleys of the 
Meurthe and Mosel. The French pos- 
sessed strong artillery posts, prepared in 
peace times, on the farther bank of the 
Mosel, and also, at places, on this side 
of the river. From these posts they 
rained shells and shrapnel upon the on- 
coming Germans. Moreover, they had 
the advantage of knowing the district 
through and through. Every foot here 
is being gained with blood. 

From Baccarat a road leads westward 
to the village of Menil, which today is a 
ruin. To the northwest of Menil, large 
forests extend, and along the edge of 
these, behind the valley of the Mosel, 
lies Rossoncourt. It was here, on the 
3rd of September, during an attack upon 
the enemy that Frank breathed his last. 
He received a wound in the head which 
was instantly fatal. 

At considerable personal risk our 
soldiers brought back the body of their 
beloved comrade, and performed the 

Leader, edited by Victor Berger, — the 
majority of whose readers are of Ger- 
man descent — has also taken the Lieb- 
knecht position. In a recent editorial, 
the Leader declared that there were un- 
doubted signs of a coming revolution in 
Germany and other countries : 

"For those who look closely the first 
real signs of revolution are in sight. 
It is not simply that in Austria whole 
cities are reported to be in the hands 
of mobs and that there are wide signs 
of revolt against war in the great Ger- 
man social-democracy. 

"In Germany, all socialist meetings 
in Hamburg have been forbidden. Vor- 
waerts has been gagged, an anti-war 
daily established in Stuttgart, half-a- 
dozen other social-democratic organs 
suppressed, and Saxony is reported to 
be under special 'laws of exception,' by 
which all liberty of expression is 

Nor is this all. for the socialist daily 
of New York, the Call, has also en- 
dorsed the Liebknecht position, as has 


Ludwig Frank 

By Gerhart 
von Schulze-Gaevernitz 

Translated by 
Edward A. R timely 

burial rites under cover of night. The 
grave could not be reached yesterday, 
for at the slightest movement out of the 
woods or out of the trenches just in 
front, the French would pour forth a 
withering fire. An advance at that 
point on our part would have endan- 
gered our colleagues entrenched near 
by. However, I was able to satisfy 
myself that, on the orders of Colonel 
von Griiter, Frank's grave had been 
properly marked. The colonel informed 
me that the grave was still open; and he 
promised that as soon as it was pos- 
sible to get near, he would have the 
pockets of the deceased searched, and 
everything found sent to me. 

I take this opportunity of thanking 
the gallant colonel for the care he has 
taken to preserve for posterity the grave 
of that great man of the people. 

r UDWIG FRANK dead— the thought 
of it is scarcely credible even to- 
day. What was Frank when alive? The 
leader of the German workers from 
being a party of futile protest to a body 
in active participation in the shaping ol 
the history of the Fatherland. 

Frank's whole personality aided him 
in carrying through this great task : a 
genial, penetrating intelligence, a 
strong, purposeful will overcoming all 
obstacles. He had through and through 
the stamp of a great statesman — an ahil- 

also the official weekly organ of the 
American party, the American Socialist. 
This endorsement of Liebknecht is all 
the more remarkable because of his re- 
peated and fearless statements that the 
action of the socialist party in Germany 
had practically destroyed the interna- 
tional socialist movement. The inter- 
national, he says, "lies smashed on the 
ground." He regards the old move- 
ment as being destroyed and demands 
the organization of a new international, 
an international of another kind and 
with a different power from that which 
the capitalist powers shattered with such 
ease in August." 

The importance of the stand taken by 
Liebknecht and the hundreds of thou- 
sands of German Socialists that support 
him and his associates, lies in their 
readiness to enter into an immediate life 
and death struggle with the German 
ruling class, taking full advantage of 
the critical moment. And in this posi- 
tion he has the support of the over- 
whelming majority of the Socialists of 
every country of the world — outside of 
Germanv and Austria. 

ity to follow up thoughts with deeds. 
These thoughts may have been enter- 
tained by others ; his university course 
at Freiburg may have been in part re- 
sponsible for them (I am proud to be 
able to count a Frank as one of my 
earliest pupils) ; but it was he who, with 
a strong hand, drew the guide ropes 
together, and brought order and prog- 
ress from the confused medley of men 
and matters. 

Frank, beloved of the gods, of women, 
and of the aging Bebel, this man with 
the high, intellectual forehead, with the 
unruly, curly hair which so pleased the 
simple workingman, had an ever-ready 
wit. and a biting sarcasm, too, when he 
needed them: and yet he was of infinite 
kindness, and of inexhaustible willing- 
ness to help friends, or, indeed, all who 
needed help in their struggle upwards. 
Among other things, he was the father 
of the new proletarian movement. He 
was reckoned a moderate in politic^ 

His very origin stood him in good 
stead for his lifework. By birth Frank 
was a West German. His native vil- 
lage, Nonnenvvier, is picturesquely sit- 
uated on the ancient banks of the Upper 
Rhine. He was descended from one of 
those old Jewish communities which 
have been scattered here and there 
along the German Rhine since the mid- 
dle ages, and which have lived in per- 
fect peace with their Christian neigh- 
bors, observing to this day the Old Tes- 
tament customs and articles of faith. 

Only he could understand Frank com 
pletely who knew his home surround- 
ings — that home to which he clung with 
ali his soul, his parents who so admired 
"the doctor." to whom with a longing 

Two Germans 


heart he always returned from the great 
outside world. To this native environ- 
ment he owed the steadfastness of his 
principles, and in large measure his 
democratic tendencies, his nearness to 
the soil. There was no trace in his 
make up of the metropolitan skeptic, no 
meticulous refinement, nothing deca- 
dent, no exaggerated aestheticism. 

His spiritual as well as his physical 
person was of massive proportions ; and 
for the prevailing aimlessness and levity 
of Berlin, W., he had nothing but a pity- 
ing shrug of the shoulders. His social- 
ism contained an idealistic, and, in the 
last analysis indeed, almost a religious 

It was that gifted lady, Frau Kultur, 
whom Naumann has so splendidly mem- 
orialized, who gave Frank his first social 
standing, who recognized the spark of 
genius in the little Jewish advocate, who 
inspired him with worthy ambitions, 
brought him into the society of in- 
tellectual people, and made him a man 
of the world. Henceforth Frank moved 
as easily about the halls of the great 
world as he did in proletarian circles — 
in the former places stared at as a curi- 
osity; in the latter, loved and wor- 
shipped by hundreds of thousands. 

Frank was a true son of Baden. On 
the soil of this liberal state he battled 
for its traditions of freedom handed 
down from the earliest times. It was 
there he learned to accept gradual prog- 
ress towards an ultimate goal. His final 
objective was to endow the extreme ten- 
ets of the classical philosophy of Ger- 
many, Marx' socialism among others, 
with reason in place of chance, with 
organization in place of anarchy. 

In working, for these ends he became 
convinced that the labor movement in 
Germany without middle-class liberal- 
ism, no less than without social democ- 
racy, was powerless. Therefore Frank 
and I never tried to convert one an- 
other. Frank welcomed every truly lib- 
eral movement in liberalism no less glad- 
ly than he welcomed every politically 
practical tendency within the ranks of 

His first desire in home politics was 
the reformation of Prussia. The prov- 
inces east of the Elb were to be put upon 
a democratic basis ; they were to be lib- 
eralised in accordance with the inmost 

dictates of his German b^ait, and, in- 
deed, as the great Prussian reformers 
themselves wanted it. 

A most important and urgent need he 
believed to be a popular reform of the 
Prussian suffrage. To attain this, he 
himself recommended the most radical 
means, if they promised success ; such 
as the political strike, carefully pre- 
pared, limited to Prussia, and sudden- 
ly set in motion in different localities. 
But this idea has vanished in the past 
few weeks. It will no longer be pos- 
sible to withhold this most elementary 
of all political rights from the heroes 
returning from the front wounded and 
having gone through unknown hard- 
ships, sacrifice and privation. 

Frank was thoroughly practical in all 
his work for the Empire. He was an 
indispensable member of any parliamen- 
tary commission that had something of 
real importance on hand. Again and 
again he brought matters within the 
boundaries of the possible. Many a 
privy councilor was secretly helped by 
him, and many an officer of the general 
staff. He piloted many a clause to 
the statute book. In many a hopeless 
wrangle he spoke the rallying word. 
Devotion and an earnest, incorruptible 
handling of affairs are happily every- 
where present in our public life. 

Sound knowledge is to be found in 
abundance in our governmental circles. 
Our administrative machinery functions 
splendidly, but Frank towered above all 
through his transcendant ability. 

T N the recent catastrophe that has be- 
fallen Germany, Frank perceived the 
issues from the first. Everything he had 
fought for all his life was in jeopardy. 
"If we are beaten," he said to me, "only 
one thing will be possible for the Ger- 
man workman — emigration." There- 
fore everything, including the whole 
force of the labor movement, had to be 
directed towards victory. 

It is Frank we must thank for the 
unanimous vote of the social democratic 
party, and hence of the Reichstag, con- 
cerning the war and war measures in 
the memorable session of August 4. He 
worked untiringly on the preceding lob- 
bies. Having secured the support of his 
party, Frank devoted the whole of his 
energies to his fatherland. A few days 
after Parliament had voted, Frank, who 

as second-class reservist, might have 
stayed at home, went to the front, — 
and to his death. 

Just a day before he fell I met him by 
an incredible chance on the road to 
Baccarat. "Germany at war with 
Czarism (his sympathies went out to 
France, caught in the trap of Slavic 
vassalage) fights for civilization. 
France, fully conquered, is to be freed 
from her alliance by liberal terms of 
peace, and eventually, if possible, to be 
won over. England must be pursued in 
her alliance with Russia; she is doomed 
to shipwreck through her deep duplic- 

These were the thoughts that we 
entertained as comrades in uniform on 
the highway to Baccarat on September 
2, 1914. Through his numerous relation- 
ships with France, Frank could have 
helped more than any other man at the 
right moment to bring these projects to 

What is Frank in death? His fall was 
glorious like that of Lassalle's, but purer, 
greater, more heroic. Lassalle fell in 
the interests of a beautiful woman. 
Frank fell for that which, next to 
heaven, is dearer than all prized things 
of this world — he fell for the nation. 
a nation such as Fichte imagined it. 

The populace of Mannheim wildly ac- 
claimed this idolized man of the people 
with cries of "Happy return !" as he 
marched away. The grave in the Vosges 
woods may hold the deceased, as does 
that of Lassalle, but his spirit will re- 
turn to work powerfully and grapple 
with things about it. 

Frank leaves his party a legacy, and 
his death lays upon it the duty of becom- 
ing the great national labor party, and 
as such of taking upon itself the respon- 
sibility for the development not merely 
of a class, but of the whole German peo- 
ple. But his voice in the "chorus of the 
spirits," calls us all who loved him even 
though numbered far from the circles 
of his own party, to serve the highest 
ideals of humanity through the fullest 
sacrifice for the fatherland. 

What this faithful, victorious, genial 
friend, ever ready with help and kind- 
ness, was for me and mine, I will not at- 
tempt to say. To work now for the 
objects that he held dear can alone con- 
sole me. 


Edward H. Pfeiffer, 

Scene: A iShnn Street. Time: Now- 

Much Longer? 

-and Hon: 

IT'S crawly and it reeks of mire. 
Its flesh is fishy to the bone. 
It huddles near a gutter-fire, 

And sighs, and coughs, and weeps alone. 

In nameless filth its scabby feet 
Lie numb. ... Its soul is undefiled. 

Come, Master, enter this our street. 
Back to its kingdom lead this child. 

The Quaker Peace Position 

By Rujus M. yones 


THE world at large has had for 
the most part a very vague con- 
ception of the central religious 
ideas of Quakerism, but every- 
body who knows the name "Quaker," 
knows and always has known, that it is 
the popular name of a people who stand 
unconditionally for peace. Their peace- 
testimony has in the mind of the great 
public always been their most charac- 
teristic mark and badge. This Quaker 
position has been treated sometimes 
with ridicule and sometimes with re- 
spect, but in either case their funda- 
mental attitude has seldom been under- 
stood. It will perhaps not be out of 
place in the midst of this din and clash 
of arms to interpret briefly the Quaker 

We have grown familiar during the 
last score of years with the accumula- 
tion of economic reasons against war, 
and we have followed with interest the 
congresses and conferences that have 
piled up and driven home these impres- 
sive economic arguments. They, how- 
ever, generally, if not always, end with 
a caveat, or hedging clause to the effect 
that "peace at any price" is no part of 
the intention and is not implied in the 

The Quaker idea is fundamentally dif- 
ferent from this economic idea. The 
Quaker is not primarily concerned with 
the question whether war pays or does 
not pay for the people engaged in it; 
whether it succeeds in its aim or does not 
succeed. The Quaker flatly insists that 
it is absolutely and eternally wrong 
morally, that Christianity and war are 
utterly incompatible. He does not blame 
or judge others — and they are vastly 
the majority — who think differently; but 
for himself the light of his truth is 
clear, and he cannot see otherwise. 

This position goes back to and is 
grounded in the Quaker's idea of the 
nature of human personality, for this 
is the tap-root of all Quaker idealisms. 
There is something divine, something of 
God, in every person. The eternal pas- 
sion of God, the whole redemptive story 
of the gospels, gets its significance in 
the tremendous fact that man and God 
belong together, are meant for each 
other and that beings like us are poten- 
tial sons of God. To become a person, 
in the real sense of the word, is to 
awake to the consciousness of the divine 
relationship, to feel the inherent possi- 
bilities of sonship with God, to draw 
upon the inexhaustible supplies of 
grace, to enter into the actual inherit- 
ance of this divine-human privilege, and 
to live in it and practice it. 

But this process of realizing the pos- 


sibilities of life, this mighty business of 
becoming persons, can go on only in an 
atmosphere of human love and fellow- 
ship, and in an environment of co-opera- 
tion. Great as is the influence of the 
divine operation in the realization of 
this higher life of man, it is forever 
conjoined with human assistance and 
with human elements. Men cannot 
come to their spiritual stature, they can- 
not realize their potential nature, in a 
social atmosphere of hate and anger, 
when they are occupied with killing men 
like themselves. In that inward cli- 
mate, the higher impulses and the di- 
viner contacts are weakened or missed 
altogether and the truer ideal of man- 
hood is frustrated and defeated. Even 
if war paid in territory and in commerce, 
it would still be an impossible hazard 
for a people, because it checks and 
blocks the whole business of the higher 
life of man, it interferes with ajl the 
essential processes that go to the making 
of spiritual personality. 

For one who has found his way 
through Christ to the full meaning of 
life, to the real worth of man, to the 
inestimable ministry of love and broth- 
erhood, war is simply impossible. It is 
no longer a question of expediency; 
with the Quaker view of life one cannot 
engage in killing men, whatever may be 
involved in the refusal. 

Through pain and struggle the world 
has slowly discovered the immense pos- 
sibilities of democracy. We are just at 
the dawn of a real human emancipation. 
Vast processes of liberation are at work. 
Human rights, quite undreamed of 
when the Declaration of Independence 
was written, are gradually being won 
and enjoyed by common men and 
women. Social transformations are 
well under way which some day will 
bring new heavens and a new earth. 

But war interferes with all these so- 
cial undertakings ; it postpones the reali- 
zation of all ideals and human hopes. 
Pledged as he is, to the advancement of 
human emancipation and to the achieve- 
ment of a society which furnishes and 
guarantees richer and fuller and freer 
opportunities of life, the Quaker opposes 
all war and war methods because he 
believes they defeat this supreme busi- 
ness in which the best men and women 
are engaged. 

T-l OLDINGsuch views of man and of 
life, partaking of a kingdom in 
which war is flatly an impossible course, 
what is the Quaker's business and mis- 
sion in a world organized as ours is to- 
day? One of the first things that is laid 
upon him is the business of making his 

idea of life, his grasp of Christianity, 
clear and luminous to men He should 
simplify it, strip it of outgrown phrase- 
ology and make it march with quick, vital, 
human interpretation. He should, then, 
be ready to take unflinchingly whatever 
amount of suffering is involved in his 
truth, and he should verify it in its 
length and depth by going all the way 
through with his faith, even at the utter- 
most cost; for no prophet-visions of life 
can ever be wrought into the fabric of 
the everyday world except through the 
patient suffering of those who are priv- 
ileged to see. 

It becomes, further, a very essential 
part of his business, as George Fox, the 
Quaker founder, saw, to live in the vir- 
tue of that life and power which does 
away with the occasion of war. That 
is, if Quakerism is to be anything more 
than an empty abstraction and the name 
for an ideal in a vacuum, the Quaker is 
bound to practice a kind of life that 
abolishes the spirit that leads to war — 
the spirit of avarice and covetousness. 
tendencies of suspicion and hate, actions 
of injustice and selfishness. He must 
exhibit, hard as is the call, a life that 
puts his ideas of God and man, of divine 
and human interfellowship, of love and 
self-giving, full into play. He must 
weave his idea into the visible stuff of 
daily life. 

Then he must be gentle and tenderly 
respectful toward all Christians who feel 
the stern necessity of continuing the 
world-old way of settling differences and 
of working out national issues. It is 
never safe to assume the role of special 
favorite or sole guardian of truth, or 
remnant of the elect. Other Christians 
are also serious and honest, sincere and 
conscientious, and possessed of their 
profound convictions; and the Quaker, 
in holding on the way which seems 
sun-clear to him, must avoid all reflec- 
tion upon the motives or the Christian 
loyalty of other faiths. 

And whether in times of war or times 
of peace, the Quaker is under peculiar 
obligation to assist and to forward 
movements and forces which make for 
peace in the world and which bind men 
together in ties of unity and fellow- 
ship. In times of war. every avenue 
of loving service, of heroic devotion, 
or' of self- forget ful ministry should be 
entered, that the Quaker may vie with 
the soldier in his blood-red loyalty ami 
devotion to his cause. 

The moment war is over, and in times 

of peace, those who hold this high ami 

COStly faith in God and man must not 

he content to conduct mild and luke- 

Tn Smnm viM-ii .; ivn 

The Quaker Peace Position 


warm peace meetings and to issue 
commonplace resolutions — "helpless as 
spilled beans on a dresser," as Hosea 
Bigelow puts it. They must take a 
thoroughly virile and robust part in the 
work of creating higher national ideals 
and in forming a truer public sentiment, 
and a healthier social atmosphere. There 
must be no withdrawal from the com- 
plicated life of the world into any of 
the subtle forms of cloistered piety. 
Religious ideals must be interpreted and 
reinterpreted in terms of present day 
thought; the ties of human sympathy 
must be linked up and woven in be- 
tween all classes of men; every oppor- 
tunity must be seized for directing and 
perfecting methods of public education, 
and for raising the moral tone and qual- 
ity of the press; and a full share of 
responsibility for the character of local 
and national government must be taken 
up and born with the same fidelity that 
the Quaker has always shown to the 
inner voice in matters of intimate, per- 
sonal duty. 

A peace-testimony is, thus, a heavy 
undertaking, and calls for all the 
courage and all the sacrifice of a bat- 
tlefield, though the "weapons" are of a 
vastly different sort from Krupp guns 
and Mauser rifles. 

It is obviously far easier to work out 
and consistently to maintain such a 
peace position as this for the individual 
and for a small group of religious ideal- 
ists than to put it into effective opera- 
tion for a great nation living in com- 
plicated relations with the peoples of the 
world. The Quaker is forced to admit 
that so far in the history of the races no 
great nation has yet risked its honor and 
its very existence in an unconditional 
experiment of "peace at all costs and 
hazards. It is a plain, clear fact that 
men everywhere are, even at this late 
stage of evolution, powerfully supplied 
with fighting instincts. This present 
war proves conclusively that the fight- 
ing instinct is far from being smothered 

or eradicated. Never has the flower of 
a nation gone more willingly to danger 
and death than in this latest crowning 
year of man's civilization; and it is 
probably true that more persons during 
human history have gone to danger and 
death under the spur and thrust of this 
instinct than for any other single cause, 
perhaps, indeed, for all causes put to- 

Then, again, we cannot miss the fact 
that nations have been and still are car- 
ried forward into wars almost uncon- 
sciously by the emotional force of deep- 
seated ideas, or theories or doctrines in 
reference to their supposed destiny — of- 
ten enough doctrines essentially un- 
grounded or false. Certain economic 
theories or abstract ideas of peril to be 
feared from expanding and developing 
races, frequently obsess nations, produce 
fears, suspicions, and hates, and finally 
eventuate in war. 

Nations are composed of many types 
of persons; they are striking instances 
of "multiple personality." There will for 
generations to come be higher and lower 
selves in the nations of the world, and 
we must not expect a millennium na- 
tion to come by express train or by 
aeroplane. Statesmen will still form en- 
tangling alliances when we are not 
watching, and they will get their nation 
into such a "fix" that citizens will be 
swept with the war-spirit and will bring 
the ancient instincts into play. 

What we must do, then, is to form 
in as large groups as possible higher 
convictions, more idealistic faiths, and 
greater compulsions, which in the long 
run — in these matters the run is often 
very long ! — will penetrate and permeate 
ever wider groups, and so make new na- 
tions, or at least a new national spirit. 

There can, of course, be no sure or 
permanent peace for the world-nations 
until these higher convictions, these 
more idealistic faiths, these greater 
compulsions are formed in the moral 
fiber of the people themselves and are 

the controlling springs of action. But 
it is quite possible that one great nation 
— our own beloved country — might al- 
ready take the risk of depending for it* 
defences wholly on the fairness of its 
claims, the justice of its demands, the 
righteousness of its dealings. 

President Wilson's noble words, ask- 
ing for a reversal of the provision of 
the Panama Canal act of 1912, exempt- 
ing from tolls United States vessels en- 
gaged in coastwise trade, point the way 
toward a national spirit which would 
eventually do away with the occasion 
for war. He said : 

"We are too big and too powerful 
a nation and too self-respecting a na- 
tion to interpret with too strained or 
refined a reading of words our own 
promises just because we have power 
enough to give us leave to read them 
as we please. The large thing to do is 
the only thing we can do — voluntary 
withdrawal from a position everywhere 
questioned and misunderstood." 

The preparation, however, for putting 
the Quaker ideal full into play among 
the nations of the world is no doubt still 
a long future process. It calls for a far 
greater perfection of international 
courts, perhaps even the formation of 
an international parliament. It involves, 
further, a sounder education; the culti- 
vation of clearer, truer insight; a keener 
and more searching analysis of facts; a 
greater elimination of prejudices in the 
formation of historic and economic 
theories and a stronger control of will 
under the impact of such obstract theor- 
ies. Just such moral, intellectual and 
volitional advance, however, is the true 
glory of a nation and the promotion of 
it is the real business of the best pa- 
' 'Dreamers of dreams !' We take the 

taunt with gladness, 
Knowing that God, beyond the years you 

Hath wrought the dreams that count 

with you for madness, 
Into the substance of the life to be." 

What Some Paris Police Have Done 

for the Refugees 

By Valentine de Puthod 

EVERY French scholar in America 
is familiar with Renan's de- 
lightful Souvenirs de Jeunesse, 
and in consequence knows of 
the celebrated Seminaire St. Sulpice, the 
great French Catholic college of the- 
ology. Founded in 1641 by the parish 
priest, Abbe Olier, for the training of 
young priests, it soon made its name 
famous. It sheltered many distinguish- 


ed students — among them, Talleyrand 
and Renan. 

Beginning with 1792, the life of the 
college was interrupted by the Revolu- 
tion ; the old buildings were even razed 
in 1802; but in 1820, Louis XVIII 
ordered new buildings to be erected on 
the same spot and the school life was 
renewed. A second and more serious 
blow was to fall, however, when the law 

of separation between church and state 
was voted in December, 1905. The 
Archbishop of Paris refused to enter in- 
to the arrangement proposed by the state 
under the name of Association Cul- 
turelle. The buildings were claimed bv 
the state and the tenants dispossessed. 
After this several alternate plans were 
prepared to provide for the use of this 
[Continued on page 33.] 

The Unnatural Boundaries of 
European States 

By Simon N. Patten 


IN thinking about the present war our 
attention is distracted by the un- 
expected events which suddenly 
precipitated it, and we fail, for the 
most part, to analyze the underlying 
causes that made the struggle inevit- 
able. It is so easy to picture what might 
have been, or what we think ought to 
be, that we forget the endless struggle 
through which Europe has gone, and the 
reasons why conflict and not peace has 
dominated in the past. A cursory his- 
torical review is helpful and perhaps 
necessary in gaining a true perspective 
of the strange situation which now pre- 
sents itself. 

The economic interpretation of his- 
tory has shown that the decline of the 
civilization of Western' Asia, due per- 
haps to increasing drought, forced the 
inhabitants westward in search of bet- 
ter lands. Racial struggles then en- 
sued which ultimately created the check- 
ered map of modern Europe. The pres- 
ence of mountains, forests, and swamps 
served to isolate the various tribal 
groups, and to give to each its terri- 
torial boundaries. Early wars were thus 
racial, the fierce struggles they evoked 
exterminated many tribes, and forced 
others into their present positions. 

Such conflicts were in a measure 
checked by the rise of Christianity, as 
an institution of social control that 
created common bonds among the war- 
ring groups, and allowed the Church to 
wield a power respected and feared by 
all. At length, however, came the Re- 
formation, which, followed as it was by 
the religious wars, brought a new align- 
ment of struggling peoples; and when 
religious zeal tired of carnage, a series 
of dynastic wars once more reshaped the 
boundary lines of Europe. Soon after, 
the French Revolution and the Napole- 
onic struggle upset the old view of na- 
tions and tended to reorganize them 
again according to race lines. 

But this movement was interrupted by 
the downfall of Napoleon, which gave 
the Congress of Vienna the power to 
re-establish old boundaries, and by which 
Europe was cut up into heterogeneous 
bits to meet the fancies of the ruling 
monarchs. At Vienna none but these 
dynastic forces received consideration . 
dethroned princes were rewarded ac- 
cording to the political pressure they 
could exert. Hanover was sandwiched 
between two parts of Prussia to please 
the English king, and equally insignifi- 
cant factors determined other decisions 


But it is useless to recount the long 
story of the artificiality of the whole 
precedure at Vienna. The vital fact is, 
that its arrangement shaped the political 
struggles of the nineteenth century. By 
the middle of the century popular move- 
ments forced a unification of Germany 
and Italy, and other political changes 
revealed the trend of the popular will. 
Today, dynasties are powerful only as 
they reflect popular sentiment; kings 
strong as they lead movements sup- 
ported by public opinion. This popular 
will exerts its power toward two ob- 
jects — to secure racial unity, and to pro- 
mote economic interests. 

In the main, race unity is a unity of 
language. From it comes the power- 
ful traditional influence that serves to fix 
national limits. Language allegiance en- 
ables certain pleas to be made which, 
if effective, would force a radical re- 
construction of European political boun- 
daries. Indeed, no voice arouses more 
sympathy than the cry of a suppressed 
race. So long as the dominant races 
tend to repress their less numerous 
neighbors, a series of struggles must 
ensue, with but little hope of reconcilia- 
tion and peace. But more significant 
than these struggles, which are mainly 
between the larger and smaller groups, 
are the economic conflicts that have 
arisen among the larger nations them- 

V\^E scarcely realize the changes that 
have been wrought during the last 
century with regard to the economic 
forces that control national action. In 
early societies the group resources were 
locally sufficient, and little need existed 
for commerce with distant places. 
When, therefore, large states were 
formed like the Roman Empire, the ruling 
class were merely exploiters of various 
subjugated localities. The conquered 
people paid tribute, which meant a sheer 
economic loss suffered without adequate 

Such exploitation has marked the his- 
tory of all large empires. They have 
drained the resources of subject races 
until rebellion brought freedom from 
payment of the exacted tribute. When 
the modern dynasties arose they were 
built up on the same plan. The prov- 
inces paid tribute to distant rulers; tin- 
rise and fall of states meant merely a 
change in the monarchs to whom the 
tribute was due. So through history 
the struggles of small states for free- 
dom have in roalitv been an organized 

opposition to exploitation. Their cause 
has been that of justice and of progress, 
for the smaii state, and not the large 
state, represented the proper economic 
unit. Empires were overgrown units, 
the breaking up of whicn meant not 
alone freedom, but as well the economic 
advantage of all concerned. 

PODAY all this has been altered by 
the changes that have been made in 
the economic world. Now states are 
smaller, not larger, than the economic 
units of which they are a part. But the 
old tradition persists, and ideas of po- 
litical freedom based on former condi- 
tions demand small states. Economic 
progress, however, makes larger states 
inevitable now that the world's resources 
are to be exploited in more effective 

Political emotion and economic interest 
are thus at odds ; the one asks for the 
restoration of the small political units; 
the other woulJ favor the inclusion of 
the small states within the boundaries 
of their larger neighbors. The one 
movement would realize or restore local 
freedom ; the other would promote econ- 
omic and national welfare. Viewed in 
this way, the conflict of Europe is a 
struggle between growing economic in- 
terests, on the one hand, which would 
force radical changes in European boun- 
daries for economic advantage ; and on 
the other hand, the desire to maintain 
the present equilibrium with its race 
and local antagonism. In one sense, 
therefore, Germany is the aggressor, 
since she is naturally dissatisfied with 
the status quo. and her victory would 
radically alter European boundaries. 

Yet if the historical argument is to be 
used, there is some justification for say- 
ing that she is on the defensive, a* 
what she most keenly desires is a re- 
storation of boundaries that on;e were 
hers. It is this double aspect of Ger- 
many's position that creates confusion of 
thought among both her antagonists am' 
her supporters. 

Germany's situation is very similar t<> 
that of the North at the outbreak of Un- 
civil War. The firing on Sumter 
brought an outburst of feeling identica' 
with the effect of the English ultima- 
tum on the German mind. In both cases 
there was a sudden shock and an emo 
tional response: everyone felt that i 
crisis had come, but none fully agreed 
as to what it was about, or how it was 
to be met 

Thf Si-kvry. April :i. l»ll 

The Unnatural Boundaries of European States 


If German professors and other de- 
fenders of Germany seem to have let 
their emotions get the better of their 
intellect, Americans (and especially the 
calm, unemotional New Englanders) 
have only to go back to the year 1861 to 
. put themselves in their brothers' places, 
and to find a similar hopeless confusion 
of ideas and sympathies. Can it be 
said that the defenders of the North 
were less fatuous, literal-minded and dis- 
concerting in their crude expressions of 
opinion, or that our statesmen made 
fewer naive mistakes in their public ut- 
terances than those who voice German 
sentiment? In either case, the mistakes 
only prove that both the American and 
the German public were surprised by the 
sudden turn of affairs, and that in the 
excitement of a national crisis, many 
intelligent men lost their heads. 

This comparison I present to show 
that friend and foe alike may easily 
be misled by individual indiscretions 
voiced in moments of fevered alarm, 
thus making both defense and refuta- 
tion worthless as interpretations of the 
real social movements that brought on 
the war. In the Civil War, two years 
elapsed before the North had her posi- 
tion clarified by the Emancipation Proc- 
lamation. Germany and England must 
get their defense as clearly outlined as 
this before the right and the wrong of 
the present war can be determined. The 
main difficulty is that neither nation 
has as yet expressed its principles in a 
rational way, nor has the true issue 
been clearly thought out by leaders or 
perceived by the public. 

Meanwhile it may help clear up the 
perplexity to show the basis on which 
the contradictions of German thought 
rest ; evidently two quite distinct emo- 
tional tendencies have blended in the 
outburst of feeling that followed the is- 
suing of the English ultimatum. 

One group of German feeling arises 
out of the historical continuity and back- 
ground of the German nation. The Ger- 
many of which all German patriots are 
proud is the Germany of the fifteenth 
century, shown by the accompanying 
map. At that time Germany held a proud 
position as the leader in world civiliza- 
tion. She was the Holy Roman Em- 
pire revived under a modern guise. 
Every German boy knows of this Ger- 
many, and has drawn maps like this 
one many times. If we notice that all 
Holland and the greater part of Bel- 
gium are a part of this historic Ger- 
many, we cannot wonder that the Ger- 
man school boy, and perhaps the whole 
populace, decide that they still belong 
to the fatherland, no matter how many 
treaties have since been signed giving 
up rights to sacred soil. If, for ex- 
ample, Nova Scotia had at one time 
been part of the United States and had 
been taken away by conquest, how 
many Americans would think their coun- 
try the aggressor in taking back what 


"At that time Germany . . . was the Holy Roman Empire revived under 
a modern guise." All Holland and the greater part of Belgium were a part 
of this historic Germany. 

once belonged to her? Such feelings 
are instinctive, and in a national crisis 
they become an irresistible force. 

\ NEED not give a political map of 
Europe showing restricted and de- 
graded Germany of the early nineteenth 
century. Every school map shows this 
disrupted Germany. It is the realization 
of this degradation that aroused the ire 
of the German professor, and evoked 
his scornful utterances; and his wrath 
throughout the past century transformed 
German thought and created the national 
attitude that gives militarism its firm 
support. Germans sacrifice so much to 
defend their country because they see 
an even more degraded Germany loom- 
ing up as a result of defeat. Such ter- 
ritorial reconstruction as the Allies pro- 
pose would be more bitter to them now 
than it was to their ancestors, because 
the unprecedented development of the 
last half century has given rise to a 
new confidence; so the zeal of German 
defense will be correspondingly great 
and persistent. 

But even a bare outline of the change 
from the proud position of Germany in 
the fifteenth century to the place she 
held in the early nineteenth century 
need not be given. Suffice it to say 
that the concept is graven on the heart 
of every true German, and is at the 
basis of one powerful sort of emotions 
(anger, regret, and envy) that control 
the German public. The other domi- 
nant group of emotional responses is as- 

sociated with the economic interests 
aroused by the industrial evolution of 
the past century. Germany is admitted- 
ly in a position where her present boun- 
daries act as a hindrance to her indus- 
trial development, and a bar to her 
social progress. Her natural seaports 
are in Holland and Belgium. 

Germany's great cities would natur- 
ally be in this disputed district. Hol- 
land and Belgium would no doubt have 
double their present population, and fully 
ten times their wealth if they were parts 
of Germany. The historical arguments 
thus run parallel to those of economic 
welfare, and form in their blending the 
background of the German position, fo 
restore the historic boundaries to Ger- 
many would at the same time give to 
her the commercial outlet her growing 
industries demand, and only as the econ- 
omic relationships of the different na- 
tions are amicably settled can the full: 
fruits of progress in welfare, culture, 
and comfort be realized. The real ques- 
tion at stake is, therefore, shall race 
feeling or economic interest d'etate the 
formation of boundaries? 

Economic interests find their concrete 
measurable expression in social welfare, 
while race feeling is mainly a tradi- 
tional attachment to a spoken language. 
Anthropologists have concluded that 
there are no distinct lines dividing the 
various races of Europe, if by race we 
mean inherited traits passed on by the 
relationship of blood. Perhaps all that 


The Survey, April 3, 1915 

can be said conclusively is that the vari- 
ous inherited traits are possessed by the 
different national groups in slightly dif- 
ferent degrees, and hereditary variation 
is certainly much wider within each 
group than among diverse groups. The 
group differences are therefore not 
marked enough to make bonds of af- 
finity, or to be an abiding source of na- 
tional hatred. Race antagonisms are 
social inheritances, either historical or 
arising from differences in language ; 
and it would no doubt be possible to wipe 
out these latter differences if an in- 
dividual's language could be made as 
definitely a personal matter as his re- 

One of the few happy manifestations 
of the present war is that religious an- 
tagonisms have played no part in it. 
May we not also hope for a day when 
language will enter into national affairs 
as little as does religion? If such a 
time came, and history should become 
a record of race progress rather than 
of race antagonisms, it would be entire- 
ly possible to rearrange the boundaries 
of Europe so that they would coincide 
with economic interest. In America 

and in Switzerland this happy result 
already has been attained. Language, 
historical traditions, and race antagon- 
isms have been subordinated to econ- 
omic and social welfare in ways that 
permit a full development of national 
resources and a free movement of popu- 
lation to districts of increasing indus- 
trial efficiency. 

TT is necessary to state these facts bold- 
ly and forcefully to show how in- 
adequate would be a vote of the people 
on national boundaries as the way to 
settle present disputes. This democrat- 
ic expression, fair enough on its face, 
could not afford a permanent solution, 
because such a vote would be deter- 
mined by historical hatreds and lan- 
guage differences. The very things that 
would influence votes would be those ele- 
ments of group life which must be dis- 
carded before the consummation of gen- 
eral peace is possible. Few writers, I 
think, would want boundaries to be set- 
tled by voters influenced by religious dif- 
ferences. But what better basis for de- 
cision would language affinities or his- 
torical hatreds give? Surely some more 

permanent element should be the foun- 
dation on which peace and social wel- 
fare are to be achieved and rest secure. 

A realization of this fact brings the 
consideration of economic interests to 
the fore as the only enduring basis of 
peace. Were the new economic units 
of national life once formed and the 
consequent benefits fully appreciated, 
the force they would exert could easily 
remove old antagonisms, and bring into 
effective co-operation even the most di- 
verse language groups. What America 
has accomplished in this respect shows 
the practicability of blending antagonis- 
tic racial groups. Education and the 
right to free expression of opinion, cast 
all antagonisms into the melting-pot, and 
create unity where once diversity ex- 

The thought of dividing the world into 
economic zones, each of which would be 
self-sufficing, is so new that few appre- 
ciate its deep meaning. Most people 
aroused by such a concept, and the 
geography they know is merely a crude 
political geography that enables them to 
visualize the present unnatural bound- 
aries that cause trouble and interfere 


o o 


o do- - 

o -o. 


© © © 


\J/ \b sl-" 


v + + 











"The conditions are worse than the map represents. The various languages overlap each other with wide margins over 
which perpetual disputes would arise. The only alternative is the suppression of language emotions so that the various groups 
can live in harmony." 

The Unnatural Boundaries of European States 



'The controlling principle is that trade moves down hill more readily than over mountains, and that each state is entitled to the 

region through which its rivers flow to the sea." 

with the spread of economic prosperity. 
Yet we need not go to Europe to find 
vivid examples of the disastrous conse- 
quences of unnatural boundaries. Con- 
gressman Smith of Maryland has done 
the country a service by pointing out the 
obstacles which the present boundaries 
of Alaska impose on Canadian progress. 
By the Alaskan Purchase we acquired 
from Russia a strip of land a few miles 
wide along the western coast of Canada, 
at a time when the region had no value 
except for fishing rights. This control 
of the Alaskan Panhandle, effectivelv 

bars Canadian access to the Pacific 
Coast for several hundred miles. A 
treaty thus imposes a grievous economic 
wrong on Canada which can be removed 
only by a generous act on our part, or 
some exchange of territory. 

Germany suffers a similar wrong 
when she is kept from the North Sea 
and a permanent commercial union with 
Holland and North Belgium. The mili- 
tary protection of England is here clear 
ly set over against the economic wel- 
fare of Germany, giving rise to the 
friction that has culminated in the 

present war. To make clear the 

evils of the Alaskan Panhandle, Mr. 
Smith has drawn a map, which is re- 
produced on page 27, showing the posi- 
tion of the United States if the Pan- 
handle had been on our eastern coast, 
and controlled by England. New York 
and Boston would in such instance have 
been in English territory. The best 
routes from the interior to the coast 
would then have remained closed to us 
except as permission to use them was 
granted by England. We can all recog- 
[Continued on page 31.] 


Sara Teasdale 

Nezvs Item : "Brass, copper and wire mills in the Naugatuck 
Valley are shipping nearly a thousand tons of war material 
daily. One mill is turning out %00 tons a day of shrapnel 
'fillers' of lead and other metals." 

SPRING- comes back to the winding valley, 
The dogwood over the hill is white, 
The meadow-lark from the ground is piping 

His notes like tinkling bells of light; 
Peace, clear peace in the pearly evening, 

Peace on field and sheltered town 

But why is the sky so wild and lurid 
Long, long after the sun goes down? 

They are making ammunition, 
Blow on blow and spark on spark, 

With their blasting and their casting 

In the holy April dark. 
They have fed their hungry furnaces 

Again and yet again, 
They are shaping brass and bullets 

That will kill their fellow-men; 
Forging in the April midnight 

Shrapnel fillers, shot and shell, 
And the murderers go scathless 

Though they do the work of Hell. 





Associate Editors 


IN another part of this issue will be found three 
poems which afford a good illustration of 
the sort of verse that The Survey is especially 
glad to welcome [see page 6]. Rhyme and meas- 
ure have a way of quickening the pulse as prose 
cannot. We do not pretend to maintain the sever- 
est poetic standards in our columns, but we do de- 
sire to encourage telling and searching verse 
which can play its part in awakening the social 
conscience; above all, we like to present poems 
which reveal the realities of life among working 

Here, then, are the effective lines on Old Age, 
by Edmund Niles Huyck. Ever since the days of 
Charles Kingsley and Alton Locke, this kind of 
verse has been written. It does not soar particu- 
larly high, neither is it composed by working 
people themselves. It is dramatic monologue, not 
to be claimed equal to Browning's work in this 
type, yet valuable as the terse, straightforward 
expression of grim realities, perceived and ren- 
dered by honest sympathy. 

We know everything it tells us, and some people 
are imaginative enough to be stirred to fire by 
statistics about superannuated workers. But most 
of us are a bit sluggish, and we are stirred more 
easily when we read in terms of personal experi 
ence how the worker knows that sometime he will 

"In the morning have no place to go, 
For no one wants so old a man as I." 

It is well to be stirred ; for the verses tell a t rue 

Next comes a bit of smooth translation from the 
Yiddish of Morris Winchefsky. There is more 
poetic expression than we realize among our fel- 
low-citizens who are dumb so far as English is 
concerned. Mr. Winchefsky was born in Russia. 
He fled to England, lived there ten years, and 
came to the United States twenty-two years ago. 
He is a prolific author for his own people, in both 
verse and prose. At present he is accountant for 
the Ladies' Garment Workers' Union. The Sub- 
vet is grateful to Alice Stone Blackwell for en- 
abling us to share with our readers the tenderness 
and delicate feeling of these verses, so helping 
them to gain a clearer idea of what is known ami 
liked among our friends of the East Side. 

Still, however, we have to depend on trans 
lation. The experience of the workers has passed 
through the mind of Mr. Huyck, through the Ian 
guage of Miss Blackwell. What we should value 
still more would be the immediate self-expression 


in English, of workingmen. This, for obvious 
reasons, is not frequently found on a high level 
of thought and feeling, and a creditable level of 
technique. The Survey would be proud to en- 
courage such expression. We are proud to print 
Henry Ackley's Ballad of the Town. We do not 
know the author. He writes to us : 

"I have been reading The Survey for some months and 
I note that you express an interest in the subject of working- 
class poetry. I, too, have been watching for the man or 
men who shall represent the modern worker to the future, 
by expressing his thoughts and ideals in great and lasting 
language. Each transition age seems to beget a man of that 
sort; ours is past due." 

Mr. Ackley offers us his verses, "without for 
a moment assuming the title of poet, and just to 
help fill in the interim until our working-class 
poet shall arrive." "As I am a workingman", 
lie says, "and have not enjoyed large educational 
advantages, I presume that you will find some 
faults in the enclosed composition." Faults there 
are; but there is also vitality and promise. The 
lines are rough, but they sing; the sense of labor, 
and exaltation, and peril, is in them, and the 
tragic climax smites sharp and true. One grows 
more alive for the reading. 

Here, then, is working-class life interpreted in 
three ways: through sympathetic observation, 
through translation, and directly. The Survey 
thinks all three of value. Beyond this kind of 
verse, soar the loftier poetic heights, and some- 
times from these also a feather floats downward. 
These we are indeed fortunate to capture, and we 
hope as time goes on that more and more of such 
winged messengers may come our way. 

OF all the sick, those suffering from mental 
diseases have shared the least in the great 
advances in treatment and in nursing which have 
marked our time. Long after the foundations for 
modern scientific medicine were laid, the insane 
were thought to be afflicted with a condition so 
mysterious that no man could hope to understand 
it or to deal with it by natural means. 

It was not until the commencement of the nine- 
teenth century that, any considerable number of 
physicians were convinced that insanity was n 
disease, not specifically different from physical dis- 
orders, and that the care and treatment of the 
insane were within the province of their own pro 
fession. The acceptance of this great truth was 
slow and even in some of OUT most enlightened 

the Buktbt, tprll s. IM1 



communities it is today rejected as a guide in mak- 
ing public provisions tor dealing with insanity. 

In general, however, the last fifty years and 
particularly the last ten have brought about great 
changes in the treatment of mental diseases in 
this country. We have seen the extension of 
nursing into this field, the abolition of mechanical 
restraint and the establishment of after-care for 
patients discharged and of "fore-care," through 
out-patient mental clinics, for those in the earli- 
est stages of their illness, as well as marked 
progress in the study and understanding of men- 
tal diseases. 

Unfortunately the most striking lack of uni- 
formity has characterized these advances. Often 
a state has suddenly aroused itself to deal with 
this problem — sometimes for reasons which it is 
difficult to determine — and then, in two or three 
years, made more progress than had been made 
in the twenty years preceding. Not infrequently 
interest has subsided in such states as suddenly 
and almost as unaccountably as it arose and no 
further marked advances have been made for 
half a generation. 

Several times a wave of progress in dealing 
with insanity has extended over the entire coun- 
try. The most conspicuous example is the popu- 
lar interest in the welfare of the insane which 
was aroused by Dorothea Dix, in the '40 's and 
'50 's, and which led to the firm establishment of 
state care in a number of states. 

In 1869, New York emerged from an obscure 
place in this field of humanitarian work by estab- 
lishing the first state hospital for the chronic 
insane. It is doubtful if any single event since 
the first awakening to the fact that insanity is 
a disease has so greatly influenced the welfare 
of those suffering -from unrecoverable forms of 
insanity as the establishment of the Willard State 
Hospital for a class of the insane which had been 
generally overlooked. The effect in other States 
and even in other countries was to turn attention 
to the needs and the sufferings of the chronic 
insane but in New York, the state in which this 
example was set, it was twenty years before all 
the insane were liberated from the almshouses. 
Today the states are to be found straggling all 
the way along the path of progress in the care 
of the insane. Some are accurately reproducing 
in their institutions the conditions which aroused 
the people of France to action when Esquirol 
pointed them out a century ago, while others have 
placed the public facilities for the treatment of 
mental diseases only a little below the facilities 
for the treatment of all other kinds of illness. 

Geographical situation, wealth, the type of 
state government and the general enlightenment of 
the people in other matters, seem to have very 
little to do with the place which the different 
states are willing to occupy in this enterprise. 
The article in this number of The Survey, which 
describes the care of the insane in Pennsylvania, 
shows that this great, wealthy state, which spends 
pnormous sums for education, health, and other 
social purposes, has been willing to care for its 
insane bv methods which were abandoned more 

than thirty years ago by some of its neighbors 
with much scantier resources. The article on 
South Carolina shows how to "abandon" rapidly. 

SO much of bitterness and conflict has issued 
from Colorado in the last two years that it 
is with more than usual pleasure we print Miss 
Vaile's paper [see page 15], originally given be- 
fore a sociological conference held under the ex- 
tension division of the University of Colorado, 
and kter printed in the university bulletin. There 
is another and larger reason; namely, that in it 
she sets forth in an informed and constructive 
spirit that new approach which has been breaking 
through to the problems of relief. 

The charity organization movement came in 
thirty years ago as an insurgent movement when 
the county was all but atrophied as a civil unit; 
when American cities were unmuckraked and un- 
researched ; when good government and civil ser- 
vice reform were largely negative propaganda. 
It has had a builder's zest and has wrought out a 
technique of constructive case work and a pro- 
gram of prevention. 

In the same period municipal reform has leaped 
and halted, but has nevertheless brought in a new 
era in civic life. The leaven is even at work in the 
counties. Some of these changes are in a sense re- 
flected in the very long official title, "Supervisor 
of Relief of the Charity and Correction Division of 
the Department of Social Welfare of the City 
and County of Denver." They are conceived 
by Miss Vaile, the holder of that long title, as re- 
leasing new resources to the service of the com- 
munity, and as themselves affording a new basis 
for projecting public activities in the new decade. 

WHILE the editor of The Survey has not 
shared the theoretical objections to widows' 
pensions cited by Mr. Devine [see page 30], and 
while he thinks the successful administration of 
funds to parents by the Chicago Juvenile Court, 
for example, is a sounder practical basis for ex- 
perimenting whole-heartedly with the New York 
plan, than the passage of a bill, he is one with 
the forward-going spirit of good-will with which 
Mr. Devine calls for universal co-operation on the 
part of all the social agencies of New York. 

Seldom has there been such a campaign of lying 
and vilification as has been directed at those iden- 
tified with organized charities throughout the 
past winter in New York. The Hearst papers 
brought on the writer whose calumnies on the 
Chicago Juvenile Court, its judges and probation 
officers, were notorious three years ago; and the 
writings of a member of the state commission in 
another newspaper have been only less colored 
and distorted. Mr. Devine was singled out as the 
special object and center for attack. 

Seldom have we seen such complete toleration; 
such clear-cut refusal to accept self-constituted 
and raucous spokesmen as the real body of a 
movement; such brushing aside of the tangles of 
controversy to get at the affirmative thing to do 
as are revealed in this editorial, which reaches 
The Survey by mail as we go to press. 


Ihe Survey, April 3, 1915 

Social Forces 



Hearst, Sophie Loeb, and their associates 
have won their fight for widows' pensions in the 
state of New York. Their opponents, of whom 
there do not seem to be many, will not grudge 
them the completeness and apparent finality of 
their victory. Crude and inadequately supported 
by appropriations as some of the pension schemes 
have been, no state has discontinued them; and 
for better or worse, once established, they are like- 
ly to remain indefinitely. 

Those enthusiasts for compulsory and uni- 
versal social life insurance who have defended 
widows' pensions as a half-way measure, will now 
have a chance to show whether they were right. 
Those of us who have believed that widows' pen- 
sions, like non-contributory old-age pensions, and 
other "endowments" by the state of any particu- 
lar age or condition, by funds to which the bene- 
ficiaries have not previously contributed, are in 
conflict with social justice and a sound policy of 
human conservation, and objectionable as a mere 
device for enabling well-paid wage-earners and 
their employers to get rid of a natural burden 
which social insurance would distribute fairly and 
equitably, may hope that as to widows' pensions 
administered by child welfare boards, we were 

It is clearly incumbent on us to do everything 
that we can to help prove that we were mistaken. 
There is no possible advantage in protracting dis- 
cussions which were appropriate while the issue 
was unsettled but are so no longer. There is no 
reason for perpetuating acrimonious controversies 
to which the issue may have given rise. 

The new law provides for the creation of child 
welfare boards in the various counties of the state. 
There is much to be said for the fundamental idea 
of a special local department charged with respon- 
sibility for conserving and promoting child wel- 
fare. Josephine Shaw Lowell, many years ago, 
advocated such a children's department for the 
city of New York. Perhaps the new child welfare 
boards can be developed into some such agency for 
the rational care of dependent children. That this, 
or something like it, is the sincere purpose of those 
who have secured the present legislation may be 
readily granted. A new era in the social legisla- 
tion of the state will be inaugurated by the present 
act if it proves that through the machinery which 

it creates, children can be kept with their mothers 
under wholesome conditions and normal family life 

Whether this will turn out to be the case only a 
fair trial of the plan through a period of years 
will show. Until there has been ample opportunity 
for such a trial, opposition to the measure, now 
that it has been enacted, should disappear. There 
should be no attempt to hamper or obstruct its 
administration. Whatever funds are necessary to 
furnish the pensions and the machinery for their 
proper disbursement should be appropriated at 
the earliest possible moment. 

Eelief societies and local departments of public 
charities should come to an understanding with 
child welfare boards as soon as they are appointed 
so that any serviceable information which they 
may have in regard to particular families or in 
regard to the problem in general may be placed at 
disposal of the new boards. There should be no 
idea of swamping the boards on the one hand or 
of keeping suitable candidates away from them 
on the other. Relief agencies will still have their 
hands full with families not entitled to this par- 
ticular relief or in doing other necessary things for 
those who are. 

Neither natural resentment at malicious and un- 
founded charges made by some advocates of wid- 
ows' pensions against those who have not agreed 
with them, nor doubt as to the inherent wisdom of 
the measure should prevent a union of forces in 
the new situation which arises as soon as the bill 
is signed and the policy thus definitely adopted 
by the state. 

The report of the committee in New York city 
representing the views of the relief agencies, no 
less than the report of the state commission on 
Relief for Widowed Mothers, emphasized the in- 
adequacy of existing arrangements, and the pre- 
ventable hardships from which working widows 
suffer. The commission's report makes copious 
quotations from that of the unofficial committee, 
of course with approval when it finds what it con- 
siders support for its own views, with scornful 
disapproval when it is otherwise. All this we may 
disregard for the present, not because reply would 
be difficult, but because by the march of events it 
has become irrelevant. 

The point is that New York is now to have child 
welfare boards, somewhat if not precisely on the 
plan recommended by the state commission. These 
boards are to remedy the conditions which all find 
unsatisfactory. They are to relieve the hardships I 
of widows and their children, to prevent commit- 
ments to institutions, to safeguard the homes, to 
promote child welfare, and at the same time, to 
obviate the well-known evils associated with pub- 
lic outdoor relief. It is a big undertaking, and 
should have universal co-operation, good-will and 


The Unnatural Boundaries of Ruropean States 



[Continued from page 27.] 

nize how intolerable such a situation 
would be, and can visualize clearly 
enough the difficulty and friction that 
would result. 

Unfortunately, the world has dozens 
of examples of badly located boundary 
lines, with their consequent economic 
' evils. Treaties have often either set 
definitely wrong limits to states, or have 
divided regions naturally united, into two 
or more states. This situation presents 
the leading deterrent to progress today 
and some remedy must be found for it. 
Indeed, were national boundaries natu- 
ral ones, the greater part of the pressure 
causing war would be removed. Doubt- 
less, in any event, arden.t patriots would 
still clamor for unjust extensions of ter- 
ritory, and zealous adherents of par- 
ticular languages would continue to 
press for their extension. But the 
masses of the people would grow more 
contented as their prosperity and secur- 
ity were assured, and would soon become 
callous to those reactionary appeals to 
the emotions that now make so much 
trouble for the world. 

IN contrast to this map of economic 
zones, a race map of Europe is pre- 
sented. A glance will show how im- 
possible would be a division of Europe 
according to racial lines. The condi- 
tions are worse than the map represents. 
The various languages .overlap each 
other with wide margins over which per- 
petual disputes would arise. The only 
alternative is the suppression of lan- 
guage emotions, so that the various 
groups can live in harmony. This in- 
volves a tolerant attitude toward mi- 
norities. The greatest international need 
of Europe is an agreement that the small 
groups within each nation shall have 
the same freedom in the use of language 
that has been won for them for religious 

It should be understood that the con- 
cept of economic units, or zones, does 
not imply a world empire. The mod- 
ern world is too large for any unified 
economic or political control. Should 
language differences and national feel- 
ing be set aside, scientific boundaries 
could be easily arranged that would bind 
together the people within them, and 
make these inhabitants generous and sym- 
pathetic to those outside of them. More- 
over, such zone boundaries are easy to 
draw in Europe, as the natural features 
that fix them are pronounced. 

I append a map, in the drawing of 
which all race, religious, and language 
differences are disregarded. The con- 
trolling principle is that trade moves 
down hill more readily than over moun- 

The Agency of a United People 

A striking comparison between a 
homogeneous country and a hetero- 
geneous group of countries is ob- 
tained by placing over the map of 
the United States the map of Europe. 
These represent the same area — 
about 3,000,000 square miles — if a 
few of the remote provinces of 
Russia are omitted. 

Europe has the advantage in pop- 
ulation, with more than four times as 
many people as the United States; in 
the number of large cities, with two 
and a half times as many cities of 
over 1 00,000 population. 

Yet the United States, a compara- 
tively young country, has outstripped 
Europe in the diffusion of civiliza- 
tion, because of its wonderfully 
greater means of communication 
between all parts of its area. The 
United States not only excels in trans- 
portation facilities, but it has nearly 
three times as many telephones as 
Europe, or about eleven times as 
many in relation to population. 

By the completion of the Trans- 
continental Line we now talk from 
one end of this country to the 
other, while in Europe the longest 
conversation is no farther than 
from New York to Atlanta, and 
even that depends on the imperfect 
co-operation of unrelated systems. 

Europe, with twenty-five countries 
and many different languages, 
serves as an illuminating contrast to 
the United States, with one language 
and a homogeneous people, despite 
the fact that our population has 
been derived from all parts of the 

During the last forty years the 
steadily extending lines of the Bell 
System have contributed in no small 
measure to this amalgamating of 
different races. 

The latest achievement — the link- 
ing of coast to coast — has given 
greater force to the national motto, 
" E Pluribus Unum." 

American Telephone and Telegraph Company 
And Associated Companies 

One Policy One System Universal Service 

Plain Facts 
for Both Sexes 

This is the most complete work on Sex 
Hygiene. It contains nearly 800 pages, with 
illustrations, color charts of the human hody 
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offended. The author writes from the stand- 
point of nearly forty years Superintendence 
of the Battle Creek Sanitarium. If you would 
be fully informed, get this book and study it. 
The price is only $3 (in cloth binding) — half 
leather .$4. Order today. If you are not entire- 
ly satisfied, the book may be returned for 
prompt refund. Get this book and shun the 
dangers of ignorance. Good Health Publish- 
ing Co., S604 West Main St., Battl. Creek, 


The new "Red Book 

of chanty organizations is just out! It is the twenty-fourth edition 
of the New York Charities Directory. 1 his issue is a radical 
departure from previous editions in the matter of arrangement of 
its contents. It has been simplified to meet the demands of 
busy people and the spirit of the times. The Directory may now 
be consulted as easily as a dictionary or an encyclopaedia. Valu- 
able supplementary divisions of the book are the topical index, 
the name index and the church list. 

Were you one of the many who failed to get a copy of the 
Directory last year ? This edition is limited also. Better order 
now! One dollar, postpaid. Address: 

New York Charities Directory 

105 East 22d St.. N. Y. City 

Calahan Multigraph Service 

Boom 104, No. 203 Broadway, operated at 
a side line by a Social Worker, who knows the 
value of a "Personal" looking appeal. Special 
rate on Charity Appeal Letters. Prompt Rf 
fiolent. Good taste. 


The Survey, April 3, 1915 



Showing how a Canadian Panhandle similar to the Alaskan Panhandle would look on our Atlantic Coast 

tains, and that each state is entitled to 
the region through which its rivers flow 
to the sea. River basins form real econ- 
omic units, and mountain ranges are 
natural boundaries. If this reasoning is 
correct, the natural Germany is the basin 
of the rivers flowing into the North 
Sea from the easv, and of those flowing 
into the Baltic from the south. The 
natural Austria is the valley of the Dan- 
ube; Latin Europe should control the 
Mediterranean basin; in such an ar- 
rangement Russia would lose some ter- 
ritory to the west and south, but would 
have ample room for expansion to the 
east, where her natural economic des- 
tinies lie. She also has the same right 
to an open passage through the Bos- 
porus and the Baltic that Germany has 
to the ports of the North Sea. Should 
she obtain an open route to the ocean 
she would get an ample compensation 
for her territorial losses. 

The difficulties of fixing a boundary 
line between France and Germany would 
not be serious if economic, rather than 
traditional, considerations dominated. 
The older solution of having a neutral 
area such as Luxemburg, Belgium and 
Switzerland between the countries is a 
failure, no matter what view of the sit- 
uation we take. Belgium is an artificial 
state created out of the whole cloth, 
with no regard to social or economic 
considerations. Only a false enthusiasm 
for small political units gives any ground 
for its continuation. If a division of 
Belgium were made by a line drawn 
from northwest to southeast, giving the 
Germans Antwerp but not the seacoast. 
the English would have the protection 

from invasion which they demand; while 
in Antwerp, the Germans would gain 
a much-needed seaport. 

What is more, in Eastern Belgium 
Germany would also have a natural de- 
fense against invasion. She could then 
well afford to give back Lorraine to 
France, reaching a compromise that 
should settle for good her purely tra- 
ditional disputes with France. South- 
west Belgium, the Flanders of olden 
days, was once a part of France, and 
should be returned to her. Not only 
would France regain what was once 


hers, but England would have an addeo 
protection with Flanders part of the ter- 
ritory of a nation whom she did not 
distrust. To show this natural but at 
the same time compromise boundary, 
there is appended a map showing where 
the division line should be, to give each 
nation what it needs most with the least 
sacrifice of national sentiments or in- 

Obviously, the other vital issue in such 
a readjustment of Europe's boundaries 
would be to determine whether or no 
there should be one Slav nation,' as the 
Pan-Slavonic agitators demand, or two 
distinct nations with boundaries that 
would promote economic interests. The 
history of Austria presents so many dis 
heartening anomalies that few see am 
hope of progress except through her 
dissolution. Such a view is, however, 
based on past conditions, and overlooks 
the fact that Austria is already practical- 
ly under Slav control. Should a closer 
union be formed with the nations to 
the south, perhaps the strongest state 
in continental Europe would come into 
being. It is not to the interest of any 
group or race that this magnificent re 
gion should be dominated by either Ger- 
many or Russia. On the contrary, a bal- 
ance of power in Europe would be re- 
stored by such an independent existence 
of Austria, and a stability would be 
given to European institutions which no 
other solution could obtain. 

We should then have European peace 
and European prosperity: ends that can 
be attained only by such boundary re- 
constructions as permit industry and 
commerce to follow natural lines 

Police Work for Refugees in Paris 



[Continued from page 28.] . 
new state property, either for a school of 
decorative arts, or as an annex to the 
Musee du Luxembourg. Nothing was 
finally determined, however, and the 
desolate old building remained empty, 
useless, and out of repair. Standing on 
the square of St. Sulpice, looking more 
dilapidated each year, it was in painful 
contrast to its beautiful neighbor, the 
great church of Servandoni. Yet 
against all likelihood the old Seminaire 
was still to do good work. 

When, on August 2, 1914, the order 
for mobilization was issued in France, 
the French government, aware of the 
effect this event might produce on the 
Parisian population, gave due considera- 
tion to the possibility of trouble. 

It was thought advisable to reinforce 
the police force of the city. A certain 
number of fusiliers marins (naval in- 
fantry) were called to Paris from their 
headquarters on the coast. It was neces- 
sary to find quarters for them. Time 
pressed; so the Grand Palais on the 
right bank of the river, and the Semin- 
aire St. Sulpice on the left, were hastily 
fitted for this purpose with straw mat- 
tresses and kitchen stoves. 

As every one will remember, Paris 
was never more quiet than during the 
busy silent days that followed the order 
for mobilization. The Cols Blens (Blue 
Jackets) found they had nothing to do 
but go sightseeing — which they certain- 
ly did ! — or perch in rows like swallows 
on the porch of the Grand Palais. A 
more formidable task was, however, 
soon to face these marines. When von 
Kluck's army began its advance south a 
great many of them were sent to help 
the Belgians and found their death in 

As a result, the Seminaire St. Sulpice 
was once more empty. Then it was that 
the first groups of Belgians and north- 
ern French, driven from their homes by 
the enemy, began their flight towards 
Paris. Efforts were made to switch the 
refugees to the southern provinces, but 
a large number would go nowhere ex- 
cept to Paris. 

One night, the prefet de police 1 hur- 
riedly had to call the head officers of the 
police districts of the city for a con- 
ference to discover where available room 
could be found to house the flood of in- 
coming refugees. 

M. Paul Peltier, commissaire de police 
of the sixth and fourteenth arrondisse- 
Ttients proposed for his district, the Sem- 
inaire St. Sulpice. There a crowd of mis- 
erable refugees arrived in the evening, 
destitute, sick, tired after their long 
tramps, most of them women, children, 
or old country people who had never be- 
fore climbed a high staircase. They had 
to be carried to the dormitories up- 
stairs on the backs of policemen. For 
it was the policemen of the fifth district 
(sixth and fourteenth arrondissements), 
the "gardiens de la paix," as thev pre- 
fer to be called, and their officer Peltier. 

'The prefet de police of the city of Paris 
is not only the head of the police force of 
the city, but also the head of several muni- 
cipal departments, as that of street clean- 
ing, public hygiene, and so forth. 

Classified Advertisements 



WANTED— A Women Physical Direc- 
tor; a Women's Swimming Teacher; an 
Assistant Men's Physical Director; and a 
Men's Swimming Teacher. To begin work 
June 1st Only those having experience, and 
graduates of reputable schools, need apply. 
Send application to Philip L. Seman, Supt, 
Chicago Hebrew Institute, 1258 Taylor St., 

EXPERIENCED Visiting Nurse. Must 
be registered and experienced in Social 
Work. State age, health, education, experi- 
ence, and salary expected. Social Service 
Bureau, Spokane, Wash. 

WANTED — An experienced resident 
Headworker in a non-sectarian Settlement 
House, located in a Jewsh Section of New 
York city. State experience. Address 2103. 

GERMAN-AMERICAN wishes situation 
as managing housekeeper. Institution or 
hospital. Experienced. References. Mrs 
Davis, 142 East 27th St. 

CAPABLE, experienced man wishe 
change of position to religious or other in 
stitution where agriculture is a feature 
Agricultural college graduate, teaching ex 
perience, holds responsible public position 
Married. Address 2099, Survey. 

OPPORTUNITY wanted to use large 
executive experience, good health, and en- 
thusiasm in working out some fresh air 
problem. College graduate (woman) 
Address 2102, Survey. 

WANTED — Position in an institution by 
a young woman interested in Social Work 
Have had eight years' good business ex- 
perience and one year as superintendent 
in an institution. Excellent references fur- 
nished. Address Miss Anna L. Palmer. 
525 Gramatan Ave., Mount Vernon, N. Y 


The S„rvev. Aoril 3. 1915 

DURING an uninterrupted existence of 
more than half a century, The Merchants 
Loan and Trust Company — the Oldest Bank in 
Chicago — has developed facilities and resources 
which enable it to offer liberal accommodations 
and unexcelled service in all branches of banking. 

Transacting the largest commercial 
business and having the greatest 
volume of bank deposits of any State 
Bank or Trust Company in the West, 
this Bank employs the most approved 
modern methods to insure the expe- 
ditious handling of the accounts of 
its city and out-of-town depositors. 

A well -organized Foreign Depart- 
ment, with extensive connections 
throughout the world, enables it to 
meet the foreign banking needs of 
every customer. 

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FRANK H. ARMSTRONG President Reid. Murdoch & Company 

ENOS M. BARTON - - - Chairman Board of Directors. Western Electric Company 

CLARENCE A. BURLEY Attorney and Capitalist 

HENRY P. CROWELL President Quaker Oats Company 

WILLIAM A. GARDNER - - - President Chicago & Northwestern Railway Company 

EDMUND D. HULBERT Vice-President 

CHAUNCEY KEEP Trustee Marshall Field Estate 

CYRUS H. McCORMICK President International Harvester Company 

SEYMOUR MORRIS Trustee L. Z. Leiter Estate 

JOHN S. RUNNELLS President Pullman Company 

EDWARD L. RYERSON - - Chairman Board of Directors Joseph T. Ryerson & Son 

JOHN G. SHEDD President Marshall Field & Company 

ORSON SMITH President 

ALBERT A. SPRAGUE. II. .... Vice-President Sprague. Warner & Company 

We invite inquiries in regard to any feature of our service 







Capital and Surplus $10,000,000 

who welcomed the refugees at St. Sul- 
pice. And if there was only straw in 
the dormitories, and a few mattresses in 
the rooms for the women, there were 
plenty of kind words and gentle help. 

The refugees were hungry; the babies 
cried for milk. This had not been fore- 
seen by M. le Prefet! But the police- 
men did not stop long to consider. A 
few went ransacking the neighboring 
stores, while others became improvised 
cooks. An hour later, a hot meal was 
served and the babies had their milk. 
The tired travelers went to sleep, but the 
policemen kept a vigilant watch. This 
was necessary — northern people love 
their pipes and would rather do with- 
out food than without an evening smoke. 
In these old rooms with their floors 
covered with straw, a dropped match 
might have set the whole building: on 

The orderly strong souls of the gar- 
diens de la paix were never to forget 
that first night and the sight of this 
great distress. They realized at once 
that the refugees were shocked, bewild- 
ered, unable to look out for themselves 
in a foreign city — a number being Flem- 
ish, did not even understand French 
And they decided to adopt their wards. 

The next morning, every one of the 
800 policemen gave one franc ; that made 
800 francs with which to meet the ex- 
penses of the day. The inhabitants of 
the Quartier St. Sulpice, at first puzzled 
by the queer happenings in the old Sem- 
inaire, were not long in taking the hint, 
and began to bring things in — clothes, 
bed-clothing, food-stuffs, furniture, 
lamps, money. Old petites renticres 
would come carrying some humble uten- 
sil for "les plus pauvres." Hairdress- 
ers and barbers offered their services 

Nor were trades-people left behind in 
this generous onrush. Even costermon- 
gers — who, as a rule, do not consider 
policemen as bosom friends — were touch- 
ed by the initiative of these policemen, 
and made a collection among themselves 
to help in the good work. 

Now Prefet Peltier saw his chance; 
this spontaneous entente cordiale could 
be turned into a permanent productive I 
alliance. He called together some of ! 
these good people, formed a committee 
and, on August 10, an association was 
officially announced under the name of j 
"Secours de Guerre." 

It was placed under the patronage of 
the policemen, trades-people and manu- 
facturers of the sixth and fourteenth 
arrondisscmcnts. The aim was: 

"To give to any arriving refugees. 
Belgian, Alsacien-Lorrain. or northern 
French (that is to say. to all belong- j 
ing by heart to the same country), | 
material aid and moral comfort; to' 
offer them opportunities for remuner- 
ative employment : to watch over, and 
take care of their children ; to take 
care of children made orphans by the 
war; to entertain convalescing sol- 
diers, natives of the invaded regions, 
during their leave-of-absence after 
dismissal from the hospitals." 

The resources of the association were 
to be the voluntary monthly contribu- 
tions of the gardiens de la paix of the 

Police Work for Refugees in Paris 


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New York 
2-6 W. 45th Street 

24 Bedford Street 

district, the subscriptions of members, 
and whatever gifts or money might 
eventually come from other sources. 

Paris in August is never a rich Paris; 
this particular August, practically all the 
well-to-do people had left the city. One 
could not count on very large subscrip- 
tions. So the association had practical- 
ly to live from hand to mouth during the 
summer. The policemen did not get dis- 
couraged. They gave all their own free 
time and that of their wives and daugh- 
ters. They became house-painters, mas- 
ons, bricklayers, carpenters, plumbers. 
The old walls of St. Sulpice were white- 
washed. Running water and gas were 
introduced, repairs made and wood 
floors built over dilapidated stone floors 
in the administration rooms. 

The cells were furnished little by lit- 
tle; some one asked and got a lot of 
beds from the Lycee St. Louis; curtains 
and carpets were made out of odd bits. 
According to their needs, every family 
of refugees was given one or two rooms 
where it could make a little home, and 
for which it was expected to care under 
tactful supervision. 

A big kitchen and a large dining-room 
were arranged downstairs for which 
the policemen made many tables and 
benches out of old pieces of wood found 
in the garrets — even wood coming from 
grocery boxes was made use of. Tal- 
ented cooks were discovered among 
these gardiens de la paix ! Every morn- 
ing, Madame Peltier went to the Halles 
Centrales to do the marketing, helped in 
this work by the storekeepers of the 
Quartier who knew best how to buy at 
fair prices. Mesdames the wives and 
daughters of the policemen, waited on 
the refugees at their three meals. 

A vestiaire was organized, and the 
twelve ladies in charge saw that it was 
plentifully furnished by the public. Old 
clothes coming in were disinfected, 
washed, repaired, sorted as to kind and 
size, and placed ready for use, on shelves 
in three large rooms. 

Next to feeding and clothing, the 
greatest need was medical assistance. 
This was kindly provided by Dr. Lasne- 
Desvareilles and a staff of voluntary 
nurses. An infirmary was established ; 
medical visits, vaccination, and bathing 
were made obligatory. As there were 
no bathrooms in the Seminaire, the 
refugees were taken for baths to some 
of the modern hospitals in the neighbor- 
hood. The Prefecture de Police sent 
every other day special apparatus and 
workers to clean and disinfect the whole 
huge building. Thanks to these meas- 
ures, the sanitary state of the commun- 
ity rapidly improved and has been per- 
fect ever since. 

Now the guests could not be kept idle 
— the more so as many were very anx- 
ious to find work. The managing com- 
mittee entered into friendly relations 
with all industrial syndicats (trade 
unions), all administrative or commer- 
cial agencies or organizations in Paris 
and elsewhere. Employment was found 
and good advice given. For instance, 
carpenters who were not much in de- 
mand got excellent jobs as packers for 
the army. 

Through the efforts of the committee, 
3,340 men, 1,614 women, 790 boys and 
462 girls have so far been given re- 

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munerative work or employment outside. 
Some women could not go out because 
of their health or the care of their 
young children. An ouvroir was pro- 
vided for them right in the Seminaire, 
where they get a small sum for their 
work, while the children or infants are 
taken care of in a garderie d'enfants, 
and a pouponnicre 2 established in an- 
other part of the building. 

Older children go to school in the 
municipal or parish schools of the neigh- 
borhood, some gardiens de la paix tak- 
ing and fetching them. 

Then came the question of recreation 
for the children and even for the adults. 
Provision was made for gymnastics, 
singing and dancing classes in the 
Seminaire. No less a person than 
the choirmaster of the church of St. 
Sulpice comes twice a week to train the 
choir. Now that the policemen have 
established electric light in the house, 
the electric power is used in the after- 
noon on Thursdays and Sundays to work 
a cinematograph. A clever policeman 
has also built a guignol (puppet show) 
which is the delight of the younger folk. 

When you come to the Seminaire — 
and visitors are welcome at any time in 
the day — a boy scout ushers you in, and 
if you only want to see the place, shows 
you around. You find that the house is 
as busy as a bee-hive; a jolly bunch of 
happy fellows in civilian clothes (for 
they are not on duty, mind!) handle the 
hammer, the brush, or wires, or pans; 
while those of their comrades, who are 
on duty, stand in uniforms in the wide 
corridors on each floor, seeing that order 
and discipline are preserved. 

The laughter and song of children are 
heard — the corridors are good places to 
run and play when weather does not per- 
mit the use of the garden. Old women 
knit as they sit chatting around the 
large stoves. A little girl carries milk 
upstairs, a nurse passes you with some 
light medicine in her hand. Earnest 
looking citizens, who devote part of their 
time to the administrative work, which 
is conducted with wonderful method and 
effectiveness, go to and fro. 

It is not an easy task to meet all the 
demands of the association, to keep the 
records of the thirteen thousand people 
who have already found permanent or 
momentary shelter in the Seminaire. In 
December, 500 refugees from Rheims 
arrived the same night in a pitiful state. 
The officer who told me the story said 
he could weep to see the pale faces of 
the babies who had lived in caves for 
weeks and had been fed mainly with 
an infusion of linden leaves. 

In January three weeping young girls 
arrived in another group. They came 
from Ypres. had lost their family in the 
crowd at Boulogne, and after much mad 
tramping from one town to another, had 
reached Paris despairing ever to see their 
parents again. The tenderest care could 
not soothe their grief. The committee 
undertook to find the parents, and suc- 
ceeded after almost three months of 
search and advertising. The parents af- 
ter manv wanderings and search for the 
lost children, had found work in a small 
village of Burgundy. 

"Special dormitory with nurses attending, 
where infants <leep. are fed. and bathed. 

At another time when more refugees 
came from Rheims, a little girl of three 
with a bandaged foot, carried by her 
mother, when asked what hurt her, 
would answer seriously, "C'est le tanon 

Of course, there is no end to these 
stories ; every inmate has his sad tale. 
And yet, these people are not sad, as you 
will notice if you call on them in their 
own rooms and talk with them. Most 
of them want to remain in Paris where 
they feel nearer their homes. All those 
who can, want to remain at St. Sul- 
pice where they have formed friend- 
ships and found such a home-like wel- 
come, where visitors of mark come also 
to bring words of cheer and hope. 3 

There are 600 rooms and large dormi- 
tories in the Seminaire, 1,500 beds; and 
more rooms can be fitted. The work of 
the association meets so well the needs 
of the homeless that it will have to last 
even for some months after the war is 
over, until new homes are built. Al- 
though the whole enterprise works on 
the basis of the strictest economy, al- 
though nobody who works in the Semin- 
aire, except the women refugees who 
work in the ouvroir, receives any pay, 
the expenses are great. This is the 
monthly expense for food only : 

Bread 3.800 francs 

Meat 7,560 " 

Vegetables . ... 1.100 

Wine 3,120 " 

Beer 500 * 

Milk 2,400 " 

Total 18.480 francs 

The association has now a member- 
ship of 2,100 members. It receives aid 
from the great association called the Se- 
cours National, from the Comite Franco- 
Beige, from the administration known 
as Assistance Publique, and from the 
Prefecture de Police. Generous gifts 
are also made to it, and the gardiens de 
la paix still contribute regularly to its 
support, but much money is still needed. 

The names and callings of the men 
on the managing board are : 

President, M. Mainguet of the publish- 
ing firm of Plon, Nourrit & Co. 

Directeur-fondateur, Paul Peltier, of- 
fice of the peace. 

Secretaire general, M. Lacote, con- 

Secretaires-ad joints, M. Lesage, jewel- 
er; M. Patin, merchant: M. Merle, stock 

Trcsorier, M. Gustave, manufacturer 

Avocat, M. Peythieu, lawyer. 

They would probably be shocked to 
see their names published, for they are 
modest men. and they enjoy the work 
they have undertaken so much that they 
find in it their best reward. 

Among others, the Duchess of Vendome, 
sister of the King of Belgium, and Mgr. 
Amette, archbishop of Paris. When the 
visit of Archbishop Amette was announced, 
the gardiens de la paix found out the old 
cell where the cardinal had spent years as 
a student — cell 72 — and inquired from old 
Sulpicians about the waj it was then fur- 
nished. When Cardinal Amette wished to 
see his old cell, he found it just as he 
had left it so long ago. He was deeply 

d, and fell on hi< knee* and pi 

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The Survey, April 3, 1915 

You Are Particular 

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Points of Agreement in Dealing with 
Wayward Girls. Church Mission of Help, 
37 East 28th Street, New York city. 

Immigrants in America. Program for a 
domestic policy. By trances A. Kellor 
Committee for Immigrants in America. 95 
Madison Avenue, New York city. 

Rural School Hygiene. A section of the 
Pennsylvania rural school report, 1914. By 
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Pennsylvania State College, State College 

The Periodic Physical Examination of 
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director of hygiene, Life Extension Insti- 
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The Coming Movement for Extending 
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Journal of Public Health, 755 Boylston 
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The Burning Question. Rational educa 
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M.D. Price 10 cents. Rational Education 
League, 1651 Washington Avenue, Bronx 
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Periodic Examination of Supposedly Well 
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Reprinted from the Kentucky Medical Jour- 
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tute Inc., 25 West 45th Street, New York ciu 

The Commission Plan and Commission 
Manager Plan of Municipal Government 
An analytical study by a committee, of the 
National Municipal League. Price 5 cents. 
National Municipal League, North Ameri- 
can Building, Philadelphia. 

Disarmament and International Police 
Report of Committee on International Ar- 
bitration. Presented at the thirty-eighth an- 
nual meeting of the New York State Bar 
Association. Address Everett P. Wheeler 
27 William Street, New York city. 

Women's Work and Wages in the United 
States. By C. E. Persons, associate director 
of the School of Social Economy of Wash- 
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Quarterly Journal of Economics, February 
1915. Washington University, St Louis 

Organized Charity and Industry. A chap- 
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By Edward T. Devine. Studies in social 
work, No. 2. Price 5 cents; 25 copies $1 
The New York School of Philanthropy. 
United Charities Building, New York city 

The Two Banner Prohibition States, 
Prohibition at Its Best in Maine. By Cyrus 
W. Davis, secretary of State of Maine 
1911-12; Facts About Kansas "on the 
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cents. National Home Rule Association. 
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Supplement to the Annual Report of the 
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Deported immigrant 
who traveled 34,000 
miles seeking a port 
that would receive 

him. [See page 39.] 

Photo copyright by 
Undemood & 

Price 10 Cents 

April 10, 1915 

Volume XXXIV, No. 2 



105 East 22d Street 

New York 


Robert W. deForest, President 
Arthur P. Kellogg, Secretary Frank Tucker, Treasurer 


2559 Michigan Ave. 


Vol. XXXIV, No. 2 


April io, 1915 


warning to girls from san francisco 

without a country and without a mind ... 

chas. McCarthy on why he is out of federal inquiry 

teacher-mothers of new york and chicago 

favor federal control of quarantine 

justice for the poor man in new york 

Lattimore .................. 


Charlotte Brewster Jordan 

ING Florence L. Sanville 



Henry R. Seager 






Bess C Owen 52 


frlisaheth Gilman 53 






Single copies of this Issue ten cents. Co-operating subscriptions $10 a year. Regular 
subscriptions $3 a year. Foreign postage $1.20 extra. Canadian 70 cents. Changes of address 
should be mailed to us ten days in advance. In accordance with a growing commercial practice, 
when payment is by check a receipt will be sent only upon request. 




The Dallas bearings of the United Sin to Com- 
mission on Industrial Relations reviewed by 
Charles W. Holman, formerly editor of Farm ami 
Ranch, editor of the Press Bulletin, College of 
Agriculture, University of Wisconsin, and the es 
pert who studied farm tenancy in the south 
western states for the federal commission. 

In The Survey for April 17. 

The GIST of IT- 

the University of Chicago, widely known 
for his work in charity and in prison re- 
form, widely loved for his gentle, inspiring 
manhood, is dead after 67 years of faith- 
ful service for his fellows. Page 55. 

_^S the very rock bottom for New York's 
new state constitution Professor Seager 
proposes a clause reading: "Nothing con- 
tained in this constitution shall be con- 
strued to limit the power of the legisla- 
ture to enact laws to promote the health, 
safety, morals or welfare of the people of 
this state." Page 49. 

("JOOD roads, bringing poor farms near 

to hungry markets, would go a long 

way toward meeting the right of a man 

to a job. Mr. Moore maintains. Page 54. 

PORTLAND'S relief plans for unem- 
ployment and a survey of its dependent 
families show conditions very similar to 
those in other parts of the country, with 
pressing problems of immigration soon to 
be faced. Page *>^ 

BALTIMORE'S workshop for unem- 
ployed men has. at a cost of $4,000. 
provided 3.000 days' work for 200 men 
and through them taken can of 800 women 
and children. Page 5S, 

("MIARLES MCCARTHY tells why he got 

out of the Industrial Relations Com- 
mission. Page 40. 

EMPLOYERS, employes and the public 
are pricking Pennsylvania's laggard 
adoption of the principle of compensation 
for work-accidents. One of the greatest 
of industrial states, leading in three extra 
hazardous industries. Pennsylvania has 
dawdled eight years after the accident 
showing of the Pittsburgh Survey, while 
her neighbors were enacting laws to take 
union of accidents off the workers 
and their families. The bills now before 
the Legislature are among Governor Brum- 
baugh's administration measures. Page 44. 

pENNSYLVANl VS "pork barrel" for 
charity works as ill as the federal 
appropriations for dredging meandering 
creeks. The report by the state Public 
Charities Association oh subsidized chil- 
dren's institutions in and about Pittsburgh 
shows not only woful inefficiency and bad 
management, but downright neglect and 
cruel punishment. A legislative commission 
king into the matter officially. Page Y- 

TPHE provision in the immigration law 
by which an insane alien may be de- 
ported has sent Nathan Cohen back and 
forth between North and South America 
for 34,000 weary miles. War has interned 
several hundred insane patients at Ellis 
Island waiting for regular sailings to theii 
old homes in Europe Pagi 

TpHE Association of Collegiate Alumnae 

and the American Social Hygiene ' 
ciation warn girls not to go to San Fran- 
cisco expecting to find work during the 
exposition Page 89 




Danger signals are being 
Hashed to young people bound -for the 
Panama Pacific Exposition without 
money, friends or definite positions. 
To show that warning is needed, the 
American Social Hygiene Association 
points to a report indicating that there 
is much unemployment in San Fran- 
cisco and calls attention also to the 
city's moral conditions which give cause 
for anxiety. 

A survey of unemployment among 
women in San Francisco has just been 
completed by the California branch of 
the Association of Collegiate Alumnae. 

At the exposition alone the manager 
of the employment bureau reported to 
the investigators that there were on file 
in his office December 7, between 90,000 
and 100,000 applications for positions. 
Of these, between 9,000 and 10,000 are 
women. But the number of positions 
for women to be filled directly by the 
exposition authorities is not more than 

Employment bureaus are crowded 
with applicants. One, for example, 
which has kept statistics for 1913, stated 
that 1,978 applications were received for 
three months, September to November, 
1914, as compared with 824 in 1913, 
while the number of places filled in 1914 
was only 217. 

Factories, department stores and offi- 
ces also have an oversupply of labor 
according to the study made by the 
Collegiate Alumnae. One store report- 
ed a daily excess of 20 applicants over 
this time last year. A second has re- 
ceived 177 requests for work made from 
October 24 to December 4, of which 
110 were made by easterners who ap- 
plied in person, showing that these wom- 
en were on the ground and jobless. An- 
other large department store had so 
many inquiries about employment that 
it mailed a letter to applicants advising 
them to keep away from San Francisco. 

With reference to moral conditions, 
the American Social Hygiene Associa- 
tion points out, as indicative of a general 
laxity, that there has been an increase in 
the number of questionable dance halls 

Volume XXXIV, No. 2. 

and a failure to utilize a law designed to 
curb , commercialized prostitution. 

On September 29, 1914, an ordinance 
was passed transferring the power to 
grant dance-hall permits from the po- 
lice commission to the Board of Super- 
visors. In the following three months 
173 such permits were issued, 123 of 
which were renewed during the first 
two weeks in January. On January 21, 
1915, there were 137 such permits ex- 
isting — 38 in the notorious Barbary 
Coast district, 16 in the general region 
of the New Tenderloin, 10 in the so- 
called Beach District, and 7 in the dis- 
trict near the entrance to the exposi- 
tion grounds. 

San Francisco has long had and has 
today a segregated district for prosti- 
tution. It was hoped that by the pass- 
age of the redlight abatement law this 
district and other houses of prostitution 
throughout the city would be closed, so 
that visitors to the exposition would not 
be confronted with open and flagrant 
vice. Largely to meet this situation the 
law was passed by the Legislature of 
1913 and approved by the people at the 
general election last November. 

Experience elsewhere with similar 
laws, which allow any citizen to file suit 
against houses of prostitution as pub- 
lic nuisances, has shown them to be 
the most powerful weapon yet devised 
for fighting commercialized prostitution. 
Immediately upon its final approval, the 
California law was attacked by a series 
of test suits. An appeal to a higher 
court is still pending. Meanwhile the 
law has not been used and seems likely 
to remain unused during part or all of 
the exposition period. 

The exposition authorities, who wield 
great influence in the situation, have 
made themselves responsible for moral 
conditions inside the exposition grounds 
by pledging themselves repeatedly and 
publicly to maintain satisfactory condi- 
tions for visitors and to co-operate with 
protective organizations. The San 
Francisco authorities are not so clearly 
on record, but the mayor has given many 
general assurances of his intention to 
maintain order and a high standard of 
public morals. 



"The Wandering Jew of 
the Sea" read some of the newspaper 
headlines, but the real prototype of 
Nathan Cohen, exiled from the lands of 
his birth and adoption, whose case has 
been before the immigration authorities 
at the port of New York the past fort- 
night, is, of course, Edward Everett 
Hale's Man Without a Country. Dr. 
Hale's story told, it will be remembered, 
of the young soldier who joined Aaron 
Burr's conspiracy in the early days of 
the nation, cursed the United States in 
the court that tried him and was sen- 
tenced to a lifelong imprisonment on 
the vessels of the American navy. 

There is no charge of lack of patriot- 
ism on the part of Nathan Cohen, how- 
ever; his crime was that something in 
his brain gave way, and, rejected at all 
ports, he was a prisoner on a vessel for 
many months. 

"We felt that if we could prevent it a 
helpless man should not be bandied back 
and forth while a steamship company 
and the government were at odds as to 
his disposal," said a representative of 
the Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant 
Aid Society, and that was the motive 
force that finally brought Nathan 
Cohen's involuntary travels to an end 
after he had covered nearly 34,000 miles 
between the United States and South 
America in the past year. 

The unique character of this case of 
deportation secured it publicity at a time 
when the man concerned could not speak 
for himself. In seeking the facts of his 
history it developed that he was born in 
Russia, at Bansk, Province of Kurland. 
about thirty-five years ago, but most of 
his life had been spent in Brazil. 

In May, 1912, with a substantial sum 
of money he came to America and en- 
tered into a disastrous business connec- 
tion with an uncle in Jacksonville, Flor- 
ida. After the loss of his savings he 
determined to return to Brazil. But he 
was overtaken by symptoms of insanity 
and, as he had been in this country less 
than three years, he was ordered de- 
ported from Ellis Island on the assump- 
tion that his mental trouble was due to 



The Survey, April 10, 1915 

Peace Poster of 

The New York Normal Art School 


causes existing prior to his landing. So 
began his long journeyings. 

The steamship company that brought 
him here from Brazil was required by 
the port authorities to return him to that 
country. Brazil refused to accept him 
on the ground that he was insane and 
not a citizen, and the same course was 
followed by other South American coun- 
tries. His birthplace was Russia, but 
Russian ports were difficult of access. 

Then followed his return to America, 
where his mental condition confirmed 
the United States in its policy of exclu- 
sion, and six months detention at Ellis 
Island, his mind always a blank and his 
health very feeble. 

On his return from what proved to be 
his last enforced trip to the southern 
terminus of the steamship company, his 
mind began slowly to clear. Gradually 
it was found that he could speak Span- 
ish, Yiddish, German and a little Eng- 
lish, and, aided by careful and kindly 
questioning, he little by little recalled 
matters prior to his illness — though noth- 
ing of his wanderings — the name of his 
birthplace, his business in Brazil, his 
membership in the Knights of Pythias 
lodge at Jacksonville, the loss of his 
money and the long mental blank. 

This indicated that his insanity had 
developed after his landing here, and 
gave the officers of the Hebrew Immi- 
grant Aid Society and lodge something 
to build on in gaining a hearing from 
John B. Densmore, acting secretary of 
labor. Their co-operation resulted in an 
order received only just in time to re- 
lease Cohen from his outward bound 
prison, under bond to the government, 
placing him in charge of the society 
through which it is hoped he will have 
care and treatment that may strengthen 
his enfeebled faculties until he can be 
safely transported to Russia. 

Cohen's case calls attention to the fact 
that the suspension of the usual sailings 
between the United States and European 
ports since the war began has compli- 
cated the removal of several hundred 

alien insane under warrant for deporta- 
tion in different parts of this country. 
The stipulation under the immigration 
law "that any alien who shall . . . 
become a public charge from causes ex- 
isting prior to landing shall, upon the 
warrant of the secretary of labor, be 
taken into custody and deported to the 
country whence he came at any time 
within three years after the date of his 
entry into the United States" — at the ex- 
pense of the steamship company — re- 
sulted in the last year in a total of 2,050 
deportations through the port of New 
York. Of this number, 399 insane aliens 
were ordered deported by the Ellis Is- 
land office alone. 

Except for a few waifs and strays of 
the world's shifting currents of people, 
Ellis Island is all but a deserted village 
these days, with scant hundreds of im- 
migrants arriving in place of the thou- 
sands who used daily to surge through 
its gangways to be sorted — sent on or 
sent back. In 1913-14, the year of 
heaviest immigration for some time, 16,- 
588 persons were debarred for all causes. 
The average number debarred for some 
years up to last June has been 9,660. 
but during the past nine months only 
2,127 cases have been recorded. The 
number detained on the island for rea- 
sons of exclusion, illness, special in- 
quiry, lack of transportation facilities 
and the like on April 1 was barely 250. 

Chas. McCarthy on why he 
is out of federal inquiry 

The Washington offices of the 
United States Commission on Industrial 
Relations were closed last week, accord- 
ing to dispatches from the national 
capital, and the files of the commission 
removed to the field headquarters. 
Transportation Building, Chicago. 

The New York Times of March 31. 
published the following telegram from 
Charles McCarthy, in reply to an inquiry 
as to his clash with the chairman of the 
commission which led to his retirement 
early in March as director of research 
and investigation : 

"Answering your inquiry, I ob- 
jected to what I considered ridiculous 
and wasteful budget making and 
financial plans of Chairman Frank P. 
Walsh. He then suggested that I be- 
come advisor to the commission at a 
maximum salary per diem. As I con- 
sider Walsh thoroughly incompetent 
to manage such an important commis- 
sion, I refused. Financial considera- 
tion had nothing to do with the mat- 
ter, as I had previously cut myself 
entirely out of the budget, which I 
had made with the purpose of doing 
what I could for the success of the 
work until the end without pay." 

"Charles McCarthy." 



To make things easier for teach- 
er-mothers. Ella Flagg Young, superin- 
tendent of schools of Chicago, has 
recommended a change in the rule regard- 
ing their appointment. The rule now 
prevents the appointment of any mother 
with a child under two years of age. 
Mrs. Young urges that the age of the 
child be changed to one year, and that 
the superintendent be allowed to exercise 
her judgment with regard to permitting 
a mother with a child under one year to 
substitute. The suggestion is before the 
Committee on School Management of 
the Board of Education. 

Meanwhile, there has been introduced 
into the Legislature of New York, where 
the controversy over teacher-mothers 
has waxed hottest, an amendment to the 
existing education law which would up- 
set the present status of married teach- 
ers by permitting the dismissal of a 
teacher who marries after appointment 
and rescuing such dismissal from re- 
view by the state commissioner of edu- 
cation. The act was introduced by 
Assemblyman Nehrbauer and referred 
to the Committee on Education. 


On March 23, the Boston City 
Council Committee on Ordinances re- 
ported favorably on the proposed trans- 
fer of the Boston quarantine station to 
federal control. 

Also, the Boston Chamber of Com- 
merce has largely withdrawn its earlier 
opposition to the transfer. In his mes- 
sage expressing this change of view . 
Robert Luce, of the Chamber of Com- 
merce, pointed out the importance to 
shipping interests that everything be 
done which might make even more ef- 
fective quarantine measures at the port 
of Boston. 

The New York Merchants' Associa- 
tion has voted favorably on the similar 
transfer proposed for the Rosebank 
quarantine station, but the Chamber of 
Commerce has taken the contrary view 

The federal government stands ready 
to take over these two stations and tin- 
one at Baltimore, which are all the ports 
of entry that remain in the hands of 
state or local health authorities 

Common Welfare 



On February 10 the janitor of a 
New York city tenement house was ar- 

1 rested and taken to a magistrate's court 
for failing to separate garbage from 
ashes. As his offense was a "misde- 
meanor" the magistrate was compelled 
to hold him for the Court of Special 
Sessions. He was too poor to raise 
bail. After staying in prison five days, 
he admitted his guilt before the higher 
court, received a suspended sentence and 
was set free. 

While he was in jail his wife and 
children were starving. The push-cart 
on which he depended for part of his 
living was broken. Ten days after his 
arrest the family had half a loaf of 
bread and nothing more. 

Nearly 800 men are thus compelled 
every year to stay in prison in New 
York city for from three to twenty-one 
days, simply because they are poor. The 
reason for this condition is an inflexible 
law which requires that every misde- 
meanant with the exception of speeding 
and cruelty-to-animals cases shall be held 
by the magistrate for the Court of Spe- 
cial Sessions, in order that there may be 
a trial by three judges instead of one. 
This is held to be necessary when moral 
turpitude is involved or when a long im- 
prisonment may be imposed. But the 
right of trial by more than one judge has 
been changed into a rigid requirement, 
even if defendant and prosecutor are 
willing to forego it. The result is 
choked court calendars, and needless 
misery for the poor. 

A remedy for this situation has been 
embodied in a bill now before the New 

York state Legislature, giving to the 
magistrate power to dispose of the whole 
matter in the first instance when both 
sides are willing. This bill, introduced 
by Assemblyman Hoff and Senator Mills, 
was prepared by the Committee on 
Criminal Courts of the Charity Organi- 
zation Society and has the endorsement 
of the Boards of Magistrates of the 
First and Second Divisions. Under it, 
the only cases that could not be finally 
disposed of by the magistrate are dis- 
orderly house, excise and gambling 
cases, and those involving misconduct 
toward children. 

This step merely carries forward the 
reforms of the Page Commission, which 
in 1909 gave to the magistrate final 
power in automobile and cruelty-to-ani- 
mals" cases. 

But the bill cuts deeper. More than 
one-half the cases where bail is raised, 
run from five weeks to six months. A 
citizen from whom a bottle of milk has 
been stolen must go, if the offender is 
arrested, first to the magistrate's court 
and then to the Court of Special Ses- 
sions. There he usually waits for hours. 
Every delay tends to benefit a guilty de- 
fendant. It affords opportunities for 
tampering with witnesses and for evi- 
dence to cool. By permitting the magis- 
trate to dispose of these cases at once, 
the bill does away with many of the evils 
incident to delay. 

The bill goes even further. Last year 
the magistrates' courts in Manhattan and 
the Bronx heard 23,600 cases of viola- 
tion of the sanitary law and over 22,000 
cases of violation of corporate ordin- 
ances. In nearly every one the officer 
and citizen involved had to sit around 

the magistrate's court, sometimes most 
of the day, waiting while more pressing 
matters were disposed of. Six thou- 
sand similar cases brought by city or 
state departments, but of the technical 
gravity of misdemeanors, had to be held 
for Special Sessions. These were in 
most instances trivial offenses and over 
two-thirds of those accused pleaded 
guilty. Nevertheless they waited days 
for trial. 

As a remedy for this, the bill creates a 
new court, called the Municipal Term. 
In it all misdemeanor cases brought by 
city departments except the Police De- 
partment, and by the state Department 
of Labor, will be heard ; city magis- 
trates will preside with all the powers of 
Special Sessions. It is expected that 
this alone will relieve Special Sessions 
of 35 per cent of its cases. 

Finally, the bill removes children's 
courts, which are now parts of the Court 
of Special Sessions, as far as possible 
from the criminal courts. The state con- 
stitution seems to require that justices 
of Special Sessions hold the Children's 
Court. The proposed bill relieves them 
of all other work during service in the 
Children's Court. It removes this court 
entirely from the administrative control 
of criminal court justices and places it 
under the control of the judges appoint- 
ed to this court by the mayor. It aims 
to give to New York city a real juvenile 
court, of the sort made famous by Den- 
ver, Chicago and other places. 

Delay, lack of sympathy, pressure on 
the poor, and officialism are four evils 
most frequently charged against courts 
in this country today. It is these evils 
that the present measure aims to abolish. 


gOTH these public buildings are in Covington County, Ala. 
The jail has a sanitary drinking fountain, shower baths, 
clean floors, plenty of light, and good ventilation. Alabama 
has a state inspector of jails with complete control of the 
architecture and sanitary arrangement of county jails. 

School affairs are almost entirely in the hands of county 
boards of education — the members of which seldom visit the 
schools and work largely from hearsay. The board in Cov- 
ington County is composed of three farmers, one teacher, 
and the county superintendent. Since the above pictures were 
taken, $500 has been raised for the construction of a new 
school building. 


One Alabama farmer with a cheap automobile has in- 
vested in that one piece of mechanism more than the average 
rural community as a whole has in its school plant. And 
the owner of the auto frequently spends as much on the 
upkeep of his one car as the community spends for the 
total maintenance of the school, including the teacher's salary. 
This is one of the significant comparisons brought out by 
W. F. Feagin, state superintendent of education, in an edu- 
cational survey of three Alabama counties. 

Of 5,423 pupils entering the first grade in the schools cov- 
ered by the survey only sixty completed the fourth 
year of the high school. 


The Survey, April JO, 1915 




The lid of Pennsylvania's phil- 
anthropic "pork barrel" has actually 
been pried up at one edge and a special 
commission, representing the House and 
the Senate Appropriations Committees, 
is about to peek in. 

The instrument which loosened the lid 
is Pamphlet Number One, recently pub- 
lished by the Allegheny County Commit- 
tee of the Public Charities Association 
of Pennsylvania. This pamphlet tersely 
and graphically reports on existing pro- 
vision for the "essential needs" of the 
dependent, delinquent, and crippled chil- 
dren in the subsidized institutions of 
Allegheny County (Pittsburgh). 

The report, and the investigation back 
of it, were made by Abraham Oseroff, 
executive secretary. He shows, in text 
and photograph, the human stake in- 
volved in the running of twenty institu- 
tions towards which the state contributes 
$150,000 a year. 

With entire fairness the report makes 
special mention of the excellent way in 
which essential needs are met in the work 
for crippled children and calls the two 
training schools for boys, on the whole, 
"exceptionally good." It gives generous 
credit to other institutions which are 
struggling against heavy odds imposed 
by unsuitable, old-type buildings on the 
congregate plan. It speaks of the spirit 
of progress and the desire for improve- 
ment shown by institution managers and 
expresses hope for a future of high 

That part of the report which has in- 
volved the pork-barrel sums up promin- 
ent weaknesses of the present provision 
under six heads: investigation, records, 
placing-out, industrial training, evil ten- 
dencies due to inadequate supervision, 
and state appropriations. 

It is stated that there is an almost en- 
tire lack of proper home investigation 
of the children admitted to the majority 
of these institutions; that many are ac- 
cepted on the statement of those most 
interested in having the child admitted 
and that, in consequence, the institutions 
are burdened with children who do not 
need them at all. 

One institution is cited in which a 
careful family study revealed the fact 
that at least thirty per cent of the wards 
were not properly institutional charges. 
It is pointed out that this situation is 
harmful to the children themselves and 
has a demoralizing and destructive in- 
fluence on the families. A proper divis- 
ion of financial obligation is urged as a 
matter of social justice to the benefac- 
tors and beneficiaries alike. As condi- 
tions now stand those able to bear the 
financial support of a child often secure 
free care for him in one of these insti- 

Carelessness in record keeping is 
shown. Some institutions partially sup- 

ported by the state, do not even record 
the names of children in their care, the 
date of arrival or the disposition of chil- 
dren discharged. For example, one su- 
perintendent thought she had charge of 
forty children when, by actual counting 
of heads, she had fifty-one. 

Financial records, in some cases, arc- 
in equally bad shape. An institution 
whose real estate alone is valued at $50,- 
000 and which has accommodations for 
seventy-nine children, kept its accounts 
in an unsystematic ledger, on loose 
pages of scrap paper and "a little book 
in which the superintendent records the 
names of the children and the payments 
made by their relatives, without speci- 
fying the time for which such payments 
were made." 

The undue emphasis on institutional 
care almost to the exclusion of the plac- 
ing-out system is brought out and de- 
plored. "For normal children the in- 
stitution should certainly be utilized only 
as a place of last resort and even then 

as a temporary measure only," says the 
report. Not only are normal children 
taken into the institutions but they are 
kept there for unjustifiable periods of 
time. This situation is made worse by 
a sad lack of co-operation between the 
institutions and placing-out societies. 

It is claimed that not one of these sub- 
sidized institutions adequately prepares 
the older boys and girls for wage-earn- 
ing. There is insufficient provision for 
industrial training. As is pointed out, 
such training cannot be given by "mere 
haphazard jobs about the house." 

Shocking conditions with regard to 
diet, recreation, discipline and health in 
some of the institutions are described 
as evil tendencies due to inadequate su- 
pervision. The diets are said to be very 
rarely arranged with any definite regard 
for food values and for the needs of the 
children. Recreational facilities are 
rarely adequate and in many institutions 
are almost entirely lacking. Such de- 
fects are especially disastrous to the 
class of children with whom the institu- 
tions deal. 

Some of the instances Mr. Oseroff 


Arrow points to porch which is used as a dormitory in an institu- 
tion receiving a state appropriation 

Common Welfare 


gives to illustrate methods of discipline 
used in certain institutions at the time 
the report went to press read like 
Thomas Mott Osborne's experiences at 
Auburn. Think of the following punish- 
ment being applied to little dependent 
children by a philanthropic agency : 

"Two methods were resorted to : the 
first was known among the children as 
the 'lock-up,' for which a dungeon and 
an old, built-in refrigerator were used; 
the second was known as the 'bannister 
punishment,' resorted to when the 'lock- 
ups' were both occupied. In administer- 
ing the bannister punishment the ban- 
nister overlooking one of the stairways 
was used. The child was placed with his 
back toward the bannister, his hands 
tied behind him, his feet tied to the ban- 
nister, and forced to remain in this po- 
sition for twenty-four hours on a bread 
and water diet, which was fed to the lit- 
tle offender by one of his or her fellow 
inmates, as the case might be. Any 
bread crumbs dropped on the floor 
necessitated their being licked up by the 
offender at the end of his ordeal. 

"The dungeon 'lock-up' is an almost 
totally dark, unplastered, dungeon-like 
room, about five feet wide, ten feet long 
and ten feet high and all but about two 
feet underground, located in the cellar 
of the institution. It has one tiny win- 
dow at the top of one of the walls and 
the air supply is through about a dozen 
one-inch holes in the upper panel of the 
solid door. In this room, with the door 
made fast with a padlock, little children 
were placed for 
twenty-four hours 
on a bread-and- 
water diet for of- 
fenses that might 
have come just as 
naturally, perhaps, 
to a child in any 
good family home. 
The horrors of the 
'lock-up,' as might 
be expected, are 
well impressed on 
■most of the chil- 
dren. It should be 
said, however, that 
with the advent of 
a new superintend- 
ent, the abolishment 
of these punish- 
ments has been 

In one institution 
a s u p e r i ntendent 
bragged, "There 
ain't never a boy 
come into this home 
that I couldn't lick 
and show 'im he 
ain't yet a man." 

Reckless d i s r e - 
gard of health is 
shown in institu- 
tions where quaran- 
tine and isolation 
facilities are not 
used. Epidemics 
are common, some 
times almost inces- 

sant. This situation is ascribed to a 
lack of knowledge as to proper methods 
of child care. 

"The vicious practices here detailed," 
--ays the report, "are permitted and the 
continuation of inefficiency and misman- 
agement made possible by the state of 
Pennsylvania, which helps to support 
these institutions by money from the 
state treasury. Through its haphazard, 
chaotic system of appropriating public 
funds to institutions under private con- 
trol, Pennsylvania is today helping to 
promote the existence of some institu- 
tions which are worse than useless." 

Recommendations are made for men- 
tal examination of children before ad- 
mission to institutions and after, for 
medical treatment, proper food, indus- 
trial training, recreational opportunities, 
safe standards of personal hygiene, the 
adoption of the cottage system as soon 
as possible and the use of institutions 
for defectives only except for tempor- 
ary care; the elimination of institutions 
which are menaces to the community 
and, in order to insure adequate inves- 
tigation of applicants and the placement 
in family homes of children who re- 
quire charitable but not institutional 
provision, the creation of a board of 
children's guardians or a state public 
school system. 

The unsatisfactory conditions in 
many of the Allegheny County institu- 


By Charlotte Brewster Jordan 

"The farmers in central Illinois claim that the brown thrush 
did not sing for a year after he died." — From Nicolay and 
Hay's Life of Abraham Lincoln. 

JUST fifty years ago today 
The brown thrush checked its liquid song! How could 
It trill its roundelay when one who loved 
All helpless things lay mute and cold! When hands 
Which oft had raised the fallen fledglings up 
And placed them gently back in their home nest 
Were smitten down, — forever stilled! Not for 
A year, the legends say, did throstles sing 
Again. Then o'er the hushed and mourning world 
They poured their carols forth once more, — as though 
Rejoicing that the spirit-dawn, for which 
Their comrade hourly prayed, had broken o'er 
The stricken earth. Time's healing touch but more 
Endeared that tender, all-compassionate heart 
Whose deathless fame is now become world 
As universal as the air, as high 
And deeply rooted as the rugged hills. 


tions have long been known to the pub- 
lic; that is, to the unofficial public since 
the Appropriations Committees and the 
Board of Public Charities have never 
before shown any signs of acquain- 
tance with them although the latter is 
the inspecting agency of the state. But 
somehow or other the criticisms have 
so threatened the pork barrel that the 
Appropriations Committee cannot get 
the lid nailed down tight again with 
Pamphlet Number One under its edge. 
And the Board of Public Charities is 
huffed to find its recommendations for 
state appropriations shown to be nothing 
short of ridiculous. 

The Woodward resolution, creating 
the investigational commission to inves- 
tigate the criticisms of the investigator, 
has been adopted by Senate and House, 
and signed by the governor. This com- 
mission has authority to issue subpoenas, 
to administer oaths, to compel the at- 
tendance of witnesses and the produc- 
tion of books. The chairman James F. 
Woodward, and C. J. Buckman, of the 
House and Senate Appropriations Com- 
mittees were empowered to appoint five 
other members from each committee. 
So far so good. This sort of thing 
is exactly what the House and Senate 
ought to do as a beginning. It is hoped 
that they will go to the bottom of all 
the criticisms, make a first-hand study 
of the situation and see for themselves 
the gravity and the 
shame of it. It 
would be well if they 
would investigate 
also the other coun- 
ties in the state 
where the condi- 
tions in many of the 
institutions are 

equally indefensible. 
James Scarlett, 
the attorney who so 
efficiently represent- 
ed the state of 
Pennsylvania in the 
'capitol graft" cases 
a few years ago, has 
been retained by the 
Public Charities As- 
sociation and may be 
ciation and may be 
expected to see to 
it that the investiga- 
tion does not stop 
at the surface. So 
the fight is on. 

The time for 
whitewash has gone 
by in Pennsylvania 
and the defenders 
of the subsidy sys- 
tem are at last ad- 
mittedly face to face 
with enlightened 
and organized oppo- 



in the 



Since the Tale of Industrial Accidents 
Was First Tallied in a Great Industrial 
District: the Administration s Compen- 
sation Bills in igi j. 

By Florence L. Sanville 





The youngsters ranged from 2 to 14 years 
of age. The mother has had a desperate struggle 
to care for the family helped out by the local char- 
ity organization society, the church and an occa- 
sional basket of groceries. Provision under the 
pending compensation legislation would ensure 
mothers with so many mouths to feed $8 a week, 
less even than eked out charity under present 
conditions. The bill is strong in insurance and 
administrative features, but desperately low in 

WITH not a dissenting voice, 
the employers and workers of 
Pennsylvania appeared before 
their representatives in Har 
risburg in March demanding that this 
year the Keystone State discard her 
threadbare methods of employers' lia- 
bility for injuries to working people. 
Since the enactment of the first work- 
men's compensation law of the country, 
in 1910, the progress of the states has 
been steadily away from this system. 

Minnesota, New York, and Wisconsin 
appointed in 1909 the pioneer commis- 
sions on this subject. Twenty-six other 
states followed in rapid succession, 
among them Pennsylvania, which ap- 
pointed an Industrial Accidents Com- 
mission in 1911. Today Pennsylvania is 
still in the commission stage, in the halt- 
ing company of Delaware, Colorado, 
Missouri, Vermont, Tennessee, and 
North Dakota. State by state, have the 


others marched past her in their pro- 
gress toward justice and social economy. 

The real issue, then, at Harrisburg 
this winter has not been the desirability 
of the compensation principle for Penn- 
sylvania — that is no longer debated or 
debatable — but rather the type of law 
that Pennsylvania is to have. The toll 
of accidents reported by the new Penn 
sylvania Department of Labor and In- 
dustry is itself the strongest and bitter- 
est argument for change. 

Directly through this department and 
through the Public Service Commission. 
49,390 accidents were reported in 1914. 
Of these. 1,695 were fatal; 3,122 serious; 
and 44,573 minor. In the 38,126 acci- 
dents reported from industrial establish- 
ments, the injured men and women lost 
426,824 days of work, and $1,048,503.26 
in wages during that year. There were 
64,076 persons — children, old people, sick 
people — dependent on these injured 

workers. But this is only part of the 
story. The commissioner of labor esti- 
mates that only from one-quarter to one- 
third of the total number of industrial 
accidents are reported to his office — 
probably not more than one-quarter ; 
and this, notwithstanding his effort to 
check up each accident on the standard 
schedules employed for a large number 
of state labor departments. An auto- 
matic reaction of compensation legisla- 
tion in Pennsylvania will be an improve- 
ment in the reporting of accidents. In 
other industrial states, two and one- 
half times as many reports as before 
have followed the enactment of the law. 
The three Pennsylvania industries 
which possess the greatest elements o\ 
danger and which contributed the larg- 
est quota to the accident roll of I'M 4 
are: coal mines and quarries; metal 
and metal products ; and glass, clay, and 
stone works. In these three industries 

The St RvvY. April 10 I&1S 

Social Legislation in the Keystone State 


the United States census shows Penn- 
sylvania to rank first of all the states. 
She has thus far been content to rank 
last, of all industrial states of nearby im- 
portance, in protecting her workers from 
hazards, — permitting the men exposed to 
them to bear almost the entire burden 
of the injuries which they incur, neg- 
lecting to provide satisfactorily for the 
families of her citizens killed in the bat- 
tles of peace. 

In the diary which the writer kept 
during two summers of work in the 
factories of the anthracite coal belt, the 
following entry was made at the end of 
the. second summer: 

Early employment of children due 
largely to : . 

1. Death or injury of bread-winner in 


2. Drink on part of father. 

3. Help in support of large families. 
A bit of evidence this, sobering to the 

individual thus brought in personal con- 
tact with it and borne out by actual fig- 
ures gathered later in Wilkesbarre and 
quoted in the recent article on child labor 
in The Survey of February 6. But for 
the state as a whole, it is fairly beyond 
the power of the imagination to grasp 
the human suffering which hangs on the 
vast accumulation of injuries and deaths 
in the furnaces, mines and quarries, 
steel mills and factories. 

Stalking at the heels of each mes- 
senger who carries home the evil news 
of father's hurt, is shock, worry, want, 
dislocation of family life, greater or less 
according to the seriousness of the in- 
jury. With what shall Pennsylvania re- 
place this present misery of so many of 
her unoffending citizens? This is the 
question which will be answered within 
the next few weeks. 

The Compensation Program 

During the past month the front pages 
of all the newspapers — from the great 
dailies to the two-sheet locals of the 
rural communities — have been covered 
with comments from employers, workers, 
and economists, on the first published 
draft of the compensation legislation of- 
fered in behalf of the state administra- 
tion. This was issued to the public in 
the form of a 150-page pamphlet pre- 
senting the whole legislative program on 
compensation, consisting of seven sepa- 
rate acts with parallel explanatory com- 

First is the workmen's compensation 
act, per se, followed by a bill to create 
a bureau of workmen's compensation in 
the Department of Labor and Industry; 
three bills affecting the insurance feat- 
ures of compensation; an act exempting 
farm and domestic occupations, and a 
resolution to amend the state constitu- 
tion so as to admit of a compulsory law. 
This program represents the results of 
the combined efforts of the Industrial 
Accident Commission, the attorney-gen- 
eral's department, and the state execu- 
tive office. 

Let us examine its elements. The pur- 
pose of every compensation law is to 
meet the economic problems created by 
industrial accidents. Whether any act 
accomplishes this depends upon its com- 
pensation scale and by its scale must it 
stand or fall. 

The chief points of the compensation 
scale provided in the proposed measure 
are the following: 

For total disability, 50 per cent of 
wages for a period of 500 weeks. 

For partial disability, 50 per cent of 
the difference between the wages before 
and after the injury, except in the case 
of the loss of an arm, leg, hand, foot, or 
eye, when the award is 50 per cent of 
wages for periods varying from 125 
weeks to 214 weeks. 

In' no case is the minimum award to 
fall below $5 a week, or the maximum 
award to exceed $10 a week. 

In case of death, the bill provides the 
following awards for 300 weeks only : 
for children left dependent and alone, 
25 per cent of the father's wages, with 
an additional 10 per cent for each child, 
and a maximum of 60 per cent. For 
the widow, 40 per cent of her husband's 
wages if she has no children; if she has 
one child, 45 per cent; 2 children 50 
per cent; 3 children 55 per cent; 4 chil- 
dren 60 per cent. 

Does the amount of benefit guaranteed 
by this act to the injured workman or 
to the family left dependent by his death 
appear commensurate, in some degree at 
least, with the need? The serious in- 
jury of the father of a family brings 
sufficient measure of sorrow, without the 
added sting of cutting down established 
home standards, taking the girl out of 
school her last year; cutting out the ex- 
tra eggs and milk that were helping 
Tom back to health ; imposing the dozen 
and one deprivations that break a par- 
ent's heart and spirit. 

The generally accepted scale in the 
more progressive states has come to 
be 66 2/3 per cent of the wages paid at 
the time of the injury, and even under 
this award such deprivation must ensue 
The shrinkage of family resources, for 
example, from $15 to $10 a week, with 
a sick or injured man to care for in 
the bargain, is a serious matter. It 
spells deprivation in large letters. That 
less than this amount should be granted 
seems a travesty on the very purpose of 
compensation legislation. This two- 
thirds scale is in force in Massachusetts, 
New York, and Ohio. California and 
Wisconsin allow 65 per cent, and 
Nevada awards 60 per cent. Several 
states also recognize the fact that the 
family resources are more taxed by car- 
ing for a permanently injured member, 
than by the death of the bread-winner, 
and the award for permanent total dis- 
ability is accordingly greater than for 

Let us apply the provisions of the 
pending Pennsylvania measure to Pietro 
Barto, who figures in the story on page 

47 and illustrates a case of temporary 
disability. Had Barto's mishap occurred 
under the operation of this proposed act, 
he would have received $25 for the 
necessary attention to his broken leg, 
and after that 50 per cent of his wages, 
or $5.25 a week would have come in 
regularly as long as he was entirely un- 
able to work. 

If the minimum scale of compensation 
were set at two-thirds of the difference 
between the man's present and former 
earnings — instead of 50 per cent — a man 
placed like Pietro Barto would see his 
family in comparative comfort during 
his weeks at the hospital. Also, during 
the ensuing months when intermittent 
work possible to his crippled condition 
might bring in $4 or $5 a week, an ad- 
ditional $3 or $4 from the insurance 
funds would materially help the recon- 
struction of the family. 

Let us take another family in which 
the man is totally disabled for life. Tom 
Thirlan was able to make $16 a week, 
before insanity — resulting after several 
years from a staggering injury to his 
head while at work — deprived him of all 
earning power. When he was removed 
to the Philadelphia Hospital, he left at 
home Mrs. Thirlan and a family of 
youngsters, ranging from 14 years to 2 
years of age. 

As things now stand, under the old 
common law, the Thirlans are being sup- 
ported by the local organized charities, 
helped out by the church, and have been 
receiving $3 a week for rent, $5 a week 
for shoes, coal, etc., and an extra $1.50 
grocery order. Under the compensation 
provisions, Mrs. Thirlan would be given 
$8 a week through her husband until 
the passing of the ten-year limit had 
made all the children except the baby, 
of self-supporting age. Greater sure- 
ness, this, but less adequate than even the 
meager help received through charity 
under the present system. 

Medical Aid 

If the scale of benefits in disability 
cases in the pending Pennsylvania stat- 
ute appears extremely low, and certain 
to lead to the same unsatisfactory re- 
sults which have been observed under 
the same scale in the neighboring state 
of New Jersey, the limitations placed 
upon medical aid are still more objec- 
tionable. The attention and care which 
a man receives after he is injured may 
represent the whole difference between 
speedy and complete recovery and 
permanent invalidism. There are very 
few workingmen who have the ready re- 
sources wherewith to secure proper 
surgical or medical attention for them- 
selves; the securing of this, with neces- 
sary hospital care, should be part of the 
responsibility laid on the industry for 
the injured worker. Experience has 
shown that $25 or $50 cannot adequately 
meet the needs created by a serious in- 
jury. Only one state. New Jersey, has 


The Survey, April 10, 1915 

placed the sum for medical aid as low 
as $50. 

The other states which specify the 
amount require $150 or $200, one state 
requiring $250 for this purpose. In some 
laws no sum of money is specified, but 
aid is required for a certain length of 
time, ranging from two weeks in New 
Jersey to three months in several states. 

How then may a Pennsylvania work- 
ingman hope to be fairly started on the 
road to recovery after serious injury on 
an expenditure of $25 which the bill pro- 

Where death is the result of the acci- 
dent, the amount paid to the bread-win- 
ner's family is most justly graded ac- 
cording to the number of dependents. 
A widow is thus entitled to a certain 
amount with an additional sum for each 
child until it reaches the age of 18. In 
existing acts the amounts paid and meth- 
ods of payment vary widely. In states 
where the award is based on a percent- 
age of earnings, the rate ranges from 
25 to 60 per cent. The grading of the 
benefit dependents in the Pennsylvania 
bill is satisfactory, but means little in 
view of the 300 weeks' limitation. 

Here is Mrs. McCoy, who lost her 
husband through an accident on the tail- 
road by which he was employed, and 
was left with three children 1, 3, and 
7 years of age. Under the terms of 
the proposed act, Mrs. McCoy would be 
allowed 55 per cent of her husband's 
wage at the time of his death. This 
would mean a regular income of $7 a 
week, instead of the bitter struggle with 
which she tried to realize one-half that 

On this amount she could at least keep 
her little family together. Of course, 
as they grow older, the strain would in- 
crease, with the necessity of providing 
school clothes, heavier shoes and more 
satisfying food. Although she could not 
go out to work on account of the chil- 
dren's midday meal, these additional ex- 
penses could be met by careful planning. 
Then, when Mary was 13, and the boys 
respectively 9 and 7 years of age, the 
six years would be up and Mrs. McCoy 
would find herself thrown wholly upon 
her own resources. 

How about the pressure on the child 
labor law, in the temptation to send 
Mary to work in such a crisis? How 
about adding two more newsboys, aged 
9 and 7, to the little fellows who haunt 
the city street corners in the late even- 
ing hours? How else would Mrs. Mc- 
Coy meet this economic pressure at the 
moment when the children became most 
in need of motherly care, and were most 
costly to maintain? Let no one suggest 
re-marriage (as is suggested on page 33 
of the administration pamphlet) as a 
solution. That, as a matter of fact, is Mrs. McCoy did in real life, with 
the results — it will be recalled — of a 
broken home and the S. P. C. C. called 
abused children, if the ultimate 

purpose of the compensation legislation 
is to prevent economic and social de- 
terioration, will it have achieved its pur- 
pose in this instance? 

No compensation act which fairly 
measures up to the needs of the situa- 
tion can discontinue payments to a 
widow while her children are too young 
for self-support. When Mrs. McCoy's 
three-year-old baby becomes a nine- 
year-old boy with a nine-year old appe- 
tite and activity, the claim on the family 
purse is perceptibly increased. Every 
mother knows how much harder it is to 
feed, clothe and satisfy a family of act- 
ive youngsters than one of little chil- 
dren. Yet this is the very moment when 
many a mother, under a limited period 
of compensation, finds her resources 
suddenly pulled from under her. The 
certain knowledge of this inevitable 
moment, haunting her through the years 
following her husband's death, is enough 
to cloud her days and nights with bit- 
ter forebodings. She lives under a sen- 
tence of economic death. 

A fixed time limit works as serious a 
hardship to a permanently disabled man 
as to a widow. Certainly workmen's 
compensation falls short of its avowed 
purpose if at any period it arbitrarily 
removes all support from a helpless man 
and throws him. a pauper, upon charity. 
The limitation to 500 weeks in Penn- 
sylvania must be contrasted with a life- 
long benefit which under the identical 
circumstance^ is given by the New York 

Sureness of Protection 

( ompensation for injuries must be 
adequate; it must also be certain. There 
should be no doubt in the mind of em- 
ployer or employe as to how, or whether, 
the indemnity fur injury is to be paid. 
Full assurance that the obligations im- 
posed by the law will he met must be 
given as far as is humanly possible. For 
small employers with limited resources, 
some system to insure promptness and 
security of payment is obviously neces- 

There are only seven states out of the 
twenty- four that have compensation acts 
which have nut provided for some form 
of compulsorx insurance. In this large 
majority of states, employers are usually 
allowed to go without insurance only 
upon proof of their ability to meet their 
obligations. < Hherwise they must take 
out insurance, and in some states they 
may choose between a mutual employer's 
association, a private stock company, or 
a state insurance fund. 

The insurance feature of a compensa- 
tion act largely determines the cost of 
the compensation system upon industry, 
and the amount of burden which will 
ultimately be distributed among the peo- 
ple who use and buy what men are in- 
jured or killed in making. 

Moreover, the insurance features create 
incidental situations which are in them- 
selves of extreme significance. Most im- 

portant among these is the stimulus to- 
ward the reduction in the number of 
work accidents. Where an employer in- 
sures in a liability company, the grading 
of the rates in his plant is an incentive 
toward the installation of safeguards ; 
and a state fund has at its disposal the 
same lever for the promotion of safety 
in industrial plants. Thus, the most im- 
portant by-product of good compensa- 
tion legislation has proved to be a de- 
crease in the accident rate. Any law 
which fails to bring about this result, 
by neglecting to provide a stimulus for 
increased safety in working conditions. 
is plainly falling short of its complete 

But there are other incidental situa- 
tions created by the insurance features 
of compensation legislation which may 
affect a man's chance of employment. 
A man's age, any physical weakness, the 
size of his family — all or any of these, 
through operating as increased risks for 
the employer, may act as deterrents in 
securing work. If applicant No. 4 is 
unmarried, while applicants Nos. 1, 2. 
and 3 all have families, the liability in- 
curred in case of accident clearly points 
to No. 4 as the desirable man, if an em- 
ployer carries his own insurance, or if 
the commercial rates are permitted to 
be affected by such considerations. 

Here is where a state fund, in its 
freedom from the play of commercial 
forces, may overcome objections which, 
in the opinion of organized labor, are 
of serious moment. Moreover, the low- 
er rates established by state funds have 
been found in several instances, notably 
in California and New York, to have a 
wholesome influence upon the rates of 
private companies. 

In the Pennsylvania bill, the provi- 
sions for guaranteeing security of pay- 
ments are based upon a carefully planned 
system of insurance. An employer who 
wishes to carry his own liability may do 
so only upon proof of his financial abil- 
ity to meet his obligations. If he can- 
not furnish satisfactory evidence of this 
he is given the choice of three methods: 

1. Insurance in the state fund, where- 

by he transfers all personal lia- 
bility to the fund. 

2. Insurance in a mutual association. 

3. Insurance in an authorized stock 


Each of these plans is provided for 
in a separately prepared bill. The ad- 
ministration of the state insurance fund 
is provided for by the formation of a 
workman's insurance board, consisting 
of the commissioner of labor and in- 
dustry, the insurance commissioner, and 
the state treasurer. The expense of 
creating new offices if thus avoided and 
all the available money may be devoted 
curing expert managers and actu- 

The function oi workmen's compensa- 
tion legislation in lowering the accident 
rate has not been lost sight of in tram- 

Social Legislation in the Keystone State 


The Hang-Over of the Old Liability System 


Law, Wheelbarrow and Man 



Contributory Negligence as 


Worked out in One Case 


An Example of Litigation under the 
Old Common Law 

yHE Barto family — father, mother, 
-* and two children, seven and three 
years of age — had been in the United 
States for two months when good for- 
tune brought the man what looked like 
a permanent position with a large re- 
fining company. On his first day of 
work Barto was given a barrow to 
wheel along a high narrow scaffold, 
without a railing. His wheelbarrow was 
an imperfect one with a difficult tilt. 
This combination of defects made Barto's 
first day of work Itis last. An extra 
lurch of the uncertain barrow, a futile 
attempt of the man to recover its lost 
balance — and man and barrow went to- 
gether over the edge of the narrow 

Barto was taken to the hospital, and 
two days later his wife brought into 
the world their third child, the com- 
pany magnanimously offered her $16 
which she refused, and the struggle be- 
gan. From that time on, the records 
of the local charity organization society 
■ — into whose care the resourceless family 
fell almost at once — recount the dismal 
succession of efforts at readjustment. 

An Italian lawyer, who undertook the 
case, discouraged Mrs. Barto by his esti- 
mate that a damage suit would probably 
take a year and a half. Further legal 
advice brought forth the still more dis 
heartening opinion that the company 
could not be held responsible as the man 
knew his barrow was defective when he 
accepted the job. (An interesting note 
in the record states that a railing was 
placed about the scaffolding even before 
Barto had recovered consciousness after 
his fall.) 

Three months of uncertainty and dis- 
tress passed, eked out with a "Grocery 
order for $1.52." and H buckets of coal 
at 32 cents. The man was returned from 
the hospital because his bed there was 
needed; he accepted $15 in settlement of 
the accident and the family moved to 
cheaper rooms. 

A year later, a call at the office of the 
organized charities brought an agent 
again to the Barto family, to find that 
the man's leg still incapacitated him for 
steady work and required treatment. The 
problem then resolved itself into a series 
of endeavors to fit Barto into some sort 
of work suited to his semi-crippled con- 
dition, and from this point on he sank 
into the dismal ranks of the "intermit- 
tently employed," where he is now sub- 
merged among thousands like himself. 

ing these insurance measures. Both the 
state workmen's insurance board and the 
board of directors of the mutual associa- 
tions are expressly given the power to 
inspect individual plants and to make 
rules for the prevention of accidents, 
which, if not observed, may result in the 
employer's being refused insurance or 
in forfeiting one-half the unearned 
premium payed by him. Of course, the 
normal interplay of risk upon rates in 
the private stock companies wil produce 
an equivalent effect where they write 
the insurance. 

The first two of the corner-stones of 
compensation legislation have now been 
examined — adequacy of benefits and 
sureness of their payment once they are 
determined. A third — the machinery for 
adjusting claims — is needed to complete 
a firm structure upon which Pennsyl- 

T OHN McCOY teas killed while em- 
J ployed as a track-walker in the ser- 
vice of a railroad system which con- 
verges in Philadelphia. McCoy had been 
employed by the railroad for six years, 
at a ivage of seventeen cents an hour, 
working seven days a week. His month- 
ly income had therefore ranged from $55 
to $51. Three years before his death he 
had met with an accident, the results 
of* wfiieh for a time threatened his 

In the spring of 1012, six months after 
the accident, the records of the local 
organized charities affords the first view 
of the family : A mother and three chil- 
dren, seven, three and one years of age. 

"Visited Mrs. McCoy. She is very 
downhearted over her prospects. Tells 
us that she has $7 left of the money paid 
to her at the time of tier husband's 
death, and that she is not able to get 
work as she had hoped. The day nurs- 
ery is closed and she will have no one 
to look after the children if she goes 
out to work. She is very undecided as 
to her future." 

One element in that future is appar- 
ently assured, that she will recover no 
damages from the railroad company. 
At the time of her husband's death, 
$350 had come to her from a relief so- 
ciety of which McCoy had been a mem- 
ber, and his fellow-tcorkers had collected 
an extra $72 for the family. The rail- 
road does not assume any responsibility 
for the support of McCoy's dependents 
on the grounds that he was on the 
wrong track and going in the wrong 
direction when he was killed. 

The lawyer whom Mrs. McCoy had 
sought declared there was not enough 
of a case to warrant even taking it up. 
"Mrs. McCoy," he complained, "has been 
to me several times since her first appli- 
cation and I have told her again and 
again that she, can get no damages what- 
ever. But she srems very stupid and 
cannot understand the situation." 

For seven months the records of the 
Charily Organization Society bear wit- 
ness to the struggle of the mother to 
support her family. Then one day the 
visitor found the McCoy house locked, 
and a neighbor volunteered the informa- 
tion that Mrs. McCoy had married a 
divorced man. A later visit found the 
woman at home, very much battered, 
With a bad cut on her face, and a black- 
ened eye. The woman confessed that 
she was not getting on very well with 
her second husband, who was a heavy 
drinker; that he earned $10 a week regu- 
larly, but rarely handed it to her intact. 
Since a quarrel of several days ago he 
had not returned home. 

Four months later, the society for 
protecting children from Cruelty in- 
formed the organized charities that they 
had been called in on behalf of the chil- 
dren, by the neighbors. They found a 
dissipated looking woman who had gain- 
ed a neighborhood reputation as a drink- 
er. She teas willing to take up the 
threads of decency again, and to find a 
smaller house. Irate her husband, and 
support her children alone. This teas 
offered her as an alternative to placing 
her children in an institution. 

Here the history breaks off. and we 
are not informed whether the woman 
rallied sufficiently to resume her lone- 
handed struggle, or whether the brave 

little home succumbed to society's in- 

vania's three million workers may go to 
work assured of justice and of peace of 

It is proposed to place the administra- 
tion of workmen's compensation in the 
hands of a specially constituted bureau 

Q EORQE METZ was a German-Ameri- 
'-' can employe in a large brewing com- 
pany. During seven years of steady 
work he had "assumed the risks" in his 
dangerous work of bottling. Owing to 
the speed at which the bottles revolve 
the danger from bursting glass is so 
great that for years the bottlers had ap- 
pealed to the company to provide them 
with masks and gloves for protection. 

Two days after an accident, which 
severed the leaders in Mctz's palm and 
wrist, permanently disabling his arm, 
this long-standing appeal was hastily 
recognized by the company and protect- 
ive equipment was supplied. 

In the meantime, the superintendent 
had assured Metz that he would be con- 
tinued on the payroll until able to work 
again at his old job, and on the strength 
of this assurance he signed away forty 
hours of overtime due him. The first 
week's wages appeared in prompt order. 
Then five weeks elapsed, at the end of 
which a representative of a liability com- 
pany approached Metz with an offer of 
$50, if he would release the brewery from 
further obligations. The man indignant- 
ly refused and was offered $150. He also 
rejected this, and began suit against the 
company. During the intervening weeks, 
infections of the wound had set in, which 
had necessitated a series of operations, 
the incisions extending to the elbow, 
wholly incapacitating the man from 
working. The family — father, mother, 
and four children, ten to three years of 
age — hud been kept afloat by Metz's 
membership in two beneficial societies 
which together paid him $'J a week for 
thirteen weeks. 

Six months later, with savings ex- 
hausted and benefits ceased, the family 
were thrown on charity for support. 
The visitor found Metz, a "gentlemanly, 
low-voiced man, straight-forward in titan 
tier, much discouraged over his pros- 
pects." The doctor held out very little 
hope for the recovery of his arm. 

The family teas depending on what the 
mother was able to earn, pieced out by 
a $15 contribution from a brother in 
Connecticut and coal from the church. 
Metz's statement that he had been a 
steady worker was fully borne out by the 
superintendent at the brewery. "We in- 
tended to do the right thing by him. 
He shouldn't have sued. It was an un- 
fortunate misunderstanding," he explain- 
ed deprccatingly to the visitor. 

Metz's lawyer was deeply interested in 
the case, and was paying the costs out 
of his own pocket. "It is listed to come 
up in January," he said (it was then 
June) "but it is twelfth on the list. If 
we don't make it then it means a delay 
of six months more." 

Two weeks later the children were 
being kept home from school because 
they had no shoes. The larder contained 
nothing but stale bread, and the land- 
lord had served notice, two months' rent 
being due. 

Now the insurance agent re-appeared . 
offering $300, which the man steadfastly 
refused, persisting that he wanted a 
guarantee of a steady job at the brewery, 
not money. He explained that there 
were many forms of light work which 
he could manage to do with one hand, 
and he was holding out for that. 

Then follotved an offer by the liability 
company of $500 to Metz with a fee of 
$250 to the lawyer, the company suggest- 
ing that if settlement were made, it 
would try and find Metz a suitable posi- 
tion — but would not do so while the case 
was pending. However, the company re- 
fused to write a guarantee of permanent 
work, and notwithstanding the lawyer's 
advice to accept these terms, the man 
held out. 

He finally was awarded $950 in dam- 
ages, exclusive of lawyer's fees. More 
tlian that sum was expended in the liti- 
gation by plaintiff and defendants. 


The Survey, April 10, 1915 

of tlie Department of Labor and In- 
dustry to be presided over by a work- 
men's compensation board of three mem- 
bers. With this board rests the whole 
responsibility of developing the compen- 
sation system within the broad lines laid 
down in the measure. 

The method of administering a work- 
men's compensation act is the ultimate 
test of its effectiveness. Delay, litiga- 
tion, inordinate fees, and inadequate 
damages are fast legislating the old em- 
ployers' liability procedure out of ex- 
istence. If compensation legislation 
does not do away with these faults, it 
is of little value. A tree laden with 
fruit is of small comfort to a thirsty 
traveler who lacks a ladder, or stick. 
or ability to climb. The certain prom- 
ise of $10 a week to a bed-ridden man 
only tantalizes him so long as it exists 
on paper but is unattainable from his 

The two essential elements in this pro- 
cess of administering workmen's com- 
pensation are simplicity and speed. To 
establish these it has been found neces- 
sary to create a specially adapted ma- 
chine. Attempts have been made in 
eight states to adapt the existing law- 
court machinery to this new use, but 
only with the result of defeating some 
of the fundamental purposes of com- 
pensation legislation. New Jersey, the 
largest of this group, reveals in her 
three-year experience the inadequacy of 
this supposedly cheaper substitute for a 
special board of administration. 

Under the New Jersey law, the court- 
[See The Survey for March 27, page 
696] have in many instances established 
their unfitness for the administration of 
so complex and technical a law as com- 
pensation. Expert knowledge of in- 
dustrial matters and familiarity with 
the requirements of the law in detail are 
prerequisites to a fair and just decision. 
Moreover, a strict uniformity in mak- 
ing awards is manifestly impossible when 
each court has its own interpretation 
and its own standard. 

Such opposition as has existed in Penn- 
sylvania to the administration of work- 
men's compensation through a special 
board or commission is usually founded 
on the fear of expense or of political 
patronage. If a complicated adminis- 
trative machine is set going with in- 
numerable subordinates and luxurious 
offices, this opposition is well-founded. 
But a complex and expensive machine 
of this kind is just the sort which is 
undesirable. It frustrates its very pur- 
pose which is to create confidence among 
workers and employer, to act swiftly, 
and to decide fairly. 

For the attainment of these objects a 
board not exceeding three or five mem- 
bers, devoting their entire time to their 
duties, should be created. It should 
establish local centers as accessible as 
possible to workers in every district of 
the state where, without formalitv, and 

in person, employer and employe may 
present their sides to local arbitration 
committees. Direct settlement of 
awards by injured and employer may 
be permitted ; but every settlement 
should be scrutinized and filed by the 
board before it becomes finally operat- 
ive. Disputed cases would normally be 
heard by the local committees; and if 
dissatisfaction is found with the decision, 
appeal should be allowed to the com- 
pensation board. 

In the Pennsylvania bill the board is 
directed to divide the state into districts 
at its discretion, and to assign to these 
districts referees whose duty will be to 
pass on all disputed claims. They are 
empowered to investigate all facts, and 
with the board's permission to appoint 
experts when necessary. Their decisions 
are final except when the board con- 
sents to grant a re-hearing upon peti- 

The compensation bureau is practically 
a clearing-house for communications ad- 
dressed to the board. It receives, 
dockets, and files all decisions, and pro- 
vides the machinery whereby they are 
distributed to the persons interested. It 
issues the necessary blanks and sched- 
ules for simplifying procedure. Notices 
of time and place for local hearings 
(which are sent out by the referees) are 
practically the only notices not issued by 
the bureau. 

The compensation board, in addition 
to promulgating all rules and regulations 
and supervising the bureau, acts as a 
court of appeals from the referees' de- 
cisions, and passes on the commutation 
of weekly awards into lump sum pay- 

In devising this machinery of admin- 
istration for Pennsylvania, the dominant 
motives have been to plan procedure 
free from formality and technicalities; 
to secure as much promptness and rapid- 
ity of action as possible ; and to keep 
the cost of administration as low as is 
consistent with effective work. 

The single referee of a district, with 
an office and clerk at his disposal, is 
not so redolent of the majesty of the 
state as to alarm the timid foreigner into 
engaging an attorney to represent him. 
It should be pointed out that there is in- 
herent danger in the appointment, with- 
out civil service, of men with such great 
powers as will be held by these referees. 
But the ever-present possibility of hav- 
ing their decisions appealed to the board 
will tend to keep them sensitively alert 
in the proper performance of their 
duties. The board is especially author- 
ized to substitute another referee in any 
case where it seems unwise for a par- 
ticular referee to hear a claim. 

Before summing up the compensation 
program thus put before the Pennsyl- 
vania Legislature, attention is deserved 
by two supplementary measures which 
have a large significance in the develop- 
ment of a compensation policy in Penn- 

sylvania. One of these proposed acts 
exempts agricultural and domestic oc- 
cupations from the operation of the law. 
It was thought unwise to embody these 
exemptions in the act itself, because of 
the risk of a decree of unconstitutional- 
ity on the grounds of class legislation. 
The second bill provides for a constitu- 
tional amendment which will admit of a 
compulsory compensation act. 

Both of these bills seek to remove ele- 
ments which, without question, have ex- 
erted a downward pull on the compen- 
sation scale. It is difficult to justify the 
imposition upon a private householder 
of the higher compensation scale, which 
it is entirely appropriate to apply to com- 
mercial and industrial plants. On the 
other hand, it has been maintained by 
members of the State Industrial Acci- 
dent Commission that a higher rate than 
50 per cent would drive employers un- 
der an elective act to reject compensa- 
tion and take their chances under the 
liability law even without the old defen- 
ses of fellow servant, contributory negli- 
gence, etc. 

In determining these points, Pennsyl- 
vania has one advantage as a result of 
her tortoise-like pace. She now has the 
experience of other states to guide her. 
It has been of help in enabling her to 
draft into her bill tested provisions and 
means of administration. It carries with 
it also the responsibility of discarding 
exploded fallacies. Pennsylvania knows, 
for instance, that Wisconsin with a 65 
per cent scale under an elective act has 
seen 99 per cent of her employers choose 
compensation, while New Jersey, with 
a 50 per cent scale and an elective act 
has 94 per cent of her employers in this 
class. She knows that Massachusetts, 
with an elective act, raised her scale 
from 50 to 66 2/3 per cent after a year's 
experience, even with occupational dis- 
eases included as a basis for compensa- 

Why then, should Pennsylvania visit 
upon her workers the penalty for her 
slothfulness? Why ask them to defer 
for another two years, as some claim 
she should, the raising of the scale, un- 
til she has tried out the lower rate? 
If the commonwealth had kept abreast 
of her industrial peers, she would have 
completed her trying-out period in this 
year of 1915. 

When Pennsylvania adopts the prin- 
ciple of compensation, she publicly 
avows her conviction that her industrial 
prosperity shall not be achieved through 
the economic misery and the social de- 
gradation of her workers and their 
families. Let her then give them a real 
chance to maintain their self-respect 
when disaster overtakes them. Pennsyl- 
vania is too big a state to do things by 
halves. An adequate scale of benefits 
should be wrought into the creating acts. 
along with the progressive provisions 
for security of insurance and speedy 






Many of us who voted for a 
constitutional convention did so chiefly 
• because the present constitution, as in- 
terpreted by the courts, has been found 
to stand in the way of desirable labor 
and social legislation. 

As long ago as 1883 the Legislature 
was led by revelations of the evil con- 
sequences of certain kinds of home work 
in tenement houses to pass an act pro- 
hibiting the manufacture of cigars, 
cigarettes, and other forms of tobacco 
in tenement house homes. 

In the case In re Jacobs (98 N. Y. 
98) the Court of Appeals declared two 
years later that the act was unconsti- 
tutional as an unreasonable interference 
with personal liberty. To the plea that 
such legislation was justified as a means 
of protecting health and morals, it re- 
plied: "It cannot be perceived how the 
cigarmaker is to be improved in his 
health or his morals by forcing him from 
his home and its hallowed associations 
and beneficent influences to ply his 
trade elsewhere." The legislature per- 
ceived how this might be, or it would 
hardly have passed the act. 

Social workers, in the habit of visit- 
ing tenement house homes, understood 
that unless this and other sweated trades 
were forced into shops and factories 
where they might be subject to the labor 
law, the home would inevitably lose the 
'hallowed associations and beneficent 
influences" whose enjoyment the judges 
.vished to assure to home workers. But 
the judges could not perceive it, and the 
act was, therefore, unconstitutional. 

Some years later the Legislature pass- 
ed an act prohibiting the employment of 
women in factories between the hours 
of 9 p.m. and 6 a.m. In 1907 the Court 
of Appeals held this an unwarranted in- 
terference with the personal liberty of 
women (People vs. Williams, 189 N. 
Y. 131). That it could be justified as a 
health and morals regulation, they could 
not perceive, although similar acts were 
in operation in other states and the year 
before the decision was handed down 
the leading countries of Europe had 
agreed in a solemn treaty to pass uniform 
laws prohibiting the night employment 
of women. 

In 1910 the Legislature passed the 
Wainwright compensation act. In the 
much discussed decision in the Ives case 
(201 N. Y. 271) the Court of Appeals 
decided unanimously that requiring the 
employer to pay compensation, except on 
the ground of his negligence or that of 
his agent, was taking his property with- 
out due process of law and, therefore, 

In these three specific instances legis- 
lation that has the well-nigh unanimous 

If ARIOUS organizations have 
^ been preparing to bear a 
hand unofficially in revising the 
New York state constitution, which 
will begin with the assembling of 
the Constitutional Convention this 
week. These have been chiefly 
bar associations, tax reformers, 
advocates of the short ballot and 
woman suffragists. Last ivcck the 
Nezv York City Club held a meet- 
ing to discuss the convention, and 
it was at this meeting that Profes- 
sor S eager, who is president of the 
American Association for Labor 
Legislation, offered his funda- 
mental social legislation amend- 
ment. — Editor. 

approval of students of economics and 
of social workers has been declared un- 
constitutional by our Court of Appeals. 

In still a fourth instance the ten-hour 
hake-shop law applying to adult men as 
well as to women and minors was de- 
clared unconstitutional by the Supreme 
Court of the United States (198 U. S. 
45) in 1905 after having been upheld 
by our Court of Appeals (People vs. 
Havnor, 149 N. Y. 195). Though our 
state court cannot properly be held re- 
sponsible for this outcome, the issues 
involved were identical with those in 
the other cases. It just happened that 
at the period when this act was passed 
upon, our Court of Appeals was a little 
more progressive than has been its 
wont; our Supreme Court a little more 

Not only has the constitution stood in 
the way of needed social legislation in 
these specific instances but fear that 
such legislation might be declared un- 
constitutional has been a constant buga- 
boo paralyzing the efforts of advocates 
of promising legislative experiments. If 
New York state and other American 
states are today behind progressive 
European countries in the field of social 
and labor legislation, it is chiefly because 
of this constitutional barrier. The very 
indefiniteness and uncertainty of this 
barrier, depending as it does upon the 
variable opinions of the judges of our 
higher courts, makes it even more of an 
obstacle to intelligent law making. 

I still remember vividly, as a member 
of the Wainwright Commission, how 
much anxious thought we gave to trying 
to draft an act that the Court of Ap- 
peals would uphold. The result was 
doubly disappointing. Our act was 
maimed and twisted so that it might com- 
mend itself to the judges, and, notwith- 

standing our efforts, those judges unani- 
mously condemned it as unconstitutional ! 

The new compensation act doubtless 
is defective in some important respects, 
but no student of the problem will deny 
that it is a better measure than we could 
ever have hoped to secure if we had not 
taken the bull by the horns and amended 
the constitution so as to free the hands 
of the Legislature to deal with the prob- 
lem boldly and rationally. 

In New York we have at length se- 
cured a good compensation act. Other 
progressive countries have elaborate sys- 
tems of illness insurance, old-age insur- 
ance or pensions, and unemployment in- 
surance to supplement their compensa- 
tion laws. Experience that we must 
amend the constitution to secure effective 
compensation legislation has prevented 
us from even making a beginning as re- 
gards these other branches of social in- 

Other countries have not only limita- 
tions on the working hours of all classes 
of employes, but minimum wage laws 
that prevent the employment of anyone 
at starvation wages. Our Factory In- 
vestigating Commission has shown the 
need of such legislation in New York, 
but it is so impressed by the probability 
that an obligatory minimum wage would 
be held unconstitutional that it recom- 
mends an optional minimum wage, which 
employers may or may not pay as they 
see fit. 

Finally, in other countries it has 
been recognized that decision as to the 
exact form regulations to promote the 
health and safety of wage-earners should 
take in different industries or even the 
industries that may advantageously be 
brought under a given system of regula- 
tions, can often be determined better by 
an administrative board of commission- 
ers than bv the legislature itself. 

In the United Kingdom the Board of 
Trade has not only power to amplify 
the factory acts by administrative order, 
but it may bring other industries than 
the four enumerated in the original act 
under the minimum wage law or than 
the seven enumerated in the National 
Insurance Act under the unemployment 
insurance provisions of that law. A 
similar delegation of legislative power 
in New York would probably be de- 
clared unconstitutional. 

As regards the whole field of social 
legislation there are two questions which 
must receive the attention of the con- 
stitutional convention : 

1. Are the barriers to desirable so- 
cial legislation inherent in certain pro- 
visions of the present constitution or 
rather the result of a narrow inter- 
pretation of these provisions by our 
Court of Appeals? 

2. What changes in the constitution 
will assure that in future desirable so- 



The Survey, April 10, 1915 

cial legislation will not be prevented 
by the fear that it may be or by the 
actual experience that it is declared 
unconstitutional ? 

It is easier to answer the first of these 
questions than the second. The consti- 
tutional rock upon which most of the 
laws I have specified have foundered is 
the provision that "No person shall be 
deprived of life, liberty or property 
without due process of law." Such a 
provision is found in every one of the 
forty-eight state constitutions and in the 
fourteenth amendment of the federal 
constitution limiting state action. 

That this does not necessarily limit 
the power of the state legislature as our 
Court of Appeals has held is obvious 
from the diversity of opinion among the 
judges themselves. Our Court of Ap- 
peals held unanimously that the com- 
pensation principle violated due process. 
Six months later the Supreme Court of 
Washington held unanimously that the 
compensation principle was in harmony 
with due process, dissenting squarely 
from the reasoning of our judges on 
the subject (117 Pac. Reporter 1101). 

A count of the higher judges who 
passed on the constitutionality of our 
ten-hour bake-shop law before it was 
finally held null and void by the Federal 
Supreme Court by a five to four vote 
shows that 12 judges believed that it 
complied with the due process require- 
ment, 10 judges that it did not. Never- 
theless it was finally thrown out because 
a majority of one in the highest court 
was against it ! 

The Illinois Supreme Court held a 
law limiting the hours of labor of wom- 
en unconstitutional in 1895 on the ground 
that it was class legislation (40 N. E. 
454). In 1910 they upheld a ten-hour 
law applying to women but not to men, 
quoting with approval a favorable de- 
cision of the Federal Supreme Court 
arguing that women needed special pro- 
tection because of their sex (91 N. E. 
695), and that, therefore, legislation in 
their behalf was not class legislation in 
the constitutional sense. 

Coming nearer home, on the recom- 
mendation of the Factory Investigating 
Commission, acts were passed two years 
ago (1913) again prohibiting the night 
work of women and certain forms of 
manufacturing in tenement house homes. 
On March 26, the Court of Appeals up- 
held the night work law as constitution- 
al, being brought to this conclusion ap- 
parently by the evidence submitted that 
night employment was detrimental to 
health and by the reasoning in recent 
federal decisions. 

The home work prohibition is, of 
course, also being attacked in the courts, 
but since it applies only to articles of 
food, childrens' clothes and dolls and 
dolls' clothes, it is hoped that it will be 
upheld as a reasonable health law. 
Thus a law which is really to protect the 
health and morals of the home workers 
is so drawn as to seem to be designed to 
protect the health of consumers and 
oarticularly children, in the belief that 
in this way it mav commend itself to 
our judges as a reasonable health law. 
If this seems an insult to judicial intel- 
ligence, it is the natural consequence of 
the fatuous reasoning with which our 

Professor Seager's Proposed Amend- 
ment to the New York Constitution. 

ATOTHING contained in this 
constitution shalt be con- 
strued to limit the power of the 
Legislature to enact laws to pro- 
mote the health, safety, morals or 
welfare of the people of this state. 


L'CH lazes may prescribe the 
maximum number of work- 
ing hours that will be permitted in 
any trade or industry on the part 
of any class of employes and the 
period in the day 'within which 
such working hours will be per- 
mitted, the minimum wages that 
must be paid to employes whether 
men, women or children, the fre- 
quency with which wage payments 
must be made, and the form of 
such payments, whether in money 
or goods and other conditions of 

T N STEAD of embodying ex- 
press provisions in reference 
to hours, wages, and other condi- 
tions of employment in statutes, 
the Legislature may in its discre- 
tion delegate authority to draw up 
such provisions to a duly consti- 
tuted board or commission, provid- 
ed that provisions so determined 
upon shall become effective only 
after thirty days' notice, and can 
be set aside by majority vote of 
cither branch of the Legislature 
when it is in session or by the gov- 
ernor when it is not in session. 

AT OR shall anything contained 
in this constitution be con- 
strued to limit the power of the 
Legislature to enact laws provid- 
ing for the payment, either by em- 
ployers or by employers and em- 
ployes or otherzvisc, cither directly 
or through a state or other system 
of insurance or otherwise, of com 
pensation for injuries to or occu- 
pational diseases of employes or 
for death oj employes resulting 
front such injuries or diseases 
without regard to fault as a cause 
thereof, or for the adjustment, de- 
termination or settlement zvith or 
without trial by jury of issues 
which may arise under such leg- 
islation; or providing a state or 
other system of insurance against 
death, illness, old age and unem- 
ployment to be maintained through 
contributions, voluntary or obliga- 
tory, from employes and other 
beneficiaries, employers and the 
state and local governing bodies 
in such proportions as the Legis- 
lature may designate and to be ad- 
ministered in such manner and 
through such agencies as the Leg- 
islature may determine. 

Court of Appeals contented itself in the 
Jacobs case thirty years ago. 

In the light of this diversity of in- 
terpretation, I submit that no reasonable- 
person can maintain that due process 

cannot and should not be made to em- 
brace every species of legislation that is 
really designed to promote the health. 
morals, safety or welfare of any con- 
siderable body of citizens without at the 
same time injuring or burdening unduly 
other bodies of citizens. The decisions 
of the Supreme Court are on the whole 
so clear and satisfying on this point thai 
one needs only to combine extracts from 
them to come to the conclusion that the 
due process clause is an obstacle to de- 
sirable social legislation only because the 
judges make it so. 

If in addition to being learned in the 
law they could be learned in contempo- 
rary social and industrial conditions, 
they could be relied upon to uphold the 
legislature in all the cases that are like 
ly to arise. What is even more reassur 
ing in the latest decisions of the Fed- 
eral Supreme Court is the modesty that 
is commended to courts in general in 
passing on legislative determinations as 
to what social legislation is required 
The important point that legislatures 
are in the nature of the case in close 
contact than courts with actual indus 
trial conditions, and that, therefore, if 
there is any doubt as to the reasonable 
ness of a given application of the police 
power it should be resolved in favor of 
the Legislature, is being more and more 
emphasized. Also the unequal bargain- 
ing power between employer and em 
ploye and the resulting absence of a 
free and voluntary contract between 
them in the determination of labor con 
ditions is being more and more recog- 
nized. The Supreme Court has gone so 
far as to recognize that in some cases 
"the proprietors lay down the ruleSj an<: 
the laborers are practically constrained 
to obey them," and that "in such cases 
self-interest is often an unsafe guide 
and the legislature may properly inter 
pose its authority." 

While it is clear to any mind that our 
Court of Appeals might, by simply tak- 
ing the same liberal view of the scope of 
the due process clause as is now taken 
by the federal Supreme Court, make 
further constitutional amendment un- 
necessary, I am not optimistic enough 
to advocate such a policy. The whole- 
antecedents and training of our judges 
tend to make them conservative and cau- 
tious with reference to the scope of due 
process rather than liberal and bold. 

The point of view so frankly express 
ed in the Ives decision should warn us 
from expecting too great liberality of 
interpretation from judges trained and 
selected as our judges are trained and 
selected. After quoting the language of 
the federal decision in the Oklahoma 
Bank case (219 U. S. 104). they square- 
ly declared : "We have only to say that 
if they go so far as to hold that any law. 
whatever its effect, may he upheld be- 
cause by the 'prevailing morality' or the 
'strong and preponderant opinion.' it is 
deemed to be greatly and immediateh 
'necessary to the public welfare' we can- 
not recognize them as controlling of our 
construction of our own constitution" 

In other words, however liberally the 
Supreme Court may be disposed to in 
terpret the due process clause in tin 
al constitution they reserve the 
right to interpret the due process cl 

Social Agencies 


in our state constitution as narrowly as 
they choose. Moreover, just as the fed- 
eral Supreme Court after upholding an 
eight-hour law for miners disapproved a 
ten-hour law for bakers, so our Court 
of Appeals might disappoint us if we re- 
lied on them to interpret the constitu- 
tion as we should like to have it inter- 

The procedure that I hope may recom- 
mend itself to the constitutional con- 
vention is to draft a broad provision 
covering other branches of social legis 
lation as compensation legislation was 
covered by the compensation amend- 
ment. I think provision should be broad 
enough to enable the Legislature to pass 
any kind of social or protective legisla- 
tion that is in actual operation in other 
countries or currently advocated by any 
considerable number of our citizens. 
This seems to me desirable not because 
I think we should rush headlong into 
this field of legislation, but because it 
seems to me the decision as to what is 
desirable should be left to legislative de- 

In saying that "nothing contained in 
this constitution shall be construed to 
limit the power of the Legislature to 
enact legislation" in this field, we are 
simply putting responsibility upon that 
department of government which is most 
closely in touch with actual conditions 
and over which we have most complete 
and continuous control. 

The compensation act that was pass- 
ed on the basis of the compensation 
amendment was hastily drawn and no 
doubt defective in many particulars. It 
has already been amended at one im- 
portant point and unless all signs fail 
will receive further amendments at the 
hands of the present Legislature. The 
chances that in a comparatively short 
time we will get a really satisfactory 
compensation law are greatly increased 
by the fact that the Legislature has a 
free hand and can be held strictly ac- 
countable for its work. If we had an 
equal degree of legislative freedom and 
responsibility as regards other types of 
social legislation, I believe we should 
have little ground for complaint of legis- 
lative encroachments on personal or 
property rights. 

If you are not ready to share my opin- 
ion that we can safely leave a wide field 
to legislative discretion in the domain of 
social legislation, I still hope that you 
may agree as to the desirability of doing 
so in our state constitution. In consid- 
ering the amendment of our state instru- 
ment we must never forget that we have 
in the background the fourteenth amend- 
ment of the federal constitution in full 
and effective operation. While I be- 
lieve the federal Supreme Court will 
give broad scope to the due process re- 
quirement, I am even more confident 
that it will oppose any tendency toward 
arbitrary or confiscatory legislation. 

So far as I can see there is little or no 
real need for the retention of the due 
process clauses in state constitutions, now 
that the fourteenth amendment has been 
interpreted to extend the same protec- 
tion from governmental tyranny on the 
part of state legislatures. To the ex- 
tent that we can concentrate respon- 
sibility for upholding due process and 
other fundamental requirements upon 

the federal Supreme Court we can hope 
to have these limitations apply in the 
same way from one end of the country 
to the other and thus make progress to- 
ward uniform legislation. 

The practical conclusions that I should 
draw from this discussion are: 

1. That the constitutional limita- 
tions upon desirable social legislation 
are less inherent in the due process 
and other limiting clauses of the con- 
stitution than in the interpretation 
given to these clauses by our Court of 

2. That narrow and rigid interpre- 
tation results almost necessarily from 
the training and experience of our 
judges and should, therefore, be pre- 
cluded by amendments drawn along 
the same lines as the compensation 
amendment and expressly authorizing 
a wide range of social legislation. 




HE Rev. F. B. Upham has pro- 
posed to celebrate the 150th anni- 
versary of Methodism in the United 
States next year by erecting a 30- 
story office building topped by a 
church and a flaming cross. The site 
chosen is that of the "Old John Street 
Church" in New York city. Founded 
in 1766, built in 1768 and several 
times rebuilt, this oldest of American 
Methodist meeting houses is one of 
the few church buildings which has 
clung to lower Manhattan. The plans 
for the new structure are by McKen- 
zie, Voorhees and Gmelin and the 
photograph here reproduced ■ is by 
courtesy of the Christian Advocate. 

3. That any danger that the Legis- 
lature will seriously abuse the broader 
powers so conferred upon it is pre- 
cluded by the limitation still residing 
in the fourteenth amendment to the 
federal constitution, which we may be 
sure will be firmly if liberally applied 
by the federal Supreme Court. 

The actual phrasing of the social leg 
islation amendment I have in mind 
would run somewhat as in the para- 
graphs set within rules on the preceding 

Even the broad amendment I have 
suggested will probably be found not to 
embrace all social legislation that will 
prove desirable. I shall, therefore, hope 
to see it supplemented by two other 
changes : one making it somewhat easier 
to amend the state constitution, the other 
making it somewhat more difficult for 
the Court of Appeals to set aside a leg- 
islative act on the ground that is is un- 

In place of the present requirement 
that a proposed amendment must be 
passed by a majority vote of two suc- 
cessive legislatures, I think it would be 
better to permit an amendment that has 
received a two-thirds vote in both 
houses of a single legislature to be sub- 
mitted to the people, providing, as in 
the constitution of Illinois, that the 
legislature may propose amendments to 
only one article of the constitution in 
any one session and amendments to the 
same article not oftener than once in 
four years. 

To prevent acts of the Legislature 
from being declared unconstitutional be- 
cause of the personal views of a single 
judge, as is the case when the decision 
is by bare majority vote, I should re- 
quire a two-thirds vote of the Court of 
Appeals to make an act unconstitutional. 
The new Ohio constitution goes fur 
ther, providing that the Supreme Court 
can declare an act unconstitutional only 
when it concurs with a decision to the 
same effect of the Court of Appeals or 
when all but one of the judges concur 
in the opinion. 


A million and a quarter dollars is on 
deposit in school savings banks in the 
United States, according to a bulletin of 
the federal Bureau of Education. This 
money is distributed among 217,000 pu- 
pils. Belgium originated the school 
savings bank system, and a native of 
Belgium, John Henry Thiry, established 
them in the United States. 


The Philadelphia Bureau of Munici- 
pal Research has been invited by Judge 
Charles L. Brown to study the records, 
methods and procedure of the Municipal 
Court. This court was created about 
nine months ago to assure prompt jus- 
tice to the litigant of small means and 
to handle cases involving domestic re- 
lations, juvenile delinquency and de- 
pendency. It is the social aspects of the 
court that the bureau will study particu- 
larly. Probably a system of mechanical 
tabulation of records will be developed 
to make accessible to the community the 
mass of information resulting from its 






The situation as regards pov- 
erty and unemployment has been very 
acute in Portland, Ore., this winter as in 
most cities of the country. The idea 
that such social problems are confined 
to her less fortunate eastern neighbors 
is passing. The community has been 
conscious of the need and has tried to 
alleviate it through relief work carried 
on by individuals and organizations. 

The situation in regard to destitute 
families has been handled by a number 
of important agencies. The Associated 
Charities has greatly augmented its ef- 
forts in this department during the past 
year and has perhaps done the most 
thorough, steady work in accordance 
with its usual policy of investigation, 
follow-up and relief. 

The Oregon Journal collected $3,500, 
besides thousands of bundles, and es- 
tablished a bureau of relief designed to 
aid only family destitution. This fund 
has been used entirely for relief, the 
rent of the bureau and the salaries of 
those conducting it having been paid by 
a citizen. It was established in October 
and at present, 550 families are receiv- 
ing weekly supplies from this agency. 

The "Muts," an organization of Port- 
land business men, dispensed great 
quantities of food and clothing during 
the Thanksgiving and Christmas holi- 

The Social Service Department of the 
Parent-Teacher Association is active in 
aiding needy families. Much of this 
work has been done indirectly through 
the association's large corps of friendly 
visitors. The association has also open- 
ed a bureau for direct relief work. 

Many churches and other societies 
have done a great deal to lessen suffer- 
ing in their districts. In addition to 
this organized work there was a large 
amount of individual effort, so that it 
is impossible to estimate with any de- 
gree of accuracy what has been done for 
the relief of family destitution during 
the year. 

Unemployment is also a problem on 
which more time and money has been 
spent than ordinarily. The people have 
awakened to the fact that unemployment 
is a very real fact in western cities. 
Portland's situation is greatly aggra- 
vated by the presence of a vast number 
of casual laborers. 

The citv commissioners have appro- 
priated $10,000 for the establishment of 
wood camps. The first camp was es- 
tablished shortly before Thanksgiving 
at Beaverton. a few miles from Port- 

'Miss Owen was one of the students who 
made the investigation here discussed under 
the direction of Prof. Arthur E. Wood of 
Rood College. 

land. Here there were accommodations 
for about fifty men. Two other camps 
were later established at Linnton about 
seven miles down the Willamette River. 
One of these latter contains a few tents 
for families. Each accommodates fifty- 
four men. A man is given ninety to 
ninety-five cents a cord for cutting wood, 
and must pay seventy-five cents a day 
for his board and lodging, and a dollar 
a week for his tools. Married men art 
given the preference at these camps. 
The amount earned depends on the 
man's energy and physical condition. 
At present the work represents an out- 
lay, but when the wood dries and the 
roads are passable it will be placed on 
the market. Another appropriation will 
soon be asked for and possibly a third. 
Another relief station has been estab- 
lished near the water front in East Port- 
land by a citizen's committee headed by 
J. C. English. Here the logs are brought 
down the river, cut up and sold. The 
headquarters are in a building formerly 
used by the Troy Laundry, which has 
been fitted up to accommodate over a 
thousand. The men receive meal tickets 
in return for work and lodging is free. 
In February 600 to 1,000 men were ac- 
commodated nightly. The head of this 
camp reported that many of the men 
have lived in Portland several years and 
that all trades and professions have been 

Other lodging and eating-houses have 
been established. A place was fitted up 
where meals and lodging may be obtain- 
ed for twenty cents a day if the man has 
the money; if not, he receives it any- 
way. Billy Margulio's is a five-cent 
restaurant which is widely patronized. 
The Scadding House is an agency es- 
tablished by the Episcopal Church where 
unemployed men may obtain lodging. A 
back-to-the-farm movement is gaining 
importance. The plan is to bring men 
who have farms in contact with those 
who want a chance to work on a farm, 
so that arrangements can be made ad- 
vantageous to both parties. 

The foregoing, while not a complete 
survey, represents some of the work at- 
tempted in Portland. The great trouble 
has been the lack of co-operation and 
centralization in the efforts to deal both 
with family destitution and unemploy- 
ment. Though much money has been 
spent the returns have not seemed alto- 
gether to justify its expenditure. Du- 
plication by as many as three of four 
agencies has been noticed in many cases. 
It is also true that without doubt fami- 
lies have been encouraged to applv for 
help who could have pulled through the 
winter without aid, therchy retaining 
both their self-respect and independence. 

That Portland, though she has given 
rather freely, has not probed to the bot- 
tom of the matter is certain. 

In face of such conditions the re- 
sults of a study of a number of case 
records of destitute families in Port- 
land is interesting. Two students in the 
Department of Social Sciences of Reed 
College took as their problem a study of 
the causes of poverty in Portland, a 
task which in a specific way has never 
before been attempted in the city. 

Following is a preliminary report of 
the method and results of the investiga- 
tion. The records of the Associated 
Charities, which are kept on the Russell 
Sage Foundation blanks, were used. 
Persons who had applied for help or 
were receiving help during the year 
1914 were considered, and 306 famih 
cases were included. All the available 
data concerning the cases were carefully 
read and diagnoses made as to the ap- 
parent primary and contributing causes 
leading to the application for outside 
aid. These are less than a third of tin 
cases on which a final report will be 
given. These 306 records have beer, 
tabulated in regard to causes of pov- 
erty, nationality, place of residence, etc. 

The results largely confirm those ob- 
tained by previous studies in easten 
cities, showing that the problem of tht 
West and of Portland is little different 
from that of other places. The reader 
is left free to draw any conclusions he 
wishes in conformity with his socia" 
philosophy. The term, "primary cause." 
is not to be considered as indicating 
what the authors think to be the under 
lying causes of poverty. Rather it i« 
the tangible cause which seems to place 
the family temporarily in the group of 
those dependent for aid on the Asso- 
ciated Charities. 

The following table gives these r< 


Mental and physical In- 
capacity (including ill- 
ness, accident, Insanity, 
mental and physical 
defectiveness) 01 20.7 

reemployment 70 25> 

Desertion 46 15. 

Character defects and 
immorality (Including 
laziness, shiftlessness, 
etc.) 43 M 

Alcoholism 24 7 R 

Miscellaneous (old age, 
non-support, pauperisa- 
tion) 23 7 .:■ 

That mental and physical incapacity 
and unemployment should head the list 
is by no means unexpected. The tiim 
is fortunately passing when the chief 
causes are said even by unthinking peo- 
ple to be shiftlessness and laziness. Ill- 
ness was largely tuberculosis, rheum., 
tism. paralysis and child-bearing. The 
first and last were by far the largesi 

Dr. Warner in his American Chan 
ties has the following statement taken 

Tur Si liYI-Y. April 10 ' 



from an investigation of the New York 
Charity Organization Society in 1905 : 
"The characteristic illnesses were tuber- 
culosis, rheumatism and childbirth." 
The identity of these statements in re- 
porting illnesses in different parts of the 
country is noteworthy. 

The contributing causes follow the 
same general lines : 


Mental and physical in- 
capacity 30 9.83 

Character and moral de- 
fects 24 7.86 

Alcoholism 14 4.59 

Unemployment 13 4.26 

Desertion 11 3.60 

92 30.14 

Thus 30.14 per cent of the 306 cases 
had in addition to one predominant 
cause others which helped to push them 
below the line of independence. 

In regard to nationality a tabulation 
of heads of families according to the 
countries in which they were born 



Americans 122 40. 

Foreign-born white 124 40.65 

North and N. W. 

Europe 75 

Southern and Eastern 

Europe 44 

Colored (Chinese and 

Negro) 5 1.62 

Not given 54 17.73 

These figures represent too small a 
number to make any general statements 
valid. In passing it should be noted 
that there are in Portland many more 
persons from north and northwestern 
Europe than from the south and south- 
east, which accounts for the greater 
number of applications for aid from the 

In speaking of these foreign peoples 
the question arises as to what is being 
done in the state in regard to immigra- 
tion. The immigration board has been 
interested chiefly in attracting to Ore- 
gon, farmers with capital, but have done 
little with, or for the immigrant laborer. 
The present legislature has abolished the 
immigration commission, but has ar- 
ranged for no substitute. The immigra- 
tion problem is, of course, constantly in- 
creasing, and it is imperative that some- 
thing be done. 

Care must be taken not to draw con- 
clusions from this incomplete data ex- 
cept in so far as they seem to bear out 
more complete reports. The causes of 
poverty in Portland as given indicate 
pretty clearly that the conditions there 
are much the same as elsewhere. The 
work of relief which has been attempt- 
ed this year has been in many respects 
inadequate, but it speaks well for the 
spirit and temper of Portland people. 



During the past winter, the 
problem of the unemployed has been ex- 
tremely serious in Baltimore, although 
we are thankful to say it has not reach- 
ed the magnitude or acuteness that it 
has in New York and Philadelphia. 

The city government appropriated 
$55,000 in December for extra street 
cleaners, and these were generally 
cleared and their names approved by 
the regular relief-giving associations of 
the city. This, however, was found to 
be only a partial remedy. The Federal 
Labor Bureau reported at the end of 
January that about 1,200 men had ap- 
plied for positions, and employment had 
been found for only about 45. 

The problem weighed heavily upon 
many, but especially upon the Rev. 
Richard W. Hogue, rector of Ascen- 
sion Episcopal Church, and open fo- 
rums on unemployment were held at the 
Parish House. Feeling that Christian 
sympathy and justice both demanded that 
something practical be done, though 
still working on theoretic and preventive 
lines for the future, he gained the co- 
operation of a few friends. It was de- 
cided to open a workshop to make band- 
ages on the plan of the one under Bishop 
Greer's care in New York. The warm 
approval of Cardinal Gibbons, Bishop 
Murray and Rabbi Rubenstein was re- 

On February 4, the workshop was 
opened in a large bright room, formerly 
the gymnasium of the Young Men's 
Christian Association, which gave rent 
and heat without charge. The first men 
were sent by the Federal Labor Bureau, 
about 40 in number, and as is the case 
everywhere, the number rapidly in- 
creased to over 100, and many more had 
to be sent away as the funds did not 

permit of the employment of more than 
115. The hours are from 9 to 2:30, 
with half an hour for lunch, when a sub- 
stantial meal of bread and soup can be 
bought for three cents, if desired. 

The wages are $5 a week, for we 
thought it better to pay a sum that could 
provide the living necessities of a fam- 
ily, and so keep independent many peo- 
ple, who, if a less sum were provided, 
would be obliged to apply to a charit- 
able agency for additional help. 

We have, however, worked in close 
co-operation with the charitable agen- 
cies. All names of the men are cleared 
through the confidential exchange of the 

Federated Charities. The Hebrew Fed- 
erated Charities reimburse us for one- 
half the amount we pay their bene- 
ficiaries; the Federated Charities prom- 
ise us the amount they would have to 
give to certain of their dependent fam- 
ilies, were they not thus provided with 
work, the Prisoners' Aid Association 
count on us to be employers for some of 
their non-support cases, and the Federal 
Labor Bureau and its local head, George 
A. Mahone, help us at every turn. 

We were fortunate in securing the 
services of a trained nurse and, when 
she was called away, to have another 
volunteer. Thus the bandages are made 
under sanitary conditions and under 
skilled guidance. We have received 
orders for our work from the Baltimore 
and Ohio Railroad, the United Railways 
of Baltimore, from various factories to 
be used for first aid to their injured, 
from many hospitals and surgeons as 
well as from large numbers of kind 
friends who have bought the bandages 
and given them either to local charities 
or to the Red Cross and kindred so- 

In addition to our bandage factory we 
have also a carpenter shop, where in- 
expensive furniture has been made to 
order, this part of the work being more 
self-sustaining than the bandage factory 
for, despite our best efforts, we still have 
about 25,000 bandages unsold. 

Since our opening six weeks ago we 
have employed 205 men. Some 40 have 
left us, who, we hope, have found work 
for themselves. And by diligent inquiry 
and by advertisements in the daily press, 
we have been able to secure work for 
about 30 more in addition to sending out 
many men for odd jobs. During the past 
two weeks the proportion of skilled 
trades to unskilled has been 4 to 1, and 
the variety of trades is very great. 

. The Rev. Twombly, who has done 
much work among workingmen in Lan- 
caster, Pa., visited us recently. One of 
his questions was: "Where are your 
bums?" His discriminating glance had 
at once realized the high type of our 
men, who only accept this comparatively 
easy work because it has been absolutely 

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The Survey, April 10. 1915 

impossible for them to find anything else. 
A few, of course, had to be weeded out, 
but as we take only men who are resi- 
dent Baltimoreans and who have fam- 
ilies dependent upon them, and whom we 
carefully investigate, it is a good body of 

Their gratitude for this opportunity 
to maintain self-respect for themselves 
and their families has been touchingly 
sincere. In sharp contrast to the an- 
tagonistic spirit expected from the un- 
employed, it has been remarkable to see 
that a large proportion were glad to ac- 
cept the invitation of the rector of a 
nearby church to attend occasionally the 
noon-day services. 

To show the caliber of the men it is 
interesting to note that our foreman, our 
time-keeper, our head carpenter and our 
investigator are all among the number of 
those who were without means of earn- 
ing their daily bread. The trained nurse 
and manager give their services, and the 
friendly relations between them and the 
men who consult them about their vari- 
ous problems is delightful. On each side 
there is an appreciation of mutual con- 
fidence and kindliness, and the spirit of 
patronage is not found among us. 

Some details of the expenses may be 
given. The payroll for six weeks has 
been about $2,693. The bills for bandage 



For two months a young man 
has been trying to secure a steady job. 
He is absolutely honest, reasonably 
capable, thoroughly reliable, has no bad 
habits. He wants to work, wants very 
much to work, will work at anything, 
but cannot get the chance. Theoretic- 
ally, there is probably a job for him 
somewhere. But the point is he cannot 
find it. And it is a cruel situation. The 
case is only one of almost hundreds of 
thousands in the United States right 
now. That is one side of the matter. 

The other side is this: There is a 
great deal of economically valuable 
work right at hand which needs to be 
done and which this young man and 
others like him could do. For example, 
in almost every New England state there 
are numerous abandoned farms. Many 
of these abandoned farms are within 
short distances of city markets which 
are now supplied with farm products 
by rail from great distances. It is de- 
plorable that these farms should be al- 
lowed to go to seed, the buildings fall 
down, and the fields rapidly become over- 
grown with brush. The only reason these 
farms are not kept in active cultivation 
is that the cost of transportation over 
bad roads to the city makes farming 
unprofitable. It is the state's job to fix 
these roads and the state's opportunity 
to give work to men out of work. If 
really good roads were put in connecting 
these farms, or rather the communities 
in which thev center, with the city, they 
would be called back into cultivation in 
a short time as attractive and profitable 
business. And many marginal farms 
now yielding but a bare existence would 
be moved into the class of profitable 
enterprises, profitable alike to their own- 
ers and to society. 

material, wood for the carpenter shop 
and a small amount needed for equip- 
ment come to about $1,600. Toward this 
we have received about $700 by sale of 
work, and the rest of the money has been 
given in sums varying from five cents 
from one of the men, when he knew our 
finances were low, to $500 given at the 
beginning by a member of the Ascension 
Church congregation, and including $800 
contributed on "self-denial day" in De- 
cember by the employes of the city, and 
given to us after careful investigation of 
our work by members of their committee. 1 
We cannot feel that our community 
workshop has been merely a palliative in 
the complex problem of unemployment, 
but something more comprehensive, 
more democratic, and more Christian. It 
has enabled a sum of less than $4,000 to 
pay for 3,600 days of work, thus pro- 
viding work and food, shelter and hope- 
fulness, to over 200 men, and therefore 
to about 800 women and children in the 
total number of families. Those of us 
most closely concerned are very thankful 
to have been allowed the privilege of 
standing beside our brothers in an excep- 
tional year of hardship and privation. 

'Since this was written this committee 
has received $750 in addition to above 



The towns are not able to undertake 
this extensive public work. The state 
can do it, and in hard times the credit 
of the state should be extended, if neces- 
sary, to promote such public works as 
would utilize labor energies otherwise 
idle. The investment on the part of the 
state in developing good roads would be 
repaid with quadrupled interest in a few 
years. Furthermore, there is much for- 
estry work, in practically all the New 
England states at least, which would be 
equally profitable in the long run. 

Here is a manifest adjustment to be 
made, and one which if wisely handled 
could in no way throw out of gear the 
normal business and industrial develop- 
ment of the state. That these two con- 
ditions — many men out of work and 
much work needing to be done — can ex- 
ist side by side seems to indicate in 
itself an impossible situation and to 
show that in some way the function of 
government has not been largely enough 
interpreted. The state has not fulfilled 
its mission unless it meets this problem 
and solves it. Men wanting to work 
and work needing to be done should be 
brought together and it seems to be in- 
cumbent on government, the machinery 
through which organized society works. 
to bring them together. 

It may be asked : Has government 
really fulfilled its function unless it 
guarantees to every man who wants to 
work an opportunity to work? By 
ordaining the right of private property 
government takes away from men the 
privilege of going to work anywhere 
they want to work. That is to say, they 
cannot cultivate land anywhere they 
want to and bring forth their own sus- 
tinence. Government by maintaining 
the right of private property thereby 

assumes the responsibility for assuring 
to every man the means of making a 
living somehow. Because it prevents him 
from working anywhere he pleases it 
should guarantee him a chance to work 
somewhere. The day will surely come 
when it will be regarded as injustice 
equally great for a man who wants to 
work to be unable to secure a chance 
to work as for a man to be bound in 
physical slavery. The right to be free 
and the right to work will be held equ- 
ally sacred. 

This job which organized society 
should therefore guarantee to a man 
need not be an attractive job. Indeed, 
it must not be that, but only a job by 
means of which he can live, and if he 
has a family enable that family to live. 
One may be very far from accepting 
the Socialist program and still believe 
it to be intolerable injustice that in a 
state where there is great wealth and 
much work needing to be done it should 
be possible that a man who wants to 
work cannot get work to do. The pledge 
of "life, liberty and pursuit of happi- 
ness" which government makes is not ful- 
filled unless the man who wants to work 
has a chance to work. 



A study of the cloak, suit and 
skirt industry in New York city, just pub- 
lished by the United States Bureau of La- 
bor Statistics is the result of a joint un- 
dertaking on the part of the employers' 
association and the union in that indus- 
try. The study was made under the im- 
mediate supervision of the board of ar- 
bitration established by the protocol 
agreement of September 2, 1910. The 
special purpose of the study was to se- 
cure accurate information in regard to 
earnings and amount of employment in 
the industry in New York city, which 
the board required in order to act upon 
the questions brought before it. 

Payroll data for all productive labor 
in seventy-five shops in New York city 
according to this study, show two busy- 
seasons : one lasting fourteen weeks, 
from the end of July until the end 
of October; and one twelve weeks 
from the end of January until the middle 
of April. During the busiest week (the 
last week in February) the total amount 
paid to employes was almost four times 
as large as that paid during the dullest 
week (the second week in December). 

Exact conclusions could not be drawn, 
but the proportion of workers perman- 
ently employed was found to be small. 
Individual schedules covering sixteen 
occupations in New York city showed a 
total of 4,858 employes on the payrolls 
at some time during the year. Of these, 
only 1.952 were at work during the week 
of greatest employment. Only 860 em- 
ployes were employed permanently ; that 
is. forty weeks or over. 

The small number permanently em- 
ployed, as compared with the highest 
number needed during any week and 
with the much larger number on the pay- 
roll at some time during the year, in- 
dicates that a considerable proportion of 
the employes do not receive from the in- 
dustry an adequate amount during the 
year for their support. 



^BP^ ^^H 


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1848— Charles Richmond Henderson— 1 915 

Appreciations by Graham Taylor, Shailer Matthews 

and Amos W. Butler 

T^HE loss of few men could be more 
lamented and less ignored through- 
out the whole world of social work than 
that of Charles Richmond Henderson. 
He was so long, widely, vitally and 
personally related to so many volunteer 
and official, private and public move- 
ments and agencies for the common 
welfare that he will be missed from the 
whole round of such fellowship and 
work both in this country and abroad 
as few men would be. 

The cutting off of such a life at the 
zenith of its power and influence is the 
loss of a national asset, all the more 
severely felt because the stroke fell so 
suddenly that it could not have been 
anticipated either by himself or any of 
his friends. When leaving home a fort- 
night previously, his cheery voice rang 
over the telephone as resonantly as ever 
with the reassuring message of fare- 
well: "The doctors report nothing 
more serious the matter with me than 
my need of rest. I am just tired, and 
am going South to play in the open air 
for a few weeks." 

There in the sunlight of the Easter- 
tide, care-free, with those dearest to 
him, he suddenly fell asleep, and after 
five days of unconscious slumber pass- 
ed out into the open on March 29 at 
Charleston, S. C, in the sixty-seventh 
year of his age. 

A native of Indiana, a graduate of 
the old University of Chicago in the 
class of 1870 and of the Baptist Union 
Theological Seminary in the class of 
1873, for nineteen years he rendered 
devoted and effective service as pastor 
at Terre Haute, Ind., and Detroit, 
Mich. Assuming the first of his varied 

functions in the University of Chicago 
in 1892, he took a year's leave of ab- 
sence, after eight years' work in the 
sociological department, to study abroad 
for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, 
which was conferred upon him by the 
University of Leipzig in 1901. Upon 
his return he rose rapidly to the full 
professorship in sociology and head of 
the department of practical sociol- 
ogy. He also served as university 
chaplain, meanwhile bearing his full 
share of editorial work on the Ameri- 
can Journal of Sociology and the 
American Journal of Theology, pub- 
lished by the university. 

Professor Henderson's authorship has 
been varied, continuous, self-exacting 
and valuable, including such widely use- 
ful and well-used volumes as his Intro- 
duction to the Study of Dependent, De- 
fective and Delinquent Classes; Social 
Elements ; Modern Prison Systems ; 
Modern Methods of Charity; Industrial 
Insurance in the United States; Out- 
door Labor for Convicts, and Social 
Programmes in the West, which he him- 
self describes in the preface of his 
"life message" delivered in the Orient 
on the Barrows Lectureship Founda- 
tion. Citizens in Industry, his last book, 
is to appear this month. His publications 
on the social aspects of religion were 
many, among which are: Social Duties 
from a Christian Point of View and an 
abridgment of and introduction to 
Thomas Chalmers' The Christian and 
Civic Economy of Large Towns. 

The list of Professor Henderson's 
working memberships and presidencies 
in national and international societies 
is impressive. He was president of the 

Twenty-Sixth National Conference of 
Charities and Correction, of the Nation- 
al Prison Association, member of the 
Societe Generate des Prisons and was 
United States commissioner to the In- 
ternational Prison Congress, of which 
he became president in 1910 and in which 
he bore a notable part. 

His official positions were many and 
exacting. He was president of the Chi- 
cago Society of Social Hygiene and a 
member of the Chicago Vice Commis- 
sion, secretary of the Illinois Commis- 
sion on Occupational Diseases, chair- 
man of the Committee on Adult Proba- 
tion and of the Mayor's Commission on 
Unemployment. He was president of 
the United Charities of Chicago and the 
first lecturer in the Chicago School of 
Civics and Philanthropy. 

With others he aimed to give organ- 
ized expression to his ideas through the 
launching of the Charity Organization 
Society of Chicago back in 1885. A 
similar form of association was estab- 
lished in 1894 as an outcome of the work 
of the Central Relief Committee of the 
Civic Federation during the period of 
distress following the World's Fair. 
This was called the Bureau of Chari- 
ties, and on its board Professor Hen- 
derson was active until this organiza- 
tion and the Relief and Aid Society 
united in April, 1909, to form the pres- 
ent United Charities of Chicago. He 
was a member of the board of the latter 
body from the beginning, and in May. 
1913, accepted the presidency. 

"As president," says a statement is- 
sued by the United Charities, "he ren- 
dered devoted service, giving the work 
the benefit of his rare judgment, wide 
experience and study of social ques- 
tions. During the two years of his in- 
cumbency the society has assumed 
larger responsibilities toward the prob- 
lems of distress in Chicago than ever be- 
fore in its history and it was Professor 
Henderson's great concern that the or- 
ganization should meet them in the most 
thorough and conscientious manner. He 
aided in raising the standard of its work 
so markedly as to make it one of the 
most efficient bodies of its kind in the 
world. On the other hand, he was ever 
keenly appreciative of the trials and 
difficulties of the staff of workers deal- 
ing daily with every form of human 
misery. His leadership in the board of 
directors was always hopeful, illumin- 
ating and inspiring." 

No list of titles or positions held by 
Professor Henderson intimates, much 
less exhausts, the manifold relation- 
ships and services of his useful and in- 
fluential life. With his academic stand- 
ards and achievements he blended per- 
sonal influence to a rare degree. He 
was both professor and fellow-student, 
pastor and preacher at the university, 
consoler of the sorrowing, adviser of the 
perplexed, inspirer of the aspiring, spon- 
sor for those whom he fitted for re- 
sponsible positions, counsellor of public 
officials, speaker on special occasions, 
and personal friend with a genius for 

To write a personal appreciation of 
Professor Henderson for publication 
seems almost foreign to the spirit of his 
friendship and of his public service. He 


The Survey, April 10, 1915 

rather closed than opened the way for 
any expression of appreciation even 
from his intimate friends. 

In his public service he neither sought 
nor expected credit. He simply and de- 
votedly undertook to do what seemed to 
be incumbent upon him. He was as will- 
ing to get as to give help to others. 

He was so straightforward and trans- 
parent that no one needed to look twice 
to see clear through his intent and mo- 
tive. In undertaking what ought to be 
attempted, he dared to fail, yet did his 
best to succeed. Though always shrink- 
ing from self-assertion, he never hesi- 
tated in asserting the claims of justice 
and charity with a vigor and intensity 
which increased with his years. 

Deferential to others' feelings and 
opinions to an extent which seemed to 
be disadvantageous to his own endeavors 
at times, he never failed to stand sturd- 
ily and courageously 'for that public 
policy which was best attested by facts 
and experience, whenever occasion re- 
quired aggression or defense. 

Convinced, as he wrote the mayor of 
Chicago, of "the utter hopelessness of 
relieving the suffering and evils caused 
by unemployment in all its forms by pri- 
vate or public charity working alone," 
his last work for his city and state, 
which possibly added the weight that 
crushed him, was the report of the 
Mayor's Commission on Unemployment 
and the bill now pending before the Leg- 
islature for an act "to relieve unem- 
ployment in the state of Illinois and to 
establish a state labor exchange," which 
should co-operate with all official and 
voluntary agencies. 

He never spared himself under bur- 
dens and labors which, however, might 
not have shortened his life had they been 
lightened by the personal and financial 
resources which are heedlessly withheld 
from the very few real public burden- 
bearers. He put his all into the public serv- 
ice and worked his life out to its very 
end right worthily of the civic patriotism 
through which he deliberately chose to 
express his Christian manhood. Chi- 
cago and all America lose a citizen fore- 
most in self-sacrificing, public-spirited, 
constructive service and gain the heri- 
tage of a type of citizenship which is the 
hope of the future. 

Graham Taylor. 


Dear Mr. Kellogg: / have a letter 
from Miss Engelen announcing the 
recent death of her father, Judge D. 
O. Engelen of the Superior Court, 
Zutphen, Holland. Will you please 
insert a few lines in The Survey as 
soon as possible and send a marked 
copy to Mrs. and Miss Engelen ? 

Holland in 1910 sent to the eighth 
International Prison Congress at 
Washington a delegation of strong 
men whom it was a pleasure to meet 
personally and whose discussions of 
the grave problems before us added 
substantial contributions to the pre- 
sentation of the subjects. 

On the voyage and at the Congress 
itself one of these distinguished Hol- 
landers won the esteem and friend- 
ship of all who met him — Judge D. 
O. Engelen of the Superior Court at 
Zutphen, Holland. 

Now a letter from his daughter 
brings the sad news of his recent 
death afer a short illness, pneumonia. 
During his last days he spoke with 
pleasant recollections of his visit to 
America, and it is a satisfaction to 
know that he zvas aware of the fact 
that he had won the friendship of 
many Americans and that he appre- 
ciated our cordial attitude to him and 
his fellow countrymen. 

To the national troubles caused by 
tear is now added the affliction of 
domestic grief. I am sure all who 
met Judge Engelen will wish to have 
some expression of their sympathy 
sent to the faithful widow and loyal 

Charles R. Henderson. 

Charleston, S. C. 

SON was a prince in the kingdom 
of the spirit. In a community where 
scientific method and acquirement are 
naturally rated as of the first importance 
he won not only respect because of his 
scholarship, but something approaching 
veneration because of himself. He was 
universally said to be the most beloved 
man among the undergraduates and his 
classes of graduate and professional 
students taxed the largest classrooms. 
He was something; more than an official 

Bradley in Chicago Daily News 

era&isciis i 


MB C3BBBg 6ta.|y 
CUB enee- \i \ 


«*vi*wi j . 

THE way of honor 

university chaplain. He fathered the 
undergraduates; he was consoler and 
priest for the striken families of his 
colleagues ; he was the prophetic voice 
of our social ideals and the champion of 
faith that fears neither duty nor danger. 
I have never known a man who was so 
possessed of invincible good-will. I have 
seen him break into glorious passion as 
he denounced hypocrisy and greed only 
to check himself by some reflection that 
there was good in those whose mistakes 
he was assailing. His noble personal 
presence, his marvelous voice, his sim- 
plicity of heart, his Christian faith, his 
uncompromising determination to be an 
investigator before he was a reformer, 
and above all, the sweetness and spiritu- 
ality of his manhood made him one from 
whom to gain calmness of spirit, cour- 
age for service and patience in dealing 
with those who refused to be aided wise- 

He died as he must have wished to 
die — from the struggle with insuperable 
tasks and with the heroism of the man 
who, with no illusions as to social prob- 
lems, dares to give himself to the call 
of the needy. The past year we have 
seen his life melting away in the heat 
of his devotion to the poor and the 
needy of Chicago. 

It is the fellowship of men like Dr. 
Henderson that must ultimately con- 
vince the world that heroism is not lim- 
ited to the soldier but is to be found as 
noble in those who face the problems 
of social amelioration and reconstruc- 

He was the Bayard of social service. 
Shailer Matthews. 

/~V\E who grew up under similar con- 
ditions on the same soil has a 
peculiar appreciation of him. 

Born in Indiana, he knew the con- 
ditions following the pioneer period 
when life was simple. As pastor of the 
Baptist Church in Terre Haute, he was 
a preacher of Christ, and a minister to 
men. He saw the need of organized so- 
cial service and founded the Charity 
Organization Society there. A few 
years ago he was the guest of honor at 
its quarter-centennial. 

While pastor at Detroit, his interest 
in prison work began at the House of 
Correction which had been highly de- 
veloped by Zebulon R. Brockway. 

At the University of Chicago he be- 
came a great teacher as well as a care- 
ful student of social problems. 

He was pastor, charity worker, teach- 
er and student of social conditions. He 
brought to all these activities the full 
powers of his fine mind and the influ- 
ence of his delightful personality. He 
was an inspiration to his students, a 
trusted colleague and friend to his fel- 
low workers. 

To few has been given Professor 
Henderson's special ability to interpret 
to the popular mind the methods and 
processes of institutions and agencies. 
He is honored in his native state, in our 
nation, and wherever his work is known 
throughout the world. His life has been 
one of useful service, and he was faith- 
ful to the end. 

Amos \Y. Butler. 




T^HE Rev. Samuel G. Smith of St. 
Paul, president of the National Con- 
ference of_ Charities and Correction in 
1905 and of the American Prison Asso- 
ciation in 1914, died on March 25. 

Dr. Smith was born in Birmingham, 
England, in 1852. He was a graduate 
of Cornell College, Iowa, and held de- 
grees of A. M. and Ph. D. from Syra- 
cuse University. Following several 
pastorates in Iowa, he went in 1879 to 
St. Paul where he found his life 
work. Beginning as pastor of the First 
Methodist Church, he was later presid- 
ing elder, and in 1888 he founded the 
People's Church of which he was pas- 
tor until the day of his death. 

His direct contributions to social serv- 
ice were not confined only to the two na- 
tional bodies mentioned, but as founder 
and president of the St. Paul Associated 
Charities, as member of the St. Paul 
School Board, the State Board of Chari- 
ties and Corrections, the State Board of 
Parole, the commission to locate a 
State Hospital for the Insane, as a state 
commissioner to visit institutions in 
Europe and as regent of the University. 

He was the author of many papers 
and addresses and of a number of books, 
chief among them being the Industrial 
Conflict, Religion in the Making, Social 
Pathology and Democracy and the 

1V/TDRE than two hundred guests 
joined in the banquet tendered 
Dr. J. N. Hurty recently on the nine- 
teenth anniversary of his work as health 
commissioner of Indiana. 

Governor Ralston presided, and phy- 
sicians and men and women in philan- 
thropic work all over the country paid 
tribute to Dr. Hurty's pioneering skill 
and achievements. Indiana's pure food 
laws, the laws on quarantine, medical 
inspection, sanitarv schoolhouses, anti- 
toxin, and cold storage are due to Com- 
missioner Hurty; also the "anti-fly 
ordinance" now passed in thirty cities of 
the state, and the law providing a state 
tuberculosis hospital. 



To the Editor: James J. Coale's let- 
ter in The Survey of March 13 gives 
me the opportunity to express my long- 
felt sentiments, without wasting my own 
and others' time. I simply say "ditto" 
to all of it, including his general com- 
mendation of The Survey. 

Thomas D. Eliot. 

Berkeley, Cal. 

[See The Survey, November 14, p. 
181, col. 3. — Editor.] 


To the Editor: I am pleased to 
note on the cover of your issue of March 
13 the picture showing the children tak- 
ing the Rollier treatment at Perrysburg, 
N. Y. My only regret is that you did 
not state that the J. N. Adam Memorial 
Hospital belongs to the city of Buffalo. 

It may interest some of your readers 
and other associations Jo know that we 
have taken moving-pictures of the work 
at the J. N. Adam Hospital, and have a 
film of about 1,100 feet. This we rent at 
a low figure to parties interested. 

Paul E. Batzell. 
[Executive secretary, Association for 
Relief and Control of Tuberculosis.] 



To the Editor : Permit me to thank 
you for printing in The Survey for 
March 20, that sympathetically true pic- 
ture of the wandering workmen of the 
Pacific slope. I want to also assure the 
writer of the article and the readers of 
The Survey that at least one society is 
trying to minister to the needs and ne- 
cessities of the seasonal and unemployed 

The Episcopal Social Service League 
maintains Scadding House in the north, 
or men's end of Portland, a combined 
club room and lodging-house where the 
men have all the freedom of the saloon 
without any of its temptations and 
vices. Scadding House, so far as we 
know, is unique among institutions on 
the Pacific slope and, while less than a 
year old, is favorably known from the 
Canadian to the Mexican border as a 
happy medium between the extremes of 
the puritan resorts and the saloons. 

We invite inspection from all inter- 
ested travelers, especially those coming 
to the Panama Exposition this year. 
[Rev.] Frederic R. Howard. 

Portland, Ore. 


To the Editor: In regard to the 
minimum wage for women the question 
is often asked what will become of those 
who will fall below the standard of effi- 
ciency imposed by the higher wage. 

In the discussion of the subject the 
problem must be considered as to what 
will become of the rejected, many fear- 

ing that these will become a burden on 
the public. Why does not domestic serv- 
ice offer a field for such labor? All over 
the country there is a scarcity of house- 
hold servants. The wages are high and 
the employment is not subject to the 
fluctuations of the manufacturing indus- 
tries or retail commerce. The objec- 
tions raised by those having the dignity 
of woman's labor and her welfare at 
heart are the long irregular hours, the 
obligation of wearing a uniform (which 
saleswomen are also called upon to do) 
and the humiliation of being called by 
her Christian name, with the social stig- 
ma which in our country is attached to 
the calling. But surely these are not 
fundamental objections and with the 
entry into the field of large numbers of 
women, most of whom have a rudimen- 
tary education, the work would tend to 
become standardized. 

The establishment of a minimum 
wage, by eliminating those women less 
fit for industrial work would surely di- 
vert to domestic service a class fitted for 
this branch of woman's labor. 


Sophie Cary Storer. 


To the Editor: The editorial by the 
Rev. John A. Ryan in The Survey of 
March 13, entitled Rome Brown and the 
Minimum Wage, suggests some compari- 
sons under the title, Father Ryan and 
the Minimum Wage. 

The minimum wage discussion pre- 
sents three viewpoints: (1) the ethical, 
(2) the economic, and, (3) the consti- 
tutional. In the first two phases there 
is a broad field for fair difference of 
opinion, and as to the first less chance 
of difference than as to the second, but 
conclusions as to either or both are not 
controlling as to the third. 

I have never opposed Father Ryan's 
ethical arguments and, until after the 
constitutionality of the minimum wage 
statute had been submitted to the fed- 
eral Supreme Court in the Oregon cases, 
Father Ryan had agreed with me that 
such statutes could not be enforced by 
the courts under our present federal and 
state constitutions. Before that the field 
of our differences was confined to a dis- 
cussion of the economic phases of the 

It may be that his reading of my brief 
in the federal Supreme Court in the 
Oregon cases compelled him to change 
his views as to the constitutionality of 
these statutes, and to take issue with me 
on this phase of the question to which I 
have directed all my arguments, and in 
the discussion of which my observations 
upon the ethical and economic phases 
have been only incidental. 

I am an admirer of Father Ryan as an 
ethical and economic teacher. He is 
doing valiant work in combatting the 


The Survey, April 10, 1915 

propaganda of Socialism; but his en- 
thusiasm for the minimum wage carries 
him, in effect, into an unconscious alli- 
ance with the very Socialism which, as 
such, he abhors. 

In his Living Wage he asserts, cor- 
rectly, that the principle of the minimum 
wage is not susceptible of statutory en- 
actment in this country, under our pres- 
ent constitutions and our present form 
of government. After treating the ethi- 
cal and economic phases of the question 
and discussing the prevailing spirit of 
individualism as an obstacle to social re- 
form and referring to the recognized 
necessity of constitutional change in 
order to permit minimum wage statutes, 
he says (page 313) : 

"This spirit is still sufficiently po- 
tent to render exceedingly difficult 
those changes in the federal constitu- 
tion and in the constitutions of the 
several states which would be a pre- 
liminary requisite to any such legisla- 

Then, again, referring to the consti- 
tutional change necessary to give certain 
control to Congress over corporations, 
he says, (page 314) : 

"Once an amendment of this sort 
has been effected, constitutional modi- 
fications empowering Congress and 
the state legislatures to pass a mini- 
mum wage law, could readily be ob- 

But at Ford Hall in Boston on the 
evening of February 7 last, referring to 
the Oregon cases which were then under 
consideration by the federal Supreme 
Court, he said : 

"I feel certain that if the federal 
Supreme Court holds the law to be 
unconstitutional, there will be renew- 
ed agitation for the recall of judges, 
for easier methods of amending the 
constitution, and the criticism of our 
judicary will increase a hundredfold." 

I submit that, once admitted that the 
minimum wage statute cannot be up- 
held by the courts without a change in 
our constitutions, it is consistent alone 
with the doctrines of Socialism, defying 
constitutional restraints, to attempt to 
hold over our courts the arbitrary inter- 
ference of majorities as a threat for a 
refusal by the courts to measure the 
validity of a statute by the constitutional 
rule as now expressed, instead of by an- 
other and different rule which is not 
lawfully susceptible of judicial recogni- 
tion until, by proper amendment, it shall 
become controlling upon the courts. 

Father Ryan's argument, that the oc- 
cupation is the responsible cause of an 
unsupplied need of the living cost of a 
worker, involves a pctitio principii. The 
most that is shown is that the need in 
question may be sometimes coincident 
with the employment in question. The 
relation of cause and effect between the 
two, and, therefore, the responsibility of 
the occupation, are not logically dedu- 

The same argument of cause and re- 
sponsibility, from mere occasional co- 
incidence, would support the claim that 

the employer could be compelled to fur- 
nish old-age, sickness and non-employ- 
ment benefits for the worker and for 
every member of his family, to the full 
amount of the living cost of each and 
all. The same method of argument 
would support a statutory compulsory 
division of profits, as such, and the en- 
actment into statutes of other theories, 
impracticable in reason and in law, of 
compulsory enforcement. 

With Father Ryan, I believe in and 
advocate the observance of that highest 
rule of conduct which is expressed in 
the Golden Rule ; and I recognize that 
the advocacy of the minimum wage is 
supported by that great ethical prin- 
ciple. As a lawyer, however, I assert 
that that rule is not, either in reason or 
in law, susceptible of enforcement 
through statutory enactment. In statu- 
tory form, it becomes impracticable and 
invalid, at the same time that it loses all 
its ethical and religious qualities. It 
would be thereby changed from a human 
moral precept to a brute threat of the 
penal code. 

Rome G. Brown. 

To the Editor: Mr. Brown's reply 
deals with my change of opinion re- 
garding the constitutionality of a mini- 
mum wage law, with the exact nature 
of the relation between a low-wage oc- 
cupation and an insufficient livelihood, 
and with the legal enforcibility of the 
Golden Rule. 

The passage from A Living \\ 
which Mr. Brown cites to show that I 
once regarded minimum wage legislation 
as unconstitutional, was written just ten 
vears ago. Since then we have had 
from the courts several decisions, nota- 
bly those in the shorter work-day cases. 
which indicate a more liberal view of 
the police power of the state, and which 
point to the practical possibility that 
even a minimum wage law might be ju- 
dicially sustained (see the address by 
Louis M. Greeley of Chicago on The 
Changing Attitude of the Courts Toward 
Social Legislation in The Survey for 
September 3. 191 

As far back as 1910, I had expressed 
the view that the principles enunciated 
in the cases of Ilolden vs. Hardy and 
Mueller vs. Oregon "could very well be 
made to sustain minimum wage legisla- 
tion" (see same issue of The Survey. 
pp. 815, Sid). Consequently. Mr. 
Brown is in error when he says that 1 
had been in agreement with him on this 
point up to the time that the Oregon case 
was argued before the federal Supreme 
Court last December. Hence, too. the 
utterance that he cites from my Ford 
Hall address cannot properly be inter- 
preted as a "threat" to the courts. It 
was a mere statement of what is likely 
to happen. 

A low-wage occupation is not. indeed. 
the "cause" of the unsupplied need of 
the worker in the sense in which the 
metaphysicians speak of "efficient causal- 
ity." Neither is the occupation the ef- 
ficient cause of the injury to health 
where women work excessively long 
hours. In both cases it is the labor con- 
tract, the conditions in which the occu- 

pation is carried on by the worker, that 
is formally and precisely responsible. 
This responsibility is less direct in the 
former case than in the latter, but it 
is no less practical and certain. 

Despite Mr. Brown's assertion, the re- 
lation between the low wages and the 
unsupplied need of the worker is some- 
thing more than an "occasional coin- 
cidence." In a very large proportion of 
cases it is a relation of social inevitabil- 
ity, of practical causality; for the work- 
er has no other means by which she can 
obtain the full complement of a decent 
livelihood. If the wage contract pre- 
vents her from obtaining this much it is 
the practical and social cause of the un- 
supplied need. And it seems to me that 
where the problem to be met by the law 
is one of social welfare and practical 
possibilities, the courts are neither re- 
quired nor are they likely to consider 
metaphysical distinctions of causality. 

I readily admit that this reasoning 
would justify the claim of the worker to 
a wage adequate to a decent livelihood 
for his wife and those of his children 
who have not reached the age of self- 
support, as well as to insurance against 
the normal contingencies of life. And 
I hope to live long enough to see this 
claim recognized by the statutes and the 

Whether the Golden Rule is enforci- 
ble by statute is irrelevant to the pres- 
ent discussion; for the minimum wage 
does not always measure up fully to that 
gospel principle. It is merely a dictate 
of elementary justice. And its legal 
feasibility must be determined on prac- 
tical grounds, not on a priori reasoning. 
If moral precepts may not be enforced 
by legal regulations, then we should pro- 
ceed to abolish the policeman, the courts 
and all the legal institutions that have 
been devised to prevent the strong from 
preying upon the weak. 

John A. Ryan 

St. Paul. 

CIRCULATION etc , of The Survey, published weekly tt 
New Yo'U, N Y., for April 1, 1915 as required by the Act of 
August 24, 1914. 

Name of Post-office address 

Editor, Paul U Kel'ogg, 105 E. 22d St., New York. 

Managing Editor, A. P Kellogg, 105 E. 22d M., New York. 
Business Manager, J. P Heaton. 105 E 22d St. New York. 
Publisher, Survey Associates, Inc. 105 E. 22d St, New York. 

Owners: (If a corporation, give names and addresses of 
stockholders hold>ng 1 per c c nt rr more of to'al amount of 
stock) Survey Associates Inc.. 105 E 22d St . New York. 
A ron- commercial corporation under the la*s of New York 
State witn over 900 membe'S. It has neither stocks nor 
bonds. The following ate the directors : 

Names of Directors Post-office address 

Robert W. de Forest, Pres. 30 Broad St.. New Yor» N Y. 
Joh. M Gl«-nn, Vice-Pres. 1 30 E. 22d St., New Yo-k. NY. 
Frank Tucker, Treasurer 3 4 6 Founh Ave.. New YnrU N .Y. 
Jane Addims 800 S ». Halstead St Chicago, III. 

Robert S Brewster 51 Wall Street New York NY. 

Edward r. Devme 105 E. 22d St. New York NY. 

Julian W. Mack U. S Circuit Court of Appeals, 

Chicago lit. 
V Eve-it Macy 68 Broad St., N»w York, NY. 

Cha les D. Norton 2 Wall Street NewVork N.Y. 

Simon N Patten University of Penn . Fhila , Pa 

Lilan D Wald 265 Henry St New Vork, N. Y 

Alfred T. White 14 Wail Street, New York, N.Y 

Secretary of Board of Director* 
Arthur P. Kellogg 105 E 22d St., New York, N Y. 

Known bondholders, mortgagees, and other security ho'd- 
ers, holding I per cent or moie of total amount of bonds, 
mortgages, or other securities: None. 

(Sgned) JAMES P. HEATON, Busi-ese Manager 

Sworn to and subscribed befo-e m» this 16th day of March. 
19 5. Edward B. Brucn, Notary Public. Westchester Co. 
Ce tificate filed in New York Co. Nrw York Register No. 
5074. (My commission expires Marcn 30, 1915 ) 


The Tenantry of the Southwest 

An Interpretation of the Dallas Hearing on the Land Question of the United 
States Commission on Industrial Relations 

Expert in Charge 


"A submerged class so low in the economic 
scale that they have no fixed abodes, but 
roam from farm to farm with the recurring 
seasons. They are the country brethren of 
the casual workers. Depressed as they are, 

this class appears to have lost hope. Condi- 
tioned as they are, they have neither sufficient 
initiative nor knowledge to make it possible 
for them, unaided, in their own generation 
to push up a degree of greater freedom." 

Price 10 Cents 

April 17, 1915 

Volume XXXIV, No. 3 



105 East 22d Street Robert w deForest> President 2559 Michigan Ave. 

New York Arthur P. Kellogg. Secretary Frank Tucker. Treasurer Chicago 

Vol. XXXIV, No. 3 


April 17, 1915 



Graham Taylor 



Charles W. Holman 



Howard Woodhead 
















Adolph Roeder 
Roger IS. Baldwin 









The Clarion (Adams), Arthur P. Kellogg; The Modern Factory (Price). Zenas L. Potter: American Pagean- 
try (Davol), William E. Bohn; The History of the Dwelling House and its Future (Thompson), Lectures on 
Housing (Kowntree and Pigou), Edward T. Hartman; What the Mother of a Deaf Child Ought to Know 
(Wright), Edward Allen Fay 

JOTTINGS ... . . 77 



Single copies of this Issue ten cents. Co-operating subscriptions $10 a year. Regular 
subscriptions $3 a year. Foreign postage $1.20 extra. Canadian 70 cents. Changes of address 
should be mailed to us ten days in advance. In accordance with a growing commercial practice, 
when payment is by check a receipt will be sent only upon request. 



The Probation Officer at Work 







Former Chief Probation Officer, Chicago Juvenile Court ; Member faculty, 
Nel» York School of Philanthropy 

[A feature of the May Magazine number of THE SURVEY] 

The GIST of IT- 

TENANT farmers of the Southwest are 
in doleful plight as a result of concen- 
trating ownership of the land in absentee 
hands, high values, a one-crop system and 
other factors which are making hapless 
drifters of them. A review of the Dallas 
hearings of the Industrial Relations Com- 
mission. Page 63. 

JsJ EITHER New Jersey nor Missouri has 
made much of a showing in social legis- 
lation. New Jersey lawmakers hereafter 
must cloak their bills in plain Anglo-Saxon 
in addition to the statement in legalized 
phraseology so confusing to the lay person. 
Missouri legislators provided for the ap- 
pointment of women police and permitted 
the use of school buildings throughout the 
state as social centers. Pages 70, 71. 

CHICAGO'S voters, men and women, cast 
their ballots with fine discrimination 
For mayor they had only a choice of evils, 
but they chose the best candidates for the 
City Council and they approved bond issues 
for a contagious diseases hospital, play- 
grounds, bathing beaches, a garbage dis- 
posal plant, and a farm colony. Page 62. 

gOCIAL hygiene measures in Ohio, 
Indiana, Missouri, Wisconsin and other 
middle western parts. Page 68. 

LOANS to set up convalescent and crip- 
pled men in little retail shops have 
been uniformly successful both as business 
ventures and as relief measures, the Chicago 
Jewish Aid Society reports. Page 70. 

THE SURVEY'S peace number and its 
supplement, Towards the Peace That 
Shall Last, have provoked a sheaf of re- 
markable letters and newspaper comment 
Page 72. 

p IVE countries are facing typhus fever 
and all Europe is threatened. Surgeon- 
General Gorgas may be drafted to take 
charge of the campaign against it. A letter 
on tlie plague by Ernest P. Piicknell of the 
American Red Cross. Page 59. 

N EW YORK CITY, aided and abetted 

by the Tribune. Harper's Weekly and 
I' user Gesund, is taking a lively whack at 
the quack. Page 68. 

CHICAGO'S great public estate in land 
and buildings made a striking exhibit 
at the City Club. Better community plan- 
ning for its use is expected to result 
Page 65. 

DR. BRUXXER, health officer of S.ivan 
nah, declares the Negro has gon< 
ahead "in spite oi our neglect ^i him." 
But in southern cities lie cannot shake ofl 
disease and crime until we provide better 
bouses for him. Page 67 

A_ .M ERICA'S delegates to the Women's 
Peace Congress have sailed for Hol- 
land. All our schools are urged to observi 
Peace Hay on Ma\ is Page 58. 



Fifty years from Appomattox, 
a hundred after Waterloo, two new 
forces for peace, recruited from the 
women and children of America, were 
making their first organized campaign 
in the midst of war. 

Last week the American delegates 
were starting, at no mean risk of mine 
and submarine, for the conference call- 
ed by the women of Holland. And the 
American School Peace League sent out 
a call to the governors of the states to 
proclaim Peace Day — May 18 — not only 
for the schools, which have observed it 
for a decade, "but for all institutions 
that are the guardians of civilization." 

Since its inception two months ago the 
Woman's Peace Party has been almost 
continually active. Its latest effort was 
the massmeeting at Carnegie Hall on 
Sunday evening, April 11. Mrs. Amos 
Pinchot acted as chairman. 

It was largely an audience of women, 
seriously eager for a chance to partici- 
pate even in the humblest way in the 
peace movement. And the speakers, all 
but one, were women with the realiza- 
tion of power, the habit of rebellion, that 
has come to twentieth century woman to 
replace that old attitude of our grand- 
mothers who "grieved because they had 
no more sons to give to their country." 

Charles Wheeler, correspondent of the 
Chicago Tribune, who has just returned 
from Europe, pictured in vivid language 
the suffering among women and children 
throughout Belgium. "We men have 
never told the truth about war," he 
said. "We have lauded the hero on the 
battlefield but have been silent about the 
thousands of heroes among the women 
at home." 

Marion Craig Wentworth, author of 

the stirring playlet War Brides, appeal 
ed to women to rouse others to a belief 
in peace, to inspire a desire for peace, as 
a duty for the individual. And Alia 
Xazimova, in homely peasant garb, gave 
several tense scenes from Mrs. Went- 
worth's play. 

Mrs. Pethick Lawrence made her last 
important speech before returning to 
England. She will be one of the English 
delegates at the Women's Peace Con- 
gress at the Hague. 

tary of the American School Peace 
League, announced fresh dramatic mate- 
rial available for the Peace Day pro- 
grams. For secondary and normal 
schools, the league recommends In the 
Vanguard by Katrina Trask ; for secon- 
dary school boys. The Enemy ; and for 
elementary schools, A Pageant of Peace, 
the two latter by Beulah Marie Dix. The 
three, which were contributed by the au- 
thors, are described as "a virile condem- 
nation of war, an appealing argument 
for an orderly world, and a practical 
manifestation of common interests and 
common responsibilities." Teachers are 
urged to read the Peace Day bulletins, 
prepared by the league and distributed 
by the federal Bureau of Education to 
the number of almost one hundred thou- 
sand since 1912. 

"The present world crisis does not 
change the philosophy of life nor the 
trend of human progress," the Peace 
Day announcement reads. "It is indeed 
a tragic interruption. When the deliri- 
um of war is over, an iron law will com- 
pel those now engaged in mutual de- 
struction to seek one another again. The 
day must come when the peoples of the 
world will work in common once again. 
This idea should be impressed in the 
Peace Day observance this year. The 
spectacle of human suffering and devas- 
tation should fire every boy and girl 
with a permanent revulsion against war, 
and the thought should be ingrained 
that war can be eliminated by the will 
of the people. 

"Peace Day this year should also give 
the youth of our country a conception 
of the practical means of obtaining per- 
manent peace among the nations, and 
should point nut the particular bearing 
of American democracy on the world 



News continues to come that 
the ominous typhus plague which already 
has a firm hold in Servia and Austria 
threatens to spread throughout the en- 
tire war area of Europe. 

Within the past fortnight the Ameri- 
can Red Cross has received word that 
the disease is raging in Constantinople, 
crowded with wounded soldiers, and 
that two hospitals there have been turn- 
ed over to the American Red Cross. 
Press despatches declare that Bulgaria 
has established a quarantine against 
Servia because of the plague. Later 
still comes a request from the Monte- 
negrin government to our state depart- 
ment for aid in coping with a typhus 
epidemic in that country, where there is 
declared to be a dearth of doctors, medi- 
cines and disinfectants. , 

Surgeon-general William C. Gorgas, 
whose work at Havana and Panama has 
made him an international reputation as 
a sanitarian, has been asked by the 
Rockefeller Foundation to take charge 
in Servia. It is reported that the foun- 
dation has made him an offer to become 
its permanent advisor in sanitary work, 
to accept which he will have to resign 
from the army. 

Further substantiation of the reports 
as to the menace of the typhus plague 
is contained in a letter received in this 
country from Ernest P. Bicknell, nation- 
al director of the American Red Cross, 
now in Europe as a member of the 
Rockefeller commission for relief to 
non-combatants. Portions of this let- 
ter, written from Sofia, Bulgaria, Febru- 
ary 27, are printed here : 

"Late last evening we got back here 
after eight strenuous days in Servia. 
. . . I cannot undertake in this letter 




Volume XXXIV, No. 3. 



The Survey, April 17, 1915 

to give you an account of this Servian 
trip, but will try to make notes of it 
which will enable me to tell you all 
about it later. It was, I believe the most 
interesting experience we have had 
since coming over here. Everything 
was new to us. There is much destitu- 
tion but all other present suffering seems 
small when compared with the frightful 
prevalence of disease, especially of ty- 
phoid and the much more deadly typhus. 
The latter is everywhere and so far 
nothing has been done to stop it. 

"At the town of Gevgevlia, six of our 
American Red Cross doctors and twelve 
nurses are stationed in charge of a huge 
hospital with over 1,000 patients. Three 
of the doctors and nine of the nurses 
have or have had typhus. One doctor, 
Donnelly, died three days ago. Some of 
the nurses are recovering, as are the 
doctors, and some nurses have just come 
down. Those not ill are now giving 
their time to the sick ones and a few 
Servian doctors are looking after the 
hospital. Another American doctor, not 
from the Red Cross, died recently from 
the same disease and several British doc- 
tors and nurses have died. 

"This typhus story is too terrible to 
write about in detail but many thousand 
persons have the disease, and the peo- 
ple, both civilian and soldier, are going 
to be decimated unless strong and vast 
measures are taken to check the epidem- 
ic. Typhus is transmitted through the 
bite of a louse — a body louse, not the 
head louse — and spreads through filthy 
living conditions in the first place, but in 
time beds and railway cars and carriages 
and water-closets become infested with 
the lice and no one is safe. 

"In all Servia there were in normal 
times not t over 400 doctors, and of these 
about 50 have died of typhus in the last 
two months, 30 in the last month. If 
the Rockefeller Foundation authorizes 
us to undertake any relief work in Ser- 
via it will be in the line of fighting the 
epidemic of typhus. Some of the scenes 
of uncared-for sickness and death we 
saw last week will haunt me long. 

"We were treated with such over- 
whelming hospitality in Servia by the 
government and the Red Cross that our 
work was interfered with seriously. You 
remember Dr. Soubititch who was at our 
International Red Cross Conference din- 
ner in Washington? Well he is the big 
man in the Servian Red Cross and he 
has gone to extremes to entertain us. 
His only son died of typhus about two 
months ago, but he said nothing to us 
of that. Others told us. 

"One morning at three o'clock while 
we were traveling on a train in Servia 
a group of drunken Servian army offi- 
cers demanded admission to our com- 
partment. We did not respond and they 
smashed in the door with angry shouts 
and thronged into the cramped little 
place. They drove our Servian com- 
panion, detailed by the government to 
accompany us, into the corridor while 
they jammed themselves into the seats 
and proceeded to sing and shout and 
drink wine from a large bottle. Things 
looked pretty ominous for awhile but 
when the gang found that we were 
Americans they became apologetic and 
amiable. However, they remained pack- 
ed into our compartment until 7 a.m. 


John Maxted runs a small dairy 
(he has eleven cows) in Western 
Springs, a suburb of Chicago. 
Shortly before Christmas he saw 
some peace labels advertised in The 
Survey and sent for them. He 
pasted one on each bottle of milk he 
sold on Christmas day, his idea being 
to assist, even in a small way, in the 
educational campaign for peace. His 
January and February monthly state- 
ments to his customers had a bit of 
telling peace comment from Collier's 
on their reverse side. 

"The government was greatly aroused 
over this performance. The prime min- 
ister sent for us to apologize to us and 
to assure us that the officers would be 
severely punished and after that we were 
given a special car wherever we went 
and three or four men went with us. 
We were presented to the crown prince 
who is also prince regent, as the King 
is old and in poor health and at present 
away at a health resort. The young 
prince, twenty-six years old, seems a 
vigorous and capable chap, quite digni- 
fied and self-contained. 

"I do not remember whether I wrote 
you of the pleasant interview I had with 
the Queen of Bulgaria as I passed 
through here (Sofia) on my way into 
Servia. 1 was alone then but we are 
invited to an audience with the Queen 
tomorrow evening, the three of us. 
Messrs. James, Herrle and myself. Her 
Majesty is very democratic and informal 
?nd an immense admirer of America. 
When the war is ended she expects to 
visit the U. S. A. 

"Today was the King's birthday and 
there was a wonderfully imposing serv- 
ice in his honor in the ancient Greek 
church here. We attended and later 
went to the palace where we signed our 
names in a special book which is open 
for the purpose on the King's birthday. 
We also signed in a book which the 

Queen keeps for the purpose, and which 
was brought out yesterday especially for 
us. ... I like the Bulgarians. 
They seem an intelligent and substantial 

In another letter Mr. Bicknell wrote: 
"Yesterday, in crossing the line from 
Belgium into Holland I was searched 
and cross-examined for nearly an hour. 
All my pockets were searched, my notes 
and letters examined, and finally a note 
book in which I had written about 4,000 
words of experiences, anecdotes, obser- 
vations, etc., was taken away with sev- 
eral letters. I did regret exceedingly to 
lose that note book. The officer said it 
would be sent to the headquarters in 
Antwerp and if it were found unobjec- 
tionable on examination, it would be sent 
to the American legation at Brussels for 
me. As I was helpless I had to yield 
but I never expect to see my notes 

On March 30, according to newspaper 
despatches from Paris, Mr. Bicknell at- 
tended a conference at the French war 
office at which it was decided that the 
relief societies of France, England, and 
the United States should join forces, 
each group being responsible for relief 
work in a section of Servia. The send- 
ing of a sanitary commission to Servia 
by the American Red Cross was de- 
scribed in The Survey of March 27. 


At the end of Tom Johnson's 
first term as mayor of Cleveland he out- 
lined before the Board of Aldermen a 
policy for the suppression of the social 
evil in Cleveland. This policy provided 
for the gradual elimination of houses of 
ill fame, drawing the lines closer and 
closer until the segregated district, which 
was extensive and flourishing in John- 
son's time, should be entirely eliminated. 
Succeeding mayors have followed more 
or less vigorously Mayor Johnson's 

In consonance with this plan, Mayor 
Baker recently gave orders to Chief of 
Police Rowe for the final closing of the 
last few houses in the district. This 
order, which went into effect April 1, 
has received considerable publicity in 
the Cleveland newspapers, much to the 
distaste of the administration, for 
Mayor Baker had hoped to put the las: 
of the houses out of business without 
noise or display. However, the deter 
mination of the administration has not 
faltered, and the segregated district will 

In striking contrast with the situation 
in Cleveland is the extensive and flag- 
rant segregated district of Toledo, 
known as "the yellow streak." The dis- 
trict is so located geographically and 
conditions outside of the recognized dis- 
trict are so vile that it may be termed 
an "unrestricted" district, although tin 
segregated portion flaunts itself befon 
the public most ostentatiously. 

There is hope for the betterment oi 

Common Welfare 


the situation in Toledo in the injunc- 
tion and abatement bill which is now be- 
fore the Ohio Legislature. This meas- 
ure, introduced by Assemblyman Young 
of Cleveland, has a reasonable chance 
of success. If passed, it will place in the 
hands of the citizens of Ohio an in- 
strument for dealing directly with com- 
mercialized vice. 

The neighboring state of Indiana has 
but recently passed an injunction and 
abatement law, and Michigan and Illi- 
nois have the bill in their Legislatures 
at the present time. 

A hot battle was waged for the in- 
junction and abatement law in the Mis- 
souri Legislature. The bill, so amended 
as not to give the private citizen the 
right to initiate injunction proceedings, 
passed the Assembly by a vote of 100 to 
15, but was held up in the Senate by the 
deadlock over liquor legislation until it 
was too late to get it to the floor. The 
Senate was favorable to the measure 
and would undoubtedly have passed it if 
a vote had been taken. 

Wisconsin leads the central states in 
the number of social hygiene measures 
introduced during the 1915 terms of the 
legislatures. At hearings of Senate 
Committee on Education and Public 
Welfare on March 30, 31 and April 1, 
nineteen bills bearing upon various 
phases of social hygiene were discussed. 
These bills embody the recommenda- 
tions of the Wisconsin Vice Commission 
which recently reported to the Legisla- 
ture. Besides the Vice Commission 
measures a number of other bills have 
been introduced bearing upon age of 
consent, criminal offenses, marriage con- 
tracts, pandering, regulation of dance 
halls, etc. 



The country-wide emphasis laid 



A new thing in almshouses is 
to be given to the country by North 
Carolina. At the request of the four- 
teen counties comprising the First Con- 
gressional District of that state, the 
Legislature has just combined the coun- 
ty homes of these counties, and a single 
institution will be erected in their stead. 
This will be called "Community House 
No. 1." 

Such a step has been under discussion 
in Virginia and elsewhere, but North 
Carolina is the first state to take it. The 
plan has the approval of the State Board 
of Public Charities. 

Each of the fourteen counties, which 
have a combined population of 200,000, 
is to be represented on the board of 
trustees of the new institution and to 
pay a proportional part of the expense 
of maintenance. It is planned to locate 
the home on farm land and to employ a 
physician and nurse. The number of 
persons to be cared for at first will be 
about 200. The annual cost of mainten- 
ance of the almshouses to be replaced is 
$28,000. their property valuation $48,000. 

upon the political aspect of the Chicago 
"landslide" city election serves to point 
the social significance of the event. Re- 
lentless factional strife obscures its 
bearing upon political tendencies, but 
nothing can obscure the sheer lunge by 
which the widespread discontent with 
unemployment expressed itself through 
the ballot. 

There was nothing in the capacity or 
personal popularity of either candidate 
to justify any confidence of gaining re- 
lief at the hand of the one or the other. 
Neither of them had experience or repu- 
tation to attract any such hope. Lead- 
ing papers did not hesitate to express a 
preference only for "the least of two 
evils'' or to remain non-committal. 

Then came the avalanche. Of 768,- 
906 registered voters, 669,688, or 87 per 
cent, voted. The plurality of 147,977, 
nearly twice the highest ever previously 
given a candidate for mayor broke the 
record of the anything-for-a-change 
votes. Factional revenge played its part 
against the defeated Democratic faction. 
Sinister sectarian antagonism was subtly 
fostered in the interest of each candi- 
date in carefully selected localities and 

No such dominant factor of the prob- 
lem can either of these influences be 
shown to be as impatience with intoler- 
able economic conditions surely proved 
to be. The balance of power was swung 
by the men and women voters in the 
wage-workers' wards. And yet only 
23,826 votes were cast for the Socialist 
candidate for mayor, by far the ablest 
man in the running, although two 
capable Socialists were elected alder- 
men for the first time in the history of 
the city. 

The liquor issue was keen in many 
of the ward contests. In the interest of 
its sole tocsin, "personal liberty," the 
United Societies published a list of can- 
didates whom it endorsed, or who were 
"acceptable." Of the 27 it endorsed, 17 
were defeated and 10 were elected. Of 
the 22 who were acceptable, 13 were de- 
feated and 9 elected. Of the 49 pre- 
ferred by the United Societies, includ- 
ing most of the very worst candidates 
and a few better ones, 30 were defeated 
and 19 elected. And yet the prohibition 
candidate for mayor received a total of 
only 3,590 votes, of which 1,888 were 
cast by men and 1,702 by women. 

Of the women registered 86 per cent 
voted, numbering 243,309. Of the men 
registered 88 per cent voted, a total of 
426,347. While the women's influence 
paralleled the men's in the more parti- 
san voting for mayor, their balance of 
power was swung in a more non-par- 
tisan way in the vote for aldermen.. 

The Municipal Voters' League, in this 
its twentieth annual campaign, scored 

the most sweeping ratification by the 
voters which its recommendations of al- 
dermen ever received. Thirty candi- 
dates whom it endorsed were elected and 
only 8 whom it recommended were de 
feated, while but 4 broke into the coun- 
cil against its protest. 

Thus, the utmost discrimination was 
shown in the choice of the most capable 
and reputable candidates for the City 
Council. In wards where the "landslide" 
for the Republican candidate for mayor 
was heaviest, some of the largest plur- 
alities were polled by aldermanic candi- 
dates nominated by Democrats or So- 

This discrimination of the voters was 
shown as markedly in voting on the 
propositions of the "little ballot." 

The bond issue for the contagious dis- 
ease hospital carried by the heavy vote 
of 276,505 for it to 150,048 against it, a 
total vote of 426,553. Playground and 
bathing beach bonds received the next 
most popular vote of 417,875, of which 
268,803 were favorable and 149,072 were 
adverse. Then followed in turn the adop- 
tion of the provision for the garbage re- 
duction plant, for a farm colony and 
women's shelter to supplement the 
House of Correction, for better fire de- 
partment houses and police stations. 

The proposal was lost for the double 
platoon system in the Fire Department. 
There was a division of opinion in the 
Fire Department itself and among the 

The point of greatest significance 
which stands out in this election is the 
fact that, led by the Municipal Voters' 
League, enough Chicago citizens to 
constitute the balance of power have 
come to the settled conviction that the 
office of alderman is no longer to be re- 
garded as a partisan position, but has 
the sole function of dealing with the 
civic and social interests of the com- 
munity. This conviction is so strong 
that great majorities of voters were not 
swerved from it even by the partisan 
landslide in the election for mayor, 
whose office is not yet emancipated from 
the irrelevant illusion of being identified 
with the interests and organization of 
national parties. 

Perhaps, however, the beginning of 
the end of that illusion was signalized 
by the primary vote for the fusion can- 
didate, Chief Justice Harry Olson of the 
Municipal Court. It came within 2.325 
votes of nominating him for the mayor 
of Chicago. If, in the Republican prim- 
ary election, the men had voted for 
Judge Olson's nomination in the same 
proportion as the women, the landslide 
might have borne him into the mayor's 

In that event at the end of his four 
years of administration the citizens of 
Chicago would have as clearly seen the 
office of mayor to be non-partisan as 
they now see the office of alderman to be. 


The Survey, April 17, 1915 





Levi Stewart, casual tenant 
farmer, had left the stand at the hearing 
on the land question conducted by the 
United States Commission on Industrial 
Relations at Dallas, Tex. His wife, a 
shrinking little woman with faded eyes 
and broken body, was called as the next 
witness. In her arms she held a two- 
year-old child who whined as he looked 
with frightened face upon the intense, 
curious crowd and eyed with awe the 
commissioners at their high table — 
these commissioners who were to ques- 
tion his mother and hear from her the 
story that women of the tenant class in 
the cotton belt can tell. 

The little woman wore a blue sun- 
bonnet tied securely under her chin, 
with two long strings that dangled to her 
waistline. Her dress, the best she had, 
was of checked material, faded by 
many washings. Her figure was strain- 
ed and quivered from nervous tension. 
The crowd stretched their necks to hear 
her little thin voice as she told her 

All morning they had listened to Levi, 
her husband, tell of their wanderings 
and perennial hard luck. They had al- 
ways moved "to better our condition," 
he said, and he still thought that "a 
farmer's life is the happiest life if a 
man is hitched up right." But now the 
commissioners were to hear the wom- 
an's side of the story. They would 
catch the angle from which the farm- 
er's wife views her world on the south- 
ern farm. 

Chairman Walsh vacated his chair ; 
Mrs. J. Borden Harriman, prominent so- 
ciety woman and member of the com- 
mission, took his place. She had evi- 
denced a desire to question the witness. 
As Mrs. Harriman took the chairman's 
seat next to the witness, a look of re- 
lief passed over the little woman's face, 
for already these two had become ac- 
quainted and had discussed matters that 
proved the universal sisterhood. Mrs.' 
Harriman went straight to the heart of 
the problem. 

"Do you work in the fields?" she 

"Yes ma'am." 

"How old were you when you mar- 


"How old was your husband?" 


"Did you work in the fields when you 
were a child?" 

"Oh. ves'm, I picked and T chopped." 

Probing the 
Causes of Unrest 


' I *HE twenty-second of a series 
of interpretations of the work 
of the United States Industrial 
Relations Commission, written es- 
pecially for The Survey. 

"Have you worked in the fields ever} 
year ?" 

"I do in choppin' an' pickin' times." 

"Since you have been married ?" 

"Yes." ' 

"And you do the housework?" 

"There ain't no one else to do it." 

"And the sewing ?" 


"Did you make your sunbonnet too?" 

"Yes Ma'am. I makes all the clothes 
for the children and myself. I make 
everything I wear ever since I married." 

"Do you make your hats," asked Mrs 
Harriman, incredulously. 

"Yes'm, T make my hats. I only had 
two since I been married." 

"Only two bats?" 

"Yes'm. two." 

"And how long have you been mar- 

"Twenty years." 

"Do you do the milking?" 

"Most always, when we can afford a 

"What time do you get up in the 

"I usually gits up in time to have 
breakfast done by four o'clock in the 
summer time. In the winter time, we 
are through with breakfast by sunup." 

"And after breakfast?" 

"In choppin' and pickin' time. I work 
in the fields." 

"Do you cook the dinner?" 

"I generally leave the field at 11 
o'clock to get dinner ready" 

"What do you do after dinner?" 

"I most always goes back to the field." 

"And then you get supper too?" 

"Yes'm, and do up the dishes. Then 
I try to do what sewin' has to be done." 

"Did you work in the fields while you 
were carrying your children?" 

"Ye — yes'm." 

"When you were far advanced?" 

"Oh, yes, sometimes — sometimes al- 
most nigh to birthin'-time." 

"Is this customary among the tenant 
farmers' wives you have known?" 

The little woman inclined her head. 

"What about the social conveniences?" 
asked Mrs. Harriman. "Do you have 
many gatherings in the country ?" 

"Not very often. We usually have 
church once a month." 

"Are there any libraries in the com- 
munities in which you have live'!'" 


Mrs. Harriman returned to her form- 
er subject. 

'What do you think about the effect 
of dragging cotton sacks, upon women 
who are going to have children?" 

"Well, missus, I think it is pretty bad," 
her voice rose to a high plaintive note. 
"It has nigh done me up. I don't think- 
any woman ought to have to do it. I just 
wouldn't if Levi hadn't needed me so." 

"Do you have nervous breakdowns?" 

She nodded. 

The witness was excused an hour 
later. She had corroborated her hus- 
band's story of their wanderings which 
had taken them over parts of Arkan- 
sas and Texas, and had extended beyond 
a score of years. Almost every new 
cropping season had found them moving 
to a different farm. She bad described 
their frugal diet, their efforts to econo- 
mize, their intimate life hopes, and their 
struggle to rear an increasing family of 

When summoned to the bearing they 
were $700 in debt and were without a 
farm. They thought they would have 
been just as well off if the family had 
done no work at all the last two years. 
Questioned in regard to the children, 
they explained that the tenant family 
must have a large number of children 
in order "to have hands in choppin' an' 
pickin' times." 

T believe the story of Levi Stewart 
and his family of barefoot children 
stands for something more than the ban: 
luck tale of a ne'er-do-well. He and 
his kin are representatives of a class 
that has not been generally recognized. 
— a submerged class so low in the eco- 
nomic scale that they have no fixed 
abodes, but roam from farm to farm 
with the recurring seasons. They are 
the country brethren of the casual work- 
ers. Depressed as they are. this class 
appears to have lost hope. Conditioned 
as they are. they have neither sufficient 
initiative nor knowledge to make it pos- 
sible for them, unaided, in their own 
generation to push up a degn 
greater freedom. 

Pinned below an industrial structure, 
they must be given not only a way out. 
but they must be shown how to find 
this way. Otherwise there may he 
created in America a class attached to 
the soil — a dependent class of low de- 
cree, in itself an obstruction to ,inv 



hope that democracy might entertain 
for it. It seems necessary for this aid 
to come from without the class itself, 
but it should be of an educational nature 
rather than an attempt to furnish outside 

At the Dallas hearing an attempt was 
made to ascertain the proportion of this 
class to the total tenant population. No 
one knew much about it, but all of the 
witnesses questioned thought the pro- 
portion to be considerable. Some wit- 
nesses believed it to run as high as 60 
per cent. Others were so conservative 
as to place it at about 20 per cent. Some 
light was thrown upon the subject by the 
recent findings of the federal census 
that 50 per cent of the tenant farmers 
in the South are estimated to move each 

An attempt was also made by the com 
mission to discover how this class has 
become submerged. That leads into the 
real story of the hearings. For this sub- 
merged farmer type merely represents 
the people who have been unable to im- 
prove their condition under the present 
organization of land tenure in America. 

It was the purpose of the investiga- 

( 1 ) To study the forces that are caus- 
ing a concentration of land owner- 

(2) To arrive at the causes of friction 
between' landlords and tenants. 

(3) To determine in some measure the 
economic relationship of landlord 
and tenant as viewed by the law. 

(4) To measure society's reaction from 
these sources. 

(5) To estimate the complicating f ac- 
tors that may hinder social prog- 

(6) To analyze the relation of the land 
question to labor and wages. 

(7) To develop from the facts gathere ' 
a constructive land policy. 

In going about this study the commis- 
sion departed somewhat from its policy 
in other lines of investigation. It was 
manifest that with only a small appro- 
priation that could be made available for 
agricultural studies the commission 
could make only a beginning toward 
such a huge and ambitious undertaking. 
It was, therefore, determined to make 
preliminary field studies in the section 
of the United States where the situation 
might be most acute. 

The Southwest was pitched upon for 
this reason, and for another. In the 
area, one thousand miles square, west 
of the Mississippi River and south of 
the Kansas line, are to be found not 
only almost every type of farm problem, 
but also conditions and institutions that 
show peculiar and notable advances in 
the evolution of agrarian life. 

In the field investigations of the com- 
mission, efforts were made to ascertain 
the points of view of the various classes 
participating in the struggle for the land, 
and to interpret sympathetically the psy- 
chological aspects of this struggle. The 
preliminary investigation discovered un- 
doubted evidences of a deeply rooted and 
widely spread discontent. It also dis- 
covered that efforts had been made by 
many individuals and institutions of a 
public or semi-public nature to conceal 
conditions from the general public. 

Methods of suppression took the form 
of attempts to discredit statements, re- 
fusal to publish articles and letters from 
the discontented side, "booster" articles 
to give the appearance that everything 
was all right, and a general "on the lid" 
attitude. It was found that this attitude 
is reacting harmfully upon the South- 
west, because it intensifies the bitter at- 
titude of the radicals, who feel that they 
are being shut off and kept down. 

It was conceived that a thorough air 
ing of the situation would afford a means 
for this pent-up feeling to escape and 
would be a wholesome tonic for the sec- 
tion concerned. It was also the desire 
of the commission to supplement and to 
check up much of the evidence gleaned 
in the field investigations. It was fur- 
ther hoped that the result of a good 
"shaking up" would be to stimulate peo- 
ple and public institutions toward some 
constructive programs of action. 

The witnesses were picked to include: 
tenant farmer, tenant agitator, repre- 


sentatives of the organized tenantry, 
home-owning farmer, resident landlord, 
absentee landlord, credit merchant, 
banker, country minister, countrv school 
teacher, country news editor, economist, 
sociologist, politician, lawyer, the aver- 
age citizen, and others, including repre- 
sentatives of the Farmers' Union, the 
Mexican Protective Society, Jewish Ag- 
ricultural and Industrial Aid Society, 
and public officials, such as the governor 
of Texas and the director of the Texas 
experiment stations. No person was 
called to the stand who had not had in- 
timate acquaintance with the territory 
and its problems. 

About a thousand pages of testimony 
was taken in the five days of the hear- 
ings. A study of this testimony will re- 
veal a remarkable coincidence of state- 
ment with regard to the actual condi- 
tions, and considerable difference of 
opinion as t<> what remedies should be 

It was generally admitted that a re- 
markable concentration in the owner- 
ship of land is taking place. With it are 

the attendant evils of a rising absentee 
landlord class and a descending tenant 
farmer class. It was shown that this 
concentration of ownership is aided by 
the farmers moving to town, by the 
credit system, by speculation and holding 
of land, etc. 

The growth of landlordism has been 
aided by the one-crop system, which, in 
the South, makes it difficult for tenants 
to rise to the cash basis, and often im- 
possible for them to become home own- 
ers. Excessive valuations of farm land 
have made the tenants' lot a harder 
one. Proprietors of large tracts have 
also used indirect methods of pressure 
to force smaller owners to sell their hold- 
ings. Seasonal depressions of crop 
prices throw thousands of mortgaged 
home owners back into the ranks of 
tenants. Depleted farm life accelerates 
the trend. 

The witnesses testified to considerable 
friction between landlords and tenants 
in this area. Oppressive tactics of land- 
lords, in the form of unwarranted evic- 
tions, use of force to intimidate renters, 
arbitrary requirements in the matter of 
cropping contracts, threats to raise the 
rents where land taxes were involved if 
elections should carry in favor of the 
tax, and "keeping the tenants on the 
move" when their political convictions 
might differ from the landlord's were 
among the injustices named. Some of 
these were considered general; others 
much less so. 

Tenants have been known to destroy 
the landlords' property and to foul the 
land by sowing Johnson grass, a noxious 
growth among cotton and grain crops. 
They have held mass-meetings of pro- 
test against rises in rent. They have 
held meetings for the purpose of de- 
claring moratoriums. Threats of vio- 
lence, and even the whipping of other 
tenants who had acepted increases in 
rents have been resorted to. 

It was a great day for the radical 
tenants when their representatives were 
permitted to take the stand and enter 
upon the records their side and their 
story of the renters' movement. From 
the mass of evidence introduced, some 
general truths was gleaned. Discontent 
of the producing classes has been grow- 
ing in the Southwest for several years. 
It changed into a class-conscious move- 
ment in 1911 when the Renters' Union of 
America was founded. This organiza- 
tion followed close upon a series of dis- 
turbances in Oklahoma and Texas. The 
cause of the disturbances appeared to 
lie in the movement on the part of the 
landlords to raise the rents above the 
traditional one-third of the grain and 
one- fourth of the cotton for the share 
of the landlord when he furnishes only 
land and house. 

Notwithstanding this effort at resist- 
ance the movement to increase the land- 
lord's share of the crops has been steady, 
and several thousand tenants have been 
required to pay the landlords as high as 
one-third of the cotton instead of one- 
fourth, or to pay cash rent in addition 
to the share rent. A few landlords 
have been able to charge as high as 40 
per cent of the crop for their share. 

It was the agitation of the land ques- 
tion bv this organization that undoubt- 


The Survey, April 17, 1915 

edly made it possible for James E. Fer- 
guson to become the present governor 
of Texas. He swept aside all opposition 
and was elected by an overwhelming 
vote. One of the main planks in the 
governor's platform was to restrict the 
landlords' share of the rents by law. The 
governor testified that the rent plank 
was of great assistance in making him 
governor. On the stand he defended 
this plank, which has since become a 
law. He maintained that the cash sys- 
tem of renting land in the Southwest is 
unfair, because it places the burden of 
risk upon the tenant and often bank 
rupts him in the attempt to pay the land- 
lord's share. 

Governor Ferguson was questioned 
very closely, and his answers proved 
that he is taking a deeper interest in this 
question than securing the passage of 
the bill for which he stood sponsor. In- 
deed, there are some who look to the 
governor for further action of a more 
constructive character. 

Maps and charts were displayed to 
show that in this territory the problem 
of tenure is almost wholly a white man's 
problem. In Texas 82 counties were 
selected where more than half the farm- 

dustrial enterprise of 80,000 acres on 
which lives a population of 4,000 souls. 
This company, through its associated 
corporations and partnerships, operates 
ranch land and farm land, cotton gins, 
stores, lumber yards, oil mill, packing- 
house plant, electric light plant, tele- 
phone, water works, and other enter- 
prises. By means of experimentation 
and cost-cutting systems it has been able 
to reduce considerably the cost of 
operating farm land. It is able to com- 
mand labor on its farms at eighty cents 
per day. And the laborers board them- 
selves ! 

Usury was also shown to be common 
both in Texas and in Oklahoma, though 
it is perhaps a more serious problem in 
the latter state. That tenant farmers 
in this section pay from 15 to 200 per 
cent, was clearly proved. That this 
amounts to an annual tax upon the class 
was made certain. Witnesses thought 
usury should be made a criminal of- 
fense instead of a civil action, because 
the tenant farmer rarely has enough 
money to fight his case, and it was 
shown that tenants who rented were 
in some cases boycotted by banks, 
monev lenders and landlords. 


have hands in 
> koppin' an' pick- 
in" TIMES." 

ers are tenants. In this restricted area 
there are over 111,000 white tenant 
families and 35,439 Negro and other non- 
white. The Negroes are located main- 
ly in the river counties along the plan- 
tations. In the prairie sections the 
whites constitute a very high percentage 
of the total population. In Oklahoma, 
47 counties were mapped where tenancy 
averages over 68 per cent. In these 
counties the white tenant families num- 
ber almost 71,000, while the Negro and 
other non-whites are only 8,360. In 
both states the proportion of foreign- 
born whites is inconsiderable. 

It was urged that the holding of land 
for speculative purposes handicaps any 
effort to break the strangle hold of 
landlordism. It was interesting to note 
that some witnesses looked to the ad- 
vent of corporation farming as the most 
efficient farming of the future. It was 
shown how the corporation or the large 
owner tends toward the factory idea of 
production. Should large farms be con- 
ducted on system methods by big capital, 
undoubtedly many tenant farmers of to- 
day would become wage hands. 

The Coleman-Fulton Pasture Company 
was pointed to as an example of the 
latest evolution of the capital system. 
This company, which is controlled by the 
Charles P. Taft interests, is a huge in- 

Some ideas were proposed by wit- 
neses with regard to constructive ac- 
tion. Among these were the single tax, 
taxation schemes to force the sale of 
lands that are being held for specula- 
tive purposes, state land purchase acts, 
legislation to make co-operative credit 
possible and also to permit the forma- 
tion of co-operating marketing and buy- 
ing organizations composed of farmers. 

Other witnesses thought the situation 
should be left untouched and the owner- 
ship of the land would take care of 
itself. Still others believed in the 
leasehold as opposed to the freehold, 
by the leasehold meaning that the title 
to the land should remain perpetually 
in the name of the government, but that 
tenants should be permitted to operate 
on life-long leases with contracts modi- 
fied at long intervals. Education was 
urged, and the possibility of using the 
rural school as a social center was a 
popular one. 

An interesting development was the 
proposal of a standardized cropping con- 
tract by Director B. Youngblood of the 
Texas Experiment Stations. Standard- 
ized rural houses were also urged. And 
the training of the rural minister for the 
discussion of economic and social ques- 
tions was advocated strongly. 

What was accomplished by the hear- 

ing ? There is divided opinion upon 
this point: but I think this hearing was 
of historic significance. By means of 
it, for the first time, the attention of the 
American people was called to the ne- 
cessity of giving serious thought to the 
formulation of national and state policies 
as to our land. 

There is no doubt that the idea did 
move the southern people profoundly. 
By means of the hearing a movement 
was given impetus for the Southwest to 
find its way out. By means of the hear- 
ing a vent was given for the social un- 
rest to express itself. 

Naturally, the commission met with 
much opposition. There were charges 
that the commissioners were biased and 
sought to hear only one side of the ques- 
tion. There were other charges that 
the hearing was inadequate. Some 
thought the hearing was the only means 
the commission had of obtaining inform- 
ation. The individualistic element in 
town and country — the class who regard 
land as the most intensely personal thing 
on earth, instead of the most social — 
were resentful that any public body 
should "fall upon the Southwest to stir 
things up." 

But other people, and conservative 
people too, thought the commission had 
launched a great movement. They 
thought the commissioners were disin- 
terested individuals, really trying to get 
at the truth of things. They regretted 
that the commission was unable to give 
more time to the hearings. 

In my own opinion, lack of time was 
the chief criticism that could be made 
of the hearings. They might have 
been continued profitably for several 
weeks ; but it must be remembered that 
hearings do not fulfil their purposes 
when they are too prolonged. When a 
public hearing follows field investigations 
it should be considered to have done its 
work if it focuses public attention upon 
the problem and profoundly stirs a popu- 
lation. Other means should be employed 
to secure accurate information, and 
other ways are more suitable to find 
constructive programs. I believe that 
the chief good a public hearing does in 
any subject is to be measured by the 
explosive quality of its work. 

But on one point I am sure : much 
more good could have been accomplished 
if the general public had been admitted 
to the information produced at the hear- 
ings by the conservative papers, which, 
instead of doing this, garbled or sup- 
pressed the more striking and salient 

I do not remember that any of the 
Southwestern witnesses had carried their 
thinking on the land question to the 
point of devising administrative machin- 
ery to aid in the solution of the prob 
lem. Nor will I here attempt to describe 
the details of a machinery that I be- 
lieve could handle such questions ade- 
quately. But whatever program (such 
as taxation, land purchase acts, hand 
ling of difficult points of landlord ami 
tenant contracts, moving, immigration to 
the land) is adopted by legislature or 
national government, administrative ma- 
chinery must he devised to carry out the 
workings of the act. This ccrtainh 
points to the creation of a land commis- 
sion thai will also have the powers of an 
economic court. 





The City Club of Chicago has 
had on display during the last few- 
weeks an exhibition of all lands and 
buildings within the city limits which are 
publicly owned. The purpose of this 
unique exhibition was to give the citi- 
zen an idea of how much property he, 
as one unit in the general public should 
have knowledge of and be interested in. 

Most people fail to realize that they 
are part owners of a very great public 
estate, and that their lack of attention to 
it may lead — perhaps has led, in some 
instances — to gross neglect or misman- 
agement. For example, large property . 
amounting to over 1,000 acres, or over 
18 per cent of the total public lands 
of Chicago, is allowed to lie idle, serv- 
ing no purpose and yielding no revenue. 
Another of 79 acres is leased for vary- 
ing terms, but usually upon a very low 
valuation, so that the revenue derived 
from it is very small. 

The policy of the Chicago city gov- 
ernment is more and more to retain the 
ownership of all land acquired, even 
though particular parcels may no longer 
be needed for the purpose for which 
they were originally acquired. Some 
definite policy with regard to their use 
or a business-like leasing of them must 
be developed. The manner of acquir- 
ing public lands should be investigated 
also and be put upon a sound basis. 

The chief feature was a big map of 
Chicago showing where the public land- 
are located, each of the 970 parcels being 
colored to represent the use made of it. 
The kick of relationship between these 
parcels, or between their neighborhoods 
and the uses to which these lands are 
pttt, was apparent. 


By Jens Jensen (not in com- 
petition). The central group of 
buildings includes schools, gym- 
nasiums, library, lecture rooms, 
hall for drama and music, art 
gallery, museum of arts and 
sciences, and public baths. 
Connected with these buildings 
are an outdoor gymnasium, an 
athletic field, swimming and 
wading pools and gardens. 
"Council Hill" is for outdoor 
assemblies, includng the pro- 
duction of dramatic art. 

Much of tlit cit_\ area was showm to 
be still undeveloped and it was thus 
made clear that foresight is needed as 
to probable future development of ter- 
ritory and growth of population. Long 
in advance of the dense settlement of a 
district,' the location of the schools, the 
parks, the police and fire stations, the 
ward yard and numerous other public 
properties could lie determined. 

Seventeen oi" the civic committees of 
the City Club co-operated in gathering 
the material for the exhibition which 
consisted of 717 items including 20 maps 
and 540 photographs representing the 
various properties, and. to some extent. 
the uses to which they are put and the 
condition they are in. 

Examples from other cities served to 
show wherein Chicago might improve. 
Comparison indicated particularly a lack 
of proper setting for Chicago public 
buildings. The exhibit of the public 
schools set forth an interesting improve- 
ment in equipment, as well as in archi- 
tecture. Every new school has shops, 
domestic science room, gymnasium, and 
assembly hall ; and every new high school 
has laboratories and a lunch room. A 
series of especially fine photographs of 
St. Louis schools showed well-kept 
grounds and good setting, as well as the 
splendid buildings for whose architecture 
Mr. Ittner is so well known. Some of 
the photographs from Cincinnati, New- 
York, Newark, and Chicago also indi- 
cated the great advances in school archi- 
tecture which are being made in this 

Streets and alleys, constituting 22 per 
cent of the total land area of the city, 
were grouped according to their paving 

materials. The 1,620 miles of streets 
and 1,534 miles of alleys stretched out 
to their combined length were shown to 
lie Iouilc enough to be a "national high- 
way " across the continent and up along 
the New England coast. 

Bridges and viaducts, piers and docks. 
sub-sidewalk space, sub-surface street 
utilities, street lighting, water service, 
-ewers and drains, etc., all had their 
place in the exhibition. The big develop- 
ment of municipally owned docks and 
wharfage of New York was presented 
in contrast with the extremely small 
amount of such property publicly owned 
in Chicago. The Drainage Canal with 
u- land- to be used for factory sites or 
for park areas as the case may be. and 
it- power -tations furnishing electric 
light and power to the city, attracted at- 
tention. The rehabilitated garbage re- 
duction plant and the new incinerating 
plant were shown, as was also the mu- 
nicipal a-phalt plant. 

Plans were displayed of the new hos- 
pitals, sanitariums and infirmaries re- 
cently erected by the county and the citj 
These include the Cook County Hospital. 
costing $3,312,000, providing 727 bed-, 
at $4,556 per bed; the Psychopathic 
llospital, erected under better manage- 
ment at a cost of $442,000, with 232 bed-. 
at $1.°00 per bed; the Contagious Di- 
ease Hospital, with 175 beds; the Isola- 
tion Hospital, 35 beds; the Municipal 
Tuberculosis Sanitarium, whose thirty 
buildings on a site of 160 acres cost $2. 
300,000; and the county's buildings for 
the aged, dependent and defective- pooi 
and the lc^s hopeful tuberculosis pa 
tients, costing $2,000,000. 

The dilapidated, insanitary old fire ami 
police stations were shown in such bad 
contrast to the very- few new well-equip- 
ped ones that a telling argument was pre- 



The Survey, April 17, 1915 

sented for the passage of the bond is- 
sue to build new ones. That such new 
buildings might well form a real addi- 
tion to a neighborhood was made evi- 
dent by photographs of fire and police 
stations in European and American 
cities, as well as by one from Chicago 
itself. The plans for a new municipal 
lodging-house, and the photograph of a 
bath recently opened, showed also what 
may be provided when more citizens 
realize that they have been neglectful 
of their joint estate. 

The parks and playgrounds include a 
total area of 3,586 acres, and the splen- 
did exhibits of them gave an excellent 
idea of the extent, beauty, equipment 
and social and civic advance which their 
development represents. The water- 
front development was associated with 
ihe parks. The locations of our public 
monuments and statues were indicated 
on a population spot map showing that 

ing vital solutions of a very important 
problem, some indicating the greatest 
technical ability showing the tendency to 
interpret the center in too monumental 
and elaborate terms." 

Daily conferences were held during 
the first week of the exhibition. Mrs. 
Ella Flagg Young, superintendent of 
schools, Chicago and William A. Wirt 
of Gary discussed school properties. 
The competing designers of the honor 
plans presented theses interpreting stere- 
opticon views of their plans. Public 
officials spoke on the fire, penal, hospital, 
and relief buildings. 

The civic influences and activities of 
the recreation centers were vividly in- 
terpreted by some of their directors. 
The neighborhood center as related to 
industry, local trade, art, music, the stage 
and the town meeting was discussed by 
several speakers. 

To political and social regeneration 


By Anna Pendleton Schenck and Marcia Mead. First honor in the Chicago 
City Club's neighborhood center competition. The neighborhood for which this 
center is designed is on the Harlem River in the Bronx, New York. The high 
school is the dominating feature in the scheme. Other institutions are grade 
schools, library, playgounds, Y. M. C. A. and Y. \Y. C. V. churches, moving 
picture theater, and amphitheater for open-air spectacles. 

they are not within reach of the mass 
of the people. 

The prize competition for neighbor- 
hood center plans focused the attention 
upon neighborhood spirit and co-opera- 
tion as the city's hope of progress. 
These elaborate designs were conspicu- 
ously displayed. They indicated that 
solutions are different for towns, small 
cities, residential and industrial suburbs, 
and distinct sections of large cities. 

Twenty plans were submitted. The 
first honors were won by Anna Pendle- 
ton Schenck and Marcia Mead, archi- 
tects, New York city; the second honors 
by William Drurrimond, Chicago archi- 
tect; the third honors (divided) by Prof. 
Joseph Hudnut of the State Polytechnic 
Institute, Auburn, Ala., and Carl Berg, 
a civil engineer of Chicago. 

In announcing their award the jury. 
consisting of Prof. George H. Mead. 
Mary E. McDowell, Robert C. Spencer, 
1. K. Pond, Howard Shaw and Charles 
Mulford Robinson, expressed "disap- 
pointment in most of the plans, as liv- 

the building up of the neighborhood was 
considered to be necessary not only in 
crowded city districts, where the back- 
bone of community spirit seems to be 
broken, but also in the small town and 
in the outlying districts which are just 
coming into civic consciousness. 

To George E. Hooker, civic secretary 
of the City Club of Chicago, is due 
much credit for conceiving and carrying 
out both exhibition and conference and 
for linking them together so that each 
enhanced the value of the other. 



Social investigators have of- 
ten pointed out that Negroes in northern 
cities are forced to live in the most un- 
desirable districts, where public service 
is poor, buildings in bad condition, and 
where frequently, vice has its headquart- 
ers. Nearly always, it is claimed, rents 
are exhorbitant. 

A report dealing with this subject and 
based upon a study made by Negroes 

themselves has just appeared. The 
January, 1915, issue of the Bulletin of 
the National League on Urban Condi- 
tions Among Negroes is devoted to 
Housing Conditions among Negroes in 
Harlem, New York city. Four conclu- 
sions are set forth : 

The Negro attempts to maintain a 
higher standard of living than his eco- 
nomic opportunities warrant. 

Municipal indifferences is often shown 
to the needs of sections largely popu- 
lated by Negroes. 

The good and bad elements of the 
Negro population are indiscriminately 
mixed in the tenement houses. 

The lodger evil, high rents, and the 
size of the apartment go hand in hand. 

One hundred of the houses, 71.4 per 
cent of the whole number investigated, 
were "old law" houses, that is built be- 
fore the present tenement house law 
went into effect in 1902. In nearly all 
of these the railroad train arrangement 
of rooms, one opening into another with 
no connecting hallway, is the rule. 
Open doors are necessary to get light 
and air, since very little of either may- 
be obtained for the middle rooms in 
these houses from the narrow old style 
airshafts. These shafts are often catch- 
alls for refuse which makes them so 
ill-smelling that one tenant "had not 
raised the window opening on the court 
in one and a half years because the 
court had not been cleaned in that time." 
The railroad arrangement makes privacy 

One interesting discovery made in 
this investigation is that many of the 
houses which are equipped for steam 
heating no longer furnish this service. 
"The tendency is to gradually cut off 
steam heat in these older houses as the 
heat'ng apparatus wears out. . . . 
However, many of the furnaces in 
these houses are in good repair. . . . 
So there must be a further reason for 
cutting off steam heat. This, as stated 
by agents, and indicated by poor service, 
is the coal expense." 



The Chamber of Commerce 
of Sacramento insists "that a child has 
the same right to read a roadside as he 
has to read a book." In other words 
the Chamber of Commerce is urging the 
educational authorities to introduce na- 
ture-study field excursions into the pub- 
lic schools. 

The University of California and the 
state Fish and Game Commission are 
assisting the campaign. If it is success- 
ful the Fish and Game Commission 
plans to extend the scheme to every 
school in the state since they have come 
to believe that the most effective way of 
preserving wild life is not by working 
with grownups but by teaching young 
children t0 ' ovc nature. 

The campaign was suggested by C M 
Goethe and his wife who h.ive investi- 
gated playground activities in I 
Britain, Switzerland, Germany and Den- 
mark. They found that these countries 
are as far ahead of the United States 
in nature study as the United States i- 
ahead of them in playground dev» 



The Negro (and this term houses he lives in; let it inquire why, in 
covers not only the black man, but all bis race, tuberculosis is increasing; why 
those of mixed white and Negro blood) he furnishes his enormous quota to the 
numbers now about 12,000,000 in the chain-gang and the penitentiary; let it 
United States. investigate the industrial insurance corn- 
Placed in contact with the white man. panics, the money-lenders, the install- 
the Negro, being a good imitator, soon ment furniture dealers; and, finally, the 
tried to follow him in everything. surplus' population which is a most po- 
Though it will take another century for tent factor in producing that class of 
him to become a successful city dweller, persons dangerous to this community and 
he has gone forward by leaps and contaminating to its health and pros- 
bounds. Illiteracy is disappearing and, perity. 

in the main, he is trying hard to become Better the creation of such a commis- 
a good citizen. He becomes a valuable sion, at least, for this city and section 
asset provided he is numerically not than the theoretical gatherings at tuber- 
more than two-fifths of the community culosis conventions and immigration con- 
in which he lives. If he exceeds that gresses. The Negro is with you for all 
percentage, his progress is retarded. time. Me is what you will make him and 
The cities of Wilmington, N. C, jt is U P t0 the uhite people to prevent 
Charleston, Savannah, and Jacksonville. him frnm becoming a criminal and to 
have an excess of Negroes over whites «' uanl him against tuberculosis, syphilis, 
and, therefore, each one of these cities is etc - lf he is tainted with disease, you 
on a sanitary parity with the other. Wl11 suffer; if be develops criminal tend- 

Take Savannah, as an object lesson. encies, you will lie affected. 

There were in 1913 about 39,000 whites Y °u cannot observe these things with- 

and 42,000 Negroes and colored peo- " ut g° in g wlu ' rc he hves ,n colonies m 

pie. The deaths from natural causes for this city. Investigate these colonies and 

that vear were as follows: vou u '" soon 'earn that if he desired to 

improve his sanitary conditions, he could 

Whites 44'J , •. 

Colored 1,038 mn uo lt - 

Deaths from tuberculosis: The congestion of residences and of 

Colored rr> people in them is the one reason why 

Deaths from pneumonia: last year. 34 white people died of tuber- 
White 38 culosis. and 124 Negroes succumbed to 

Colored loo . .' ^ .= 

Deaths of children under the age that disease. For the same reason, three 

„., . of 10 J' eai ' s : „„ Negro children die when one white child 

Will t"G *!•> o 

Colored . .' . . .' . . . . . . . . . . '.'..... .' .' . . 280 dies ; and there are other diseases, caus- 

Stillbirths : ing a high death rate which are a result 

Colored ....... '. 230 °t this disregard of the laws of sanita- 

It might be said that it is not fair to The moral side figures here also, 

other cities to take Savannah as a guide. Would you expect an improved morality 

but in other cities where there is an ex- when famil j es f iria l e and female chil- 

cess of Negroes over whites, the same dren ?rmv up in direct contactj a con _ 

high mortality occurs. . . . (lition which ncce ssarilv follows when 

A commission should be appointed to tnc family is restricted to one room' 

look into the_ sociological and sanitary Would vou expect normal health condi- 

conditions which confront us. The city tions? 

government has gone as far as it can L et t i le trade bodies, the county medi- 

with ordinary methods and we face the ca ] society, the board of education, and 

following issues: First, one set of peo- tne Dar association name their represen- 

ple, the Caucasian, with a normal death- tatives to investigate the condition under 

rate of less than 16 per thousand per w hich the Negro lives. This thev will 

annum, and right beside them is. the fi nd] am i t h e statement is not based on 

Negro race with a death-rate of 25 to theoretical opinion or from inferences 

30 per thousand. Second, the first- drawn from book knowledge, but from 

named race furnishes a normal amount practical experience and observation: 

of criminals and paupers ; the second Jhat th(?rc ;|re from fiye thousand t0 

race furnishes an abnormal percentage seyen thousanil Neg roes more than the 

of lawbreakers and paupers. white opulation can support. 

Is the Negro receiving a square deal ? That they are so colonized that every 

Let this commission investigate the simp i e i aw f sanitation is violated. 

That, if they wanted to help them- 

TJr. W. F. Brunner, health officer of selves they could not do it, and, there- 
Savannah, Ga., for nearly twenty-five years, tore a u " t i le s anitarv laws you could 
delivered the first address at the annual , d not help the situation . 
convention of the American Public Health ' . .... 
Association, in Jacksonville last December. This is but the sanitary side of the 
Part of his address is given here by per- situation. This commission would un- 
mission. earth the producing causes of the ab- 

normal number of criminals furnished 
bv the Negro race. It would demonstrate 
beyond doubt that there is a contamina- 
tion of the white race by the Negro 
race and this contamination is both phy- 
sical and moral. 

It is an imperative necessity that the 
city enact building laws which will pre- 
vent the construction of uninhabitable 
houses so constructed that the only idea 
appears to be the revenue to be ob- 
tained from their rental. These houses 
are built with cunning ingenuity, getting 
as many buildings as possible into the 
smallest area of ground. From a sani- 
tary standpoint this is the worst prob- 
lem we have to deal with in the city oi 

There are 5,000 or more Negroes in 
this city who are parasites and their re- 
moval would lower the death-rate and 
reduce crime. Therefore, it is recom- 
mended that some remedy be applied by 
enacting building laws preventing the 
congestion of Negroes and the elimina- 
tion of the depredating class. 

There is in Savannah another condition 
which is interesting to the sanitary ob- 
server. I refer to a section of the city 
where dwell two races of people differ- 
ing widely in every respect save one 
thing, which they possess in common — 
their dirt. A narrow street divides these 
people, the Russian Jew from the Negro. 
The first named have the lowest death 
rate of the city, while the death rate of 
the other is five times as great as that 
of his neighbor. The one, the hardiest 
race of city dwellers in the whole world, 
the other but a comparatively short time 
from the jungle. 

The Negro is going ahead in spite of 
our neglect of him. He is a good work- 
man and finds employment, whether as 
carpenter, painter, or any of the other 
trades. While pneumonia and tubercu- 
losis are his greatest foes, he has what 
appears to be a partial immunity to cer- 
tain diseases not possessed by the white 
race, namely, two diseases of childhood, 
— diphtheria and scarlet fever. For some 
years it was my opinion that these two 
diseases were existing among them, un- 
known to the Health Department. With 
the close contact of the two races these 
diseases could not fail to be transmitted 
to the white race if they existed uncon- 
trolled among the Negroes. 

I would here make public acknowledg- 
ment that, after twenty-five years of 
close contact with the Negro race I have 
seen a wonderful improvement in him 
as a man and as a citizen. An exem- 
plification of this is but to tell yon that 
the concealment of transmissible disease 
is a thing of the past. I say with some 
pride, no Negro patient ever leaves our 
smallpox hospital who will not report 
that disease to the Health Department. 

I say it to you that if you wish to keep 
pace with modern sanitation give the 
Negro a square deal. 



The Survey, April 17, 1915 



Years of investigation in 
New York city are culminating in open 
and vigorous efforts against quack medi- 
cal practitioners and fraudulent adver- 
tising of all kinds. A series of articles 
on patent medicine frauds has begun in 
Harper's Weekly. The Tribune's first 
publicity campaign on local fakers, is 
over and its second, concerned with 
fraudulent advertising, is well under 
way. The little paper, Unser Gesund, 
continues its warning against East Side 
"cures" for venereal disease, and the De- 
partment of Health not only extends aid 
to the victims of quacks, but also en- 
deavors to prevent victimization. Tbe 
department has in late years dealt exten- 
sively with cases of venereal disease. 

One investigation, that of pushcart 
peddlers, showed 8 per cent of syphilitic 
infections. Over ten thousand routine 
Wasserman tests were made last year. 
Of these, 40 per cent showed positive 
reaction ; that is, the presence of syphi- 
lis. Such widespread infection has been 
a well-used opportunity for quackery. 

In the municipal building, the depart- 
ment has an exhibit of posters of patent 
medicine frauds, which has attracted 
much interest. Its latest action is the 
order from Commissioner Goldwater 
that no proprietary or patent medicines 
may be "held, offered for sale, sold, or 
given away," unless either the ingredi- 
ents of such an article are registered in 
the Department of Health or else "legi- 
bly set forth in English, on the outside 
of each bottle, box, or package." 

The New York Academy of Medicine 
has actively co-operated with various 
civic and health agencies in supporting 
measures "to protect health and to dis- 
countenance the practice of dishonest 
physicians and the sale of harmful 

In its daily articles during December 
the New York Tribune touched upon 
numerous consumption, headache, and 
other "cures." To the original data 
furnished by the Board of Health and 
other agencies, the paper's representa- 
tive added his own experience, going, 
like his confreres in Chicago last year, 
to some of these advertisers of "cures" 
as a patient, to many of their victims. 
and to the hospitals where society is 
paying the price of its earlier neglect 
by now having to care for the ignorant 
who are paying- the price of their igno- 
rance. The Tribune told of many a 
tragedy traceable to Pulmonol, Eck- 
man's Alterative, Hoff' s "cure," and the 
alcoholic stimulus of Peruna, Duffy, and 
other "tonics." 

Throughout the series, emphasis was 
laid on the need of legislation — not only 
such local ridings as that of Commis- 
sioner Goldwater, just mentioned, but 
national legislation which, like that in 
the Philippines, shall effectively check 
the illegitimate profits of patent medi- 
cine makers. 

The Tribune has undertaken, how- 
ever, not only to drive New York fakers 
out into the open, but so to guard its 
own advertising columns that it can 
guarantee its readers against loss from 
any advertisements in its pages. This 
second part of its campaign is in the 

vigorous hands of Samuel Hopkins 
Adams, who is writing a series of ar- 
ticles on the less considered aspects of 

"The prime purpose of this series," 
says Mr. Adams, "is to instruct the pub- 
lic in the matter of improper advertis- 
ing of all kinds with the view of pro- 
tecting it against being swindled. As 
medical advertising is the most danger- 
ously fraudulent, it naturally comes in 
for a good deal of my attention." 

Speaking of this campaign and guar- 
anty, the Journal of the American Medi- 
cal Association says: 

"Should newspapers over the country, 
generally, take this stand, it would 
sound the death knell of the fraudulent 
"patent medicine' industry. Imagine, if 
possible, a newspaper guaranteeing its 
readers against loss from taking 'Pui- 
monol' or 'Eckman's Alterative' for 
consumption, from taking 'Swamp Root' 
or 'Doan's Kidney Pills' for Bright's 
disease . . . from taking any of the 
thousand and one wickedly exploited 
cures for cancer — imagine a newspaper 
that guaranteed its readers against 'loss 
or dissatisfaction.' carrying such adver- 
tisements !' Yet, as a moral principle, 
the new standard set by the New York 
Tribune, while so far in advance of the 
Courtesy Modern ffospilal 


A report from the Bureau 
Health, Phlippine Islands, comments 
on the increasing value of Filipino 
nurses as assistants to provincial 
health officers. They manage the 
< iota de Leche, or milk-station lecture 
on sanitary matters, and give demon- 
strations of infant hygiene. 

Public health nurses are now on 
duty in Cebu and Samar. New ap- 
pointments are to he made to Manila 
and other important places 

procession, is merely one of simple, ele- 
mental honesty. It is the stand that is 
taken by every honest man in business. 
. . . We believe that, before the pres- 
ent decade has passed, the position taken 
by the Tribune will be accepted as a 
matter of course by the majority of de- 
cent newspapers throughout the coun- 



In a series of five articles, all 
prepared especially for this department 
by officers of the United States Public 
Health Service, certain aspects of the 
federal government's activity in the 
health field have been described the past 
year in The Survey for October 10. 
November 28, 1914; January 23, and 
February 27, 1915. 

As an epilogue to this series, mention 
may be made of the important official re- 
port for 1914 of Surgeon-general Blue, 
which discusses briefly the year's work 
in scientific research, quarantine, sani- 
tary surveys and statistics, marine hos- 
pital and relief, personnel, and publica- 

Officers of the service who have 
studied malaria, especially, state that it 
is usually failure to recognize the re- 
lation between this disease and unsani- 
tary conditions, to guard milk and water 
supplies, and to provide and enforce 
suitable health laws, that has made 
malaria so acute a problem in many 
parts of the United States. It has been 
their experience, however, that "when 
such conditions and the measures neces- 
sary to control them are brought to the 
attention of local officials, and others 
directly concerned, prompt action in a 
large majority of cases immediately fol- 

Pellagra investigation has centered 
especially at places that gave opportun- 
ity for special study of the causes, mani- 
festations, and dietary treatment of this 
disease. Research will be continued 
during the present year. 

Trachoma investigations carried on 
especially among school children, and in 
certain mining regions of the South, 
have resulted in some interesting dis- 
coveries. Contrary to general impres- 
sion, Negroes, though not immune, are 
found much less widely infected than 
are white people. Also, the foreign ele- 
ment is a negligible factor in the prob- 
lem. Trachoma seems essentially a dis- 
ease of the native population. 

Among miners, trachoma seems to be 
due to locality rather than to conditions 
in the industry, though the drifting of 
miners from place to place is an im- 
portant consideration in the spread of 

The investigators recommend system- 
atic examination of school children, ex 
elusion of infected children from school, 
employment of school nurses, free Spe 
cial trachoma hospitals, co-operation of 
mining companies, better sanitary COndi 
tions, and thorough education on the 
subject in infected regions. 

Tuberculosis: typhoid: occupational 
diseases; Some local outbreaks of small 
pox: and sanitation in rural districts, 
schools and railroads, are among other 
important matters included in this re 
port. Laboratory results; are stated to 



have utterly condemned the widely ex- 
ploited Friedmann treatment for tuber- 
culosis, and to withhold for the present 
any approval of the claims of the Drs. 
von Ruck. 

The important and too little known 
work of the Hygienic Laboratory is 
briefly told; also the maritime, insular, 
and foreign quarantine system, and the 
special precautionary measures against 

Surgeon-General Blue indicates as the 
immediate needs of the Public Health 
Service increased personnel and appro- 
priation for both scientific and clerical 
work ; an additional building and equip- 
ment for the Hygienic Laboratory ; and 
means of meeting the demand for litera- 
ture on health subjects, a demand which 
has greatly increased beyond the pres- 
ent means of supply. 


One special investigation by 
the federal Public Health Service dur- 
ing 1914 briefly summarized in the re- 
port of Surgeon-General Blue [see page 
69], aimed to determine the extern 
to which and the direction in which per- 
sons suffering from tuberculosis mi- 
grated in quest of health; the effect of 
such travel on the sick themselves ; 
their living conditions in their new sur- 
roundings; relation to the health of 
their fellow-travelers and to railroad 
employes; and their relation to the 
sanitary, social, and economic status of 
the communities they entered. 

The government investigators found 
that a large majority of sufferers from 
tuberculosis sought southern California, 
Texas and New Mexico. A much small- 
er number than formerly remained in 
North and South Carolina. This de- 
crease seems due to the successful east- 
ern sanatoriums as well as to the fact 
that tourists rather than health-seekers 
are frequenting the more desirable lo- 
cations in these states and that accom- 
modations for the tuberculous are there- 
fore no longer available. 

The effect of traveling on the pa- 
tients themselves is often unfavorable. 
Even conservative estimates of the per- 
centage of deaths from tuberculosis 
within one year after arrival seem to 
indicate that many persons leave their 
homes for these distant health resorts 
under conditions most unsuitable for 
such traveling. 

The living conditions of these people 
in their new surroundings vary, of 
course, with the different localities and 
with the financial resources of the pa- 
tients. Many flourishing communities 
and valuable enterprises, especially in 
southern California, are due to recover- 
ed cases who settle in the better cli- 

But the problem of indigent consump- 
tives is a grave one, especially in Texas 
and New Mexico. Not only is this class 
a drain on the charitable resources of 
the country, but it is the most danger- 
ous because apt to be less well-instruct- 
ed and less careful in personal habits 
as well as necessarily occupying less 
sanitary rooms and houses in crowded 

In no region investigated could ade- 
quate evidence be found that tubercu- 

losis was extended by the migration of 
tuberculous people. Even in the South- 
west, where the Mexican population is 
ravaged by tuberculosis, the disease is 
rare among the white American popu- 
lation ; and it seems possible to show 
with a fair degree of certainty that there 
is no connection between the coming of 
tuberculous invalids and the sufferings 
of the Mexican population. 

It is recognized, however, that in the 
communities, into which a large num- 
ber of far advanced and hopeless cases 
without means to support and protect 
themselves properly have entered, public 
health has suffered ; but active measures. 
such as are taken in Asheville, N. C. 
mean practical protection for the com- 



Mortality among Negroes. 
apart from other colored races in this 
country, will be shown in a forthcoming 
census bulletin. I feretofore the term 
"colored population" has included Chi- 
nese, Japanese, Indians and other non- 

Data on this subject will be shown for 
the entire registration area of the United 
States, for registration states, and for 
cities having a Negro population of more 
than 2,500, for which comparable data 
are available for 1900. 

The figures show that the death-rates 
for each race are higher in the South 
than in the North ; and that there ap- 
pears to be a decrease in the death-rate 
of Negroes somewhat more than in that 
of whites. Deaths among Negroes are 
relatively more numerous from a few 
diseases, especially malaria, tuberculosis 
of the lungs, pneumonia and whooping- 
cough; but the distribution is less wide 
than among whites. 

Whether this decrease in mortality 
among Negroes in 1910 as compared 
with 1900 was due to permanent causes, 
such as improved housing conditions, 
better medical attention, and in general 
improved sanitary conditions, ami not to 
the absence of epidemics, is an impor- 
tant and interesting question. Accord- 
ing to the bulletin, one factor which has 
caused this decrease in the death-rate. 
is the increase in home ownership 
among the Negro population. 



ducted by the committee on public in- 
struction, Medical and Chirurgical Fac- 
ulty of Maryland, was held March 24-26 
for the colored citizens of Baltimore. 

This was the first concerted effort of 
its kind in the country, and it proved a 
remarkable success. The auditorium of 
Bethel church, seating fully 2,000 per- 
sons, was packed to the doors; and on 
the first night, an overflow meeting was 
in the chapel. This is double the at- 
tendance at similar conferences for white 

The main emphasis of the conference 
was on the necessity for hospital care 
of Negroes afflicted with tuberculosis. 
Maryland spends $300,000 annually for 
white tuberculosis victims, but has only 
fiftv beds for Negroes. 

The exhibit of public health material 

and the moving-pictures attracted much 
attention. Films were provided by the 
faculty and by the National Association 
for the Study and Prevention of Tuber- 


There have been numerous re- 
ports in medical journals recently con- 
cerning epidemics of typhoid fever 
caused by bacillus carriers. The Penn- 
sylvania State Health Department 
traced the infection of forty students of 
Lehigh University to a kitchen employe. 
The health officer of Hartford, Conn., 
reports a widespread epidemic caused by- 
one man who had recently recovered 
from typhoid fever. He was employed 
on the farm of a dairyman and helped 
in the milking. In September, 1914. 
twelve cases developed on the route sup- 
plied by this dairy. He changed his 
employment and began to work for an- 
other dairyman, milking cows. In No- 
vember, thirty-four cases appeared along 
the new route. The man was proved to 
be a carrier. 

The most striking story comes from 
California. An outbreak of typhoid fev- 
er, involving no less than ninety-three 
persons, was traced to a single carrier 
who helped prepare a church supper. 
Here the vehicle of infection was not. 
as might be supposed, the raw salad, 
but cooked food, a dish of Spanish spa- 
ghetti. It was shown that this dish was 
first handled, then left to stand awhile. 
then baked and finally heated slightly be- 
fore it was served. 

In the California Hygienic Labora- 
tory the whole procedure was repeated, 
cultures of typhoid bacilli being used 
to inoculate the food, and it was found 
that in baking the spaghetti, the heat 
was sufficient to sterilize only the sur- 
face of the dish; in the center it simpl) 
incubated the bacteria and allowed them 
to increase enormously. 


A distinctive and valuable piece of work- 
was done by the Detroit News when it re- 
printed and distributed free of charge, on 
application, the series of articles on tuber 
culosis which ran for some time in its 
pages. These articles were of a prac- 
tical nature, explicit and cautionary, 
without being sensational. Some of the 
topics covered were : What is Tubercu- 
losis; Where Does Tuberculosis Come 
From; The Law and the Consumptive; The 
Sanatorium as a School Room, and On the 
Trail of the Germ. 


It would have been well for the world 
had Sir Joseph Lister's eighty-five years 
begun a century and a half earlier than 
they did. But the date, 1718, mentioned 
in The Survey of March 13, was noi 
decreed by fate ; only picked up from the 
line below it. Lister was born in 1827 : 
he read his first paper on antiseptic surg- 
ery in 1867, was knighted in 1883, and 
died in 1912. 

A recent Paris letter to the Journal oj 
the American Medical Association says 
that President Faure of France has sign- 
ed a decree making permanent the pro- 
hibition against selling absinthe and 
similar drinks to the army. The original 
decree, issued last August, was limited 
to the duration of the war. 






Forty men, all of them heads of 
families who had become dependent be- 
cause of sickness or insufficient earn- 
ings, have been set up as proprietors of 
small retail shops by the Jewish Aid 
Society of Chicago. 

The results, as reported by Samuel 
Left", executive secretary of the Chicago 
Federated Orthodox Jewish Charities, 
are that 70 per cent of them have again 
become self-supporting, the health of the 
men has improved, the social condition 
of the family has been bettered, the 
change from dependence on relief funds 
to self-support has proved a marked 
mental and moral tonic and the societ) 
has saved relief expenditures estimated 
at $14,832.90. Only 11 of the 40 men 
had had previous business experience. 

The test in choosing them was, beyond 
the fact that they were heads of fam- 
ilies and were dependent, through phy- 
sical condition. Eighteen were tubercu- 
lous, 5 had insufficient earnings and the 
others had various physical handicaps, 
such as partial blindness, loss of one leg, 
and rheumatism. There was no definite 
indication that any of them would cease 
to need relief for a long time to come. 

One family had been dependent for 17 
years, and the total for the 40 was SO 
years, or an average of 2 years each. 
Relief had totaled $11,592.80, an average 
of $351.30 per family. They were large 
families, averaging 6 persons including 
the lather and mother, and of the 166 
children only 30 were of wage-earning 
age and able to contribute to the famil) 

Thirteen of the men had been tailors. 
5 shoemakers, 4 peddlers, and the others 
were scattered through a wide range of 
occupations. The shops for which capi- 
tal was loaned them covered almost as 
great a variety. There were 11 gro 
eeries. 10 candy stores. 4 shoe-repair 


.shops, 3 newsstands and 3 tailors. The 
total amount invested was S10.686.10. the 
largest individual amount being $525 
and the average S267. 10. The total loss 
due to business causes has been $99. or 
an average of $2.50 for each family. 

The society obtains a bill of sale from 
the former owner to the new one and 
takes from the latter a demand note for 
the total investment which is cancelled 
when the loan is repaid. No interest or 
-hare in profits is exacted, hi two years, 
2 families have entirely repaid their 
loans, and 19 have done so m part. The 
total repayments are $991. Thus tor re- 

i i sare, who drew this cartoon for 
the New York Sun, called it St. 
ge and the Dragon. F. 1'. A . 
the Tribune's columnist, writing; on 
April Fool's Day of the King's total 
abstinence pledge, suggested as mod- 
ern versions St. George and the 
Flagon, or St. Georg<i on the Wagon. 

lief funds the society has substituted in- 
vestments; which are being repaid and 
can be loaned again. 

.Mr. Left" holds that "while the self- 
support method is not a panacea to be 
applied to all relief cases, experience 
justifies continuing it along broader 
lines so that the ranks of the dependent 
can be depleted to their very minimum." 

GAINS— By Adolph Roeder 
People's Legislative Bureau 

Although the New Jersey Leg- 
islature has contributed but little to so- 
cial welfare thus far. it may be said that 
the failure to accomplish results is not 
confined to social welfare. Because as 
usual there were too many bills to 
handle. 1.197 being the quota for this 
year, and the legislators, for the firs; 
time in several years, faced several 
items of far-reaching importance, only 
meager results could be expected. 

The important legislation confronting 
Jersey law makers this year were tin- 
Morris Canal situation, which has 
acute ever since the session opened: the 
U\c amendments to the constitution, 
four of them being radical and funda- 
mental; and the economy and efficient 
bills in which the state is trying to out- 
line a substitute for the old political 
"machine method" of doing things. 

Despite these handicaps. welfare 
workers in the state have reason to be 
grateful for the achievement of sevcra' 
things. The first is the creation of a 
Committee on Social Welfare in the 
House of Vssembly, and the addition of 
this factor to one of the committer 
the Senate, which is now named Labor. 
Industry and Social Welfare. 

The second point of actual social at- 
tainment is the bill passed by both 
bouses and signed by the governor on 
the very first dav of the session, under 
which all bills and incidental literature 
concerning pending legislation are fur- 

Tnr SUKTO v i it 1916 

Social Agencies 



T^HE figure is the work of a Balti- 
more man, Emmanuel A. Cavacos. 
It won honorable mention at the Paris 
Salon of 1913, and is now in the Central 

Building of the Enoch Pratt Free 
Library, Baltimore, through the courtesy 
of the Peabody Institute which is cus- 
todian of the statue. 

nished to anyone paying $10 for the 
service. This service had been handled 
by private enterprise, and for a number 
of years cost $60, putting it out of 
reach of many welfare organizations. 
The service of the People's Legislative 
Bureau, which furnishes data as to hear- 
ings, location of bills in committee and 
other information is also available. 

The third point is the requirement 
that the lawmaker, while writing his 
bill in the old style Latinized English, is 
now asked to give at the end of it a 
statement in plain Anglo Saxon as to 
what the bill means. Only one who 
has wrestled with the obsolete phrase- 
ology of our legal language appreciates 
the relief experienced in skipping the 
bill and reading simply the "statement." 

Four measures are on the program of 
the welfare workers for the present ses- 
sion and all save one seem to be in line 
for favorable action. 

First, is the effort now being made to 
get the state use convict labor plan into 
actual working order. It has been on the 
books for three years, but several agen- 
cies have antagonized it, chief among 
them the political machine and the em- 
ployer of contract labor. This will prob- 
ably be remedied however, before the 
Legislature adjourns, and the establish- 
ment of several more prison camps and 

the employment of prison labor in vari- 
ous ways outdoors seem probable. 

Second, is the passage of the "eco- 
nomy and efficiency" bills. There are 
eight of these and they combine a lot 
of cumbersome commission work under 
several heads, an effort which will tend 
quite definitely toward creating order 
in a rather chaotic condition of social 
welfare work thus far in evidence. 

Third, is the passing of the home rule 
amendment to the constitution. If this 
carries, and it looks a little as though 
it might, Trenton will be eliminated as 
a factor in local legislation and matters 
of social welfare entirely local in nature 
will be open to local adjustment. 

Fourth, is local option for which a 
campaign has been energetically and en- 
thusiastically conducted. It is this fea- 
ture of the campaign that makes one feel 
that the same difficulty attends this as 
will attend the full crew agitation by 
the railroads. 

Local option failed of passage in the 
House by a vote of 44 to 13, and there 
was no uncertain ring about the vote. 
The men "stood up to be counted" and 
stood by their vote in what even those 
who differ with them in opinion and pos- 
sibly in purpose must admit was a man- 
ly way. 

By Roger N. Baldwin 

More meager results in social 
legislation than have been obtained for 
years characterized the session of the 
Missouri Legislature just closed. 

Of the fifteen items in the program 
of the State Committee for Social Leg- 
islation, representing the united social 
forces of the state, only four were put 
through: the bills allowing cities of 
over 5,000 inhabitants to appoint 
women as police officers, and permit- 
ting public school buildings throughout 
the state to be used as social centers ; 
appropriations for the State Board of 
Charities to enable it to meet the re- 
sponsibilities imposed on it by law, and 
for increasing the capacity of the colony 
for the feebleminded at Marshall, 
which houses about 500 and has a wait- 
ing list of 1,540. 

The Legislature made some progress 
toward abolishing the convict contract 
labor system in the state penitentiary 
(the largest in the world) by provid- 
ing for the establishment of a number 
of state-owned industries for state use. 

The appointment of a state commis- 
sion for the blind was also authorized, 
and the constitutional amendment pro- 
viding pensions for the blind was again 
submitted to the people. Another act 
permits counties to employ trained 
nurses to prevent tuberculosis. 

Among the important bills on the 
state committee's program which failed 
of passage was a state-wide juvenile 
court act, extending the juvenile court 
to all counties instead of restricting it 
to the six largest as at present; a bill 
establishing county boards of public 
welfare in every county to have direc- 
tion of all county charitable and correc- 
tional work; a state-wide mothers' pen- 
sions act ; bills to knock out the spoils 
system in the administration of state 
institutions; to protect illegitimate chil- 
dren by the enactment of a bastardy 
act; to prohibit common-law marriages; 
to abolish houses of prostitution by an 
injunction and abatement act; and the 
reform of the entire code of civil and 
criminal procedure recommended by a 
special commission. 

Furthermore, the Legislature failed 
to enact any of the proposed labor leg- 
islation, including the creation of a 
state industrial commission, the aboli- 
tion of the fee system in the office of 
the state factory inspector, a work- 
men's compensation act and a minimum 
wage for women. It declined to sub- 
mit to the people the question of calling 
a constitutional convention. 

The reasons why the Legislature 
yielded so little to the people of Missouri 
are to be found in the short session of 
70 days and the enormous number of 
bills introduced (over 1,700, the lack of 
organized leadership, the presence of a 
strong corporation lobby particularly in- 
terested in increasing railroad rates, and 
the ever-present wet-and-dry issue. No 
so-called dry legislation was passed. 

There is a general feeling of disap- 
pointment throughout the state at the 
failure of the Legislature to measure up 
to exceptional opportunities. 


The Survey, April 17, 1915 




[Special number of The Survey, March a, 1915] 


A statement growing out of meetings at the Henry Street Settlement 
published as Part II of this Special Number of The Survey. 

"We have heard the call from over 
xt as of those who have appealed to men 
and women of good will of all nations to 
join with them in throwing off this 
tyranny on life." 

I N these words the men and women 
signing the Henry Street statement 
Towards the Peace that Shall Last, in- 
troduced their series of affirmative pro- 
posals following an indictment of war's 
injuries, blights, wrongs and evils. The 
reference in the paragraph was, of 
course, to the remarkable statement put 
out in the fall by the English Quakers. 
Both statements are types of that inter- 
change which is going on under the war 
between men and women in the different 
countries — the slow crystallization of 
public opinion making ready for the day 
of settlement. 

How to get such documents into the 
hands of people in foreign countries is, 
of course, the most difficult problem of 
all. The most effective way is through 
individual letters. The Survey has a 
small stock of the pamphlet, Towards 
the Peace that Shall Last, and will be 
glad to send copies to readers who will 

send them to friends in any of the war 
ring nations. 

Since the March magazine number 
went to press word has come from the 
following, who had a hand in the meet- 
ings leading up to the statement and 
whose names should be added to the list 
of signers : 

Owen R. Lovejoy, secretary National 
Child Labor Committee. 

Leo Arnstein. assistant to the Presi- 
dent of the New York Board of 

George H. Mead, professor of phil- 
osophy, Chicago University. 

George W. Kirchwey, profess,,r of 
law, Columbia University. 

Extra editions of the pamphlet are 
being circulated by the Carnegie Endow- 
ment for Peace, the Women's Peace 
Party, the World Peace Foundation, the 
Church Peace Union, and otlier agencies. 
Reprints have also been made by the 
World Peace Foundation of The Sur- 
vey articles by Edward A. Filene and 
George W. Nasmyth. Copies in quantity 
can be had from these sources. 

"A very striking and very withering in- 
dictment of the present European war." — 
Springfield Republican. 

"Excellent summary of the war and the 
world." — Muncie (Ind.) Star. 

"A fearful indictment." — Sioux City (/a.) 


Social Projects and Present Events 

"One of the most impressive indictments 
of war as such, yet war viewed in the light 
of contemporary facts, has just been pub- 
lished in The Survey, after skilful framing 
by some of the most experienced and care- 
ful leaders of constructive social enterprises 
in the United States. For its style and 
cumulative power and its inclusion of many 
facts within comparatively few words it 
will compel attention and respect merely 
as a polemic document. Added to this will 
be the weight of the names of the signers 
and the intrinsic merit of the cause of 
peace which the pronunciamento is planned 
to further. 

"There seem to these signers to be few 
rays of light on a rising sea of reaction 
and frustration of reformers' hopes. Other 
workers in the same callings are inclined 
to find promise of victory where the forces 
led by Miss Jane Addams see little but de- 
feat; for the optimists claim that the very 
exigencies of war in many instances are 
inducing governments to resort to meas- 
ures for which the intelligent minority of 
social workers have long been clamoring. 
Arbitrarily, by fiat as it were, governments 
are forcing upon citizens standards of liv- 
ing, modes of doing business and conserva- 
tion of persons and property such as would 
not ordinarily have come about in many 
years by irenic methods of establishing 
ethical ideals and by opportunist tactics in 

enforcing radical legislation. The very 
precedents of governmental action taken in 
hours of gravity and to save national ex- 
istence will, so it is argued, have weight in 
days of restored peace when questions of 
internal social betterment demand solution. 
Personal, class or corporate loyalties, after 
a period of voluntary subordination to a 
larger community loyalty which profoundly 
stirs a people, or following a vision of hu- 
manity as a whole turning toward love as 
a solution of its strifes, cannot at any rate, 
we think, again become so vigorous in their 
claims." — Christian Science Monitor. 

Urges Constructive Action 

"The Survey, a New York organization 
and periodical, performs a work of social 
reconstruction that has no superior, if any 
equal, in the United States. It is scientific 
in its diagnosis of the ills of society, but 
sympathetic in its treatment. It is progress- 
ive in reform, not to say radical, but sanely 
so, being constructive instead of destruc- 
tive. Its horizons are not national merely, 
but worldwide, and its sobriety of judg- 
ment gives weight to its views. It there- 
fore renders an enduring service to hu- 
manity and every civilized people when it 
bends its energies toward securing perma- 
nent peace for the world. 

"The March issue is devoted to consid- 
eration of the operative consequences of 
the war. It insists that all the peoples of 
the whole world must tolerate war no 
longer and that the peoples of the two 
Americas have the right and duty to take 
constructive action in behalf of world 

"Its indictment of the blights and evils 
of war, its injuries and wrongs, is con- 
vincing and crushing Before these result*- 

of war the arguments of its defenders go 
down like eggshells under the stroke of 
the steam hammer. But this indictment is 
the negative side of the plea. The positive 
factor is the insistence upon men of good 
will throughout the world allying them- 
selves to throw off the tyranny of war over 
human existence and civilization. 

"The peace to be made between England 
and its allies and Germany and its allies 
must not be a shadow of old conflicts and 
a prelude to new wars. The sovereignty 
of democracy over national existence and 
action must be enthroned. Underground 
diplomacy and secret treaties must be re- 
placed with publicity and frank dealings be- 
tween governments. 

"The Survey recognizes that open fron- 
tiers conserve peace better than serried 
forts or entrenched camps. It justly pro- 
claims that the progress of civilization de- 
pends upon the equal development of every 
nation, without dominance by any." — 
Spokane Review. 

"The Survey prints ten peace pro- 
grams adopted by as many societn 
almost as many countries. It is interesting 
to note that the two features advocated 
by Allan L. Benson in the Appeal — a refer- 
erendum vote on all aggressive wars and 
abolition of secret diplomacy — have been 
adopted by four of these societies. . . . 

"Considering that the Appeal has been 
almost alone in presenting these things -,s 
means of promoting peace, it is indeed re- 
markable that nearly half the peao 
cieties of the world, without any of them 
having been asked to do so. have adi 
the measures. It would indicate that they 
appeal to the reason of all real enetnii 
war" — Appeal to Reason. 

I'm Setback to Civilization 

"Tlie war is throwing back civilization 
It is undoing the past. It is spoiling the 
present. It is jeopardizing the future. 

"Eighteen American social workers, in- 
cluding Jane Addams, Hamilton Holt, Ed- 
ward T. Devine, Stephen S. Wise. Emily 
G. Balch. Prederic C. Howe and John 
Haynes Holmes, have issued a statement 
calling attention to some of the horrible 
setbacks to human progress caused by the 
war, and urging Americans to be ready to 
express themselves in some affirmative way 
as freemen, democrats and peace-lovers 

"There is grave danger of our becoming 
hardened to the war's horrors. Life is as 
precious, pain is as terrible, the grief of 
women and children as pitiful as when the 
war began. We must keep on protesting. 
We must keep on hating war. We must 
blind ourselves to the alluring gioril 
war and turn our hearts hack to the bright- 
er, sweeter glories of peace We must de- 
termine to delve down to the roots of our 
international social fabric to find the real 
causes of war. We must determine that 
when they are found they shall he ruth- 
lessly destroyed, no matter what cherished 
ideals and convictions perish with them 
\\ ars must cease! Wars shall cease! Love 
is mightier than hate; peace is mightier 
than strife: Christ is mightier than Mar- 
The richness of the past must not In- lost 
The horrors of the present must be cur- 
tailed The future — with life and peace and 
plenty, with music and wisdom and glad- 
ness and fellowship and hope — must he 
guaranteed. We know that God is on the 
side o\ peace." The Christian !!,■■ 

"A manifesto put out last mouth h\ 

eighteen well-known social reform leaders 

of the United States, including lane \d 

dams, Edward T. Devine, Hamilton Holt. 

nee Kelley. William Kent. Graham 

I ( 'ontinued on page 7.1 ' 



By Samuel Hopkins Adams. Hough- 
ton, Mifflin Company. 417 pp. Price 
$1.35; by mail of The Survey $1.47. 

Quacks may quake 
when Samuel Hop- 
kins Adams takes his 
pen in hand. He has 
put all the twists and 
turns of patent medi- 
cine vending into 
lively and readable fic- 
tion, which any pub- 
lic library will con- 
fess makes up three- 
quarters of its circu- 
lation. And he has 
cut straight to the heart of the matter 
in showing how quackery depends upon 
advertising. Nostrums are compounded 
of printers' ink. If all newspapers 
should refuse medical advertising, as a 
few conscientious papers have done, the 
medicine men would experience some 
of the heartburn, nausea, shooting pains 
in the side and back, and other dread- 
ful symptoms with which they have 
made us all so familiar next to straight 
reading matter. 

The story deals with an itinerant ven- 
dor of cancer cures at country corners. 
Turned advertiser, he became one of 
the financial magnates of a sizable city. 
To the fresh eyes of his son, just home 
from college, his factory seemed to con- 
sist of shoals of girls typewriting form 
letters to inquiring sufferers, an adver- 
tising department into which the pro- 
prietor put almost his entire time and 
energy, and a small back room in which 
obscure workmen brewed the "cure." 
The stuff itself tasted to him like spiced 
whiskey. His father boasted that his 
whole success rested on the bent shoul- 
ders of "Old Lame Bay," who suffered 
vivid tortures from several of the most 
common ailments of mankind. 

In a fit of generous anger, the son 
bought a failing newspaper which had 
attacked his father as a fake. His at- 
tempt to build it up as a force for truth 
and plain dealing drove away his ad- 
vertisers, made him an outcast from 
"good" society, and led inevitably to 
a break with his father. Two especial- 
ly hard decisions were forced on him. 
A girl shot at the old quack and then 
committed suicide. She was in bitter 
plight through trust in the father's pills 
for women. Should he publish the 
story? He did. 

The other decision had to do with an 
epidemic that had spread under cover 
of conniving politicians and dumb news- 
papers. The Clarion printed the news 
of it, followed day by day with pictures 
of the owners of the tenements which 
housed it. One night the city editor 
brought him the picture of his fiancee, 
who had inherited one of the tenements, 
and asked what he should do about it. 

Factories from 

Inside and Out 

After a moment's hesitation — "Run it," 
was the answer. 

Mr. Adams has hopes for the news- 
papers. Most of the men who write 
them are square and have ideals. So 
have some of the owners, and public 
opinion is putting ideals into o f hers. But 
the quacks seem to be poisoned with 
their own drugs. 

Over and above the fact that it is a 
novel with' a purpose and a health tract, 
The Clarion is a right good yarn. 

Arthur P. Kellogg. 


By George M. Price, M. D. John 
Wiley and Sons. 574 pp. Price $4; 
by mail of The Survey $4.20. 

No manufacturer 
planning to build a 
new plant or remodel 
an old one should fail 
to consult this book 
which endeavors to 
present in simple and 
direct style the 
world's knowledge of 
factory problems as 
they affect the health 
and welfare of the 
employe. The chap- 
ter headings very well indicate the con- 

The Factory, Its Rise, Growth and In- 
fluence; The Workplace; Factory Fires 
and Their Prevention ; Factory Acci- 
dents and Safety ; Light and Illumina- 
tion in Factories; Factory Sanitation; 
Employers' Welfare Work; Air and 
Ventilation in Factories ; Industrial 
Dusts and Dusty Trades; Industrial 
Poisons, Gases and Fumes; and Factory 
Legislation and Factory Inspection. 

The book is to a considerable extent 
a compilation, from European as well 
as American sources, of reliable data 
on these subjects which has come to its 
author's attention in years of study of 
factory problems. It also contains, 
however, many original contributions 
arising out of his experience as a gen- 
eral medical practitioner for twenty 
years in the East Side of New York 
city, as sanitary inspector of the New 
York Health Department, as director of 
investigations for the New York State 
Factory Investigating Commission, as 
director of the Joint Board of Sanitary 
Control of the Cloak and Suit Industry, 
and as investigator of factory inspection 
in European countries for the United 
States Department of Labor. 

In addition to being of great value to 
manufacturers who desire to protect the 
welfare of their workers, the volume 
will make an excellent text-book for 
courses in industrial hygiene and a 
good reference book for general courses 
in labor problems. It should be of 
great value to labor inspectors and fac- 
tory inspection departments. Physi- 

cians, especially those who practice in 
industrial communities, may consult it 
with profit. Moreover, because of its 
simplicity of statement and profuse il- 
lustrations with cuts which really illus- 
trate, it makes good reading for all per- 
sons who are interested in social wel- 

The book does not, and probably is 
not intended to, replace the more com- 
plete treatises on the various subjects 
covered, such as Freitag's Fire Preven- 
tion and Fire Protection, Oliver's books 
on occupational diseases, and others. 
But in condensing the information con- 
tained in these more extensive works 
and bringing it together in a single 
volume Dr. Price has performed a dis- 
tinct service. Zenas L. Potter. 


By Ralph Davol. Davol Publishing 
Co. 236 pp. Price $2.50: by mail of 
The Survey $2.65. 

This new work is 
the first which even 
pretends to take up 
American pageantry 
in a formal or ex- 
haustive manner. As 
a pathfinder Mr. 
Davol deserves a 
good deal of credit. 
With Mary Masters 
Needham's Folk Fes- 
tivals ; Esther W. 
Bates and William 
Orr's Pageants and Pageantry, Perci- 
val Chubb's Festivals and Plays, and 
Anne T. Craig's The Dramatic Festival, 
we have now sufficient material to give 
a fairly adequate idea of the materials 
and methods of the festival and pagean- 
try movement. But Mr. Davol's field 
has hitherto remained practically un- 

Within the past ten years pageants 
or performances called pageants have 
been given all over this country. Until 
the American Pageantry Association be- 
gan, during the current year, to publish 
leaflets on the various phases of this 
important art development, we had noth- 
ing which might be regarded as authori- 
tative in the direction of classification 
and definition. And the task of gather- 
ing into manageable form the results of 
our varied experiences in different cities 
and under varying conditions is one 
which may well dismay the bravest. 

Mr. Davol enters the field fearlessly, 
even jauntily. He writes frankly as 
a newspaper man. Though, according 
to his chapter-headings he treats the 
philosophy of his subject, discusses it 
as a fine art and as a factor in educa- 
tion, and looks at it from the sociolog- 
ist's point of view, every page is racy 
and interesting, even if a good many 
are scientifically premature and techni- 
cally unsatisfying. 


In Praise 



The Survey, April 17, 1915 

Characteristic in every way of our 
author's method is his definition : "The 
true pageant is an idealized community 
epic, conceived and presented dramati- 
cally and simply in the open fields and 
sunshine, by the co-operative effort of 
creative local townspeople." This defin- 
ition ignores at once the numerous suc- 
cessful pageants which have been given 
indoors and those which have been giv- 
en out-of-doors at night. Mr. Davol 
seems to think it necessary to assert the 
place of pageantry as a fine art by belit- 
tling the place and influence of the pro- 
fessional stage play. In general, his 
treatment of the playhouse is curiously 
distant and puritanical. 

The practical suggestions with regard 
to such matters as staging, costuming, 
and management are, for the most part, 
excellent. When he speaks of the nec- 
essity of enlisting the talents and re- 
sources of all the people of the com- 
munity and when he suggests various 
means of keeping the performances sim- 
ple and spontaneous, he has every ex- 
perienced pageant worker with him. 
When he says, however, that "anyone 
with sound horse-sense and capacity for 
hard work may be a master," he is evi- 
dently forgetting his own contention 
that he is dealing with a fine art. He is, 
moreover, forgetful of his statement, on 
a succeeding page, that "the eye of the 
artist, the mind of the poet, the ear of 
the musician, must be brought to bear 
upon the subject." 

The placing of the size of the guaran- 
tee fund at $2,000 is surely the result 
of connection with performances in 
comparatively small communities. The 
sum of $50,000 would be nearer the 
mark for a pageant which is to represent 
the historv of any of our larger cities. 
But after all subtractions have been 
made this book remains a good book 
and an interesting one. And it con- 
tains more than a hundred beautiful 
pictures of pageant performances. 

William E. Bohn. 




By Robert Ellis Thompson. 

Lippincott Company, 172 pp. 

$1.00; by mail of The Survey 


By B. Seebohm Rowntree and A. C. 
Pigou. The Manchester University 
Press. Longmans, Green & Co. 70 
pp. Price $.50; by mail of The Sur- 
vey $.54. 

According to Dr. 
Thompson the home 
evolved from the tree- 
house, the cave-dwell- 
ing and the hall. The 
last came gradually to 
be divided by parti- 
tions and a floor into 
a form of the modern 
t w O - s t o r y house. 
Throughout the ear- 
lier ages the house 
fense. The portion of 
ering this period is an interesting blend 
of archaeology and folk-lore. The 
chapters on the town-house treat more 
of customs and sanitation than of hous- 

From Cave 


combined purpose 

erected for the 
shelter and de- 
the volume cov- 

ing. Aside from the historical develop- 
ment of the house the most interesting 
feature of the volume is its prophecy of 
what the home, or rather the equipment, 
of the future will be like. Healthful- 
ness (note that it comes first), comfort, 
adaptability and economy of labor and 
time will be the characteristics most 
sought. The vacuum cleaner, the ele- 
vator, the central heating, baking, wash- 
ing, and other plants will relieve much 
drudgery. Itinerant specialists will at 
set times appear to make the beds, wash 
windows, lay the table and perform 
other non-eliminatable and non-central- 
izable functions. The sewing-machine 
will be power- instead of foot-pedaled, 
rather than eliminated. The mother will 
be left more free to educate her chil- 
dren and perform other womanly func- 

There should have been added some 
suggestions as to how these outside 
functions should result. Baking has al- 
ready been centralized except for those 
who prefer bread to unnourishing baked 
meerschaum. An epistle to bakers 
should be added as an appendix. 

The book has a distinct value as in- 
citing a desire for wide reading in the 
field of archaeology. Its wealth of cita- 
tion, its readable nature and its sin- 
cerity make it an attractive evening's 


* * * 

The volume Lec- 
tures on Housing con- 
tains the Warburton 
Lectures for 1914. 
Mr. Rowntree states 
that two or three mil- 
lion English people 
live in slums which 
fall below the lowest 
requirements as to 
light, space, ventila- 
tion, warmth, dryness 
and water supply. 
Sixty-five to eighty per cent of the 
laboring people live in small houses 
with a dining-room, a scullery and two 
or three bedrooms, generally two. For 
such homes the people pay from one- 
sixth to one- fourth of their income. 
Of even such homes there is a short- 
age. This is due perhaps mainly to the 
finance act, which developed lack of con- 
fidence, the condition of the money mar- 
ket, the increased cost of construction 
and the closing of unsanitary houses un- 
der the 1909 act. 

Mr. Rowntree hits the gist of the mat- 
ter: " . . . the builder often says: 
"The cost of construction has gone up, 
and money is very dear, and it does not 
pay me to build unless I can get land 
at a reasonable figure.' So he goes to 
the landlord with : 'If you will let me 
have that land for a hundred pounds an 
acre less, I would put up a few houses.' 
But the landlord replies: 'No, why 
should I ?' Nor does he, for land is a 
commodity which is not perishable." 

If he were selling fruit he would act. 
As it is, he knows that all the community 
does increases his values and it may go 
hang so far as housing needs are con- 
cerned. In the meantime the working 
man can afford only a cheap house. 
How can housing rather than "ware- 


For Mothers 


the Deaf 

housing" be provided at a price the peo- 
ple can pay? "Without labouring this 
point, I urge, then, that land must be 
cheapened, by rating [taxing], by im- 
proved methods of acquisition [compul- 
sory purchase by municipalities at a 
just price], by cheap transit." 

Professor Pigou considers the hous- 
ing problem as one aspect of the prob- 
lem of poverty. Some system of mini- 
mum standards must be enforced and 
some method of securing homes accord- 
ing to these standards must be devised. 
The community can not afford to ignore 
it. "Make your town sufficiently hide- 
ous, sufficiently congested, sufficiently 
void of open space and grass for chil- 
dren's play, and you go far to write, for 
character and for life, over the gate of 
it : 'All hope abandon ye who enter 
here.' " 

These two addresses are too conden- 
sed for brief review. They are well 
worth reading. 

Edward T. Haktmax. 


By John Dutton Wright. Frederick 
A'. Stokes Co. 107 pp. Price $.75 ; 
by mail of The Survey $.83. 

] The mother of a 
deaf child, though she 
may be intelligent 
and highly educated, 
is utterly at a loss 
how to deal with her 
little one during the 
years of early child- 
hood while he is still 
too young to be sent 
to school. She knows 
that this is an impor- 
tant period in the 
mental and moral development of any 
ehilil. but she does not know what to do 
about it in the case of the deaf child. 
So these most precious years are lost, 
or worse than lost. 

Mr. Wright's book, as its title indi- 
cates, is intended to supply this great 
want. He shows the mother how she 
may test the child's bearing at an early 
age without special apparatus. He in- 
structs her how to accustom him to un- 
derstand what is said by means of speed; 
reading, and how to develop his physi- 
cal, mental, and moral faculties, so that 
when he is sent to school at five or six 
years of age — which Mr. Wright strong 
ly advises in preference to having a pri- 
vate teacher at home — he is prepared to 
learn to speak readily ami to advance 
far more rapidly and satisfactorily in all 
directions than the deaf child whose 
education has been neglected, as it gen 
erally is. in early childhood. 

Mr. Wright is an ardent supporter of 
the exclusively oral method of instruc- 
tion. Few experienced and candid 
teachers of the deaf will agree with his 
sweeping assertion that "ever) deal 
child, no matter if born totally deaf and 
of a low order of intelligence, can be 
given as much education bv the exclu- 
sive use of the speech method as it can 
by any manual, or silent, method or bv 
a combination of the speech and the 
silent method." 

Edward Ali kn F \n 

Communications on the Peace Number 



[Continued from page 72.] 

Taylor and Lillian D. Wald, asserts that 
all over the world are appearing the ex- 
pected signs of a throwback in social re- 
form by reason of the war. It has 
'benumbed our growing sense of the nur- 
ture of life,' 'thwarted the chance of our 
times toward the fulfilment of life,' 'set 
back our promptings towards the conser- 
vation of life,' 'blocked our way toward 
the ascent of life,' 'tortured and twisted the 
whole social fabric of the living,' and 
'blasted our new internationalism for the 
protection of working women and chil- 
dren.' A call is issued in the same docu- 
ment for building in larger molds the re- 
forms of the future. The policy of the 
open door in China must be enlarged to 
a policy for the freeing of the ports of 
every ocean from special privilege based 
on territorial claims. National conserva- 
tion must be succeeded by 'a planetary 
policy of conservation,' and national aspira- 
tions must give place to international op- 
erations in which 'the achieving instincts 
of men, not as one nation against another, 
nor as one class against another, but as 
one generation after another, shall have 
freedom to come into their own.' " — Current 

To the Editor: — I have the copies of To- 
wards the Peace That Shall Last. I have 
used every one of these and could use a 
good many more. It is the best indictment 
of war I know of, and there are some of 
us who regret not having been in the little 
group, which would enable this paper to 
bear our signatures as well. 

David Starr Jordan. 
[Chancellor Leland Stanford Junior Uni- 

Stanford, Cal. 

To the Editor: — As peaceful, at least, as 
you are, and without American brag and 
rhodomontade about "whipping creation," 
we have been called to our colors in a 
cause which is as sacred to us as the free- 
ing of the slaves was to you, and we pro- 
pose to continue the war to the end as a 
lesser evil than Prussian predominance in 
Europe and throughout the world. 

The ignorance displayed by your writers 
concerning the most elementary facts of 
the European and the world situation is 
grotesque, and probably invincible. How- 
ever, it discounts any claim which you may 
have to be taken seriously, and therefore 
one may smile and pass. . . . 

Until your federal government can find 
some means of persuading your "sovereign 
states" to observe the treaties which it has 
made on behalf of the American people, it 
is of very little use for you to tackle the 
much more difficult problem of securing 
the observance of treaties between inde- 
pendent and widely differing nations. . . . 

Sedley A. Cudmore. 
[Lecturer, Department of Political Econ- 
omy, University of Toronto.] 


To the Editor : — I earnestly beg one 
word in behalf of those who in the pres- 
ent distress, with hearts as tender and 
consciences as quick perhaps as your own, 
deprecate the multiplication of the kind of 
appeals quoted and made in the last issue 
of The Survey. 

They apparently assume that the war is 
a mere melee, undertaken for nothing and 
to end in nothing but chaos awaiting the 
constructive efforts volunteered from vari- 
ous benevolent groups. Public opinion may 
have a good deal of influence and it is 
doubtless quietly crystallizing outside the 

war zones, and in them too for that mat- 
ter. But the ends, it must be remem- 
bered, are likely to be shaped, to some ex- 
tent, by the conquerors ! 

Now one side desires the benefit of our 
moral support in the United States (and 
is, therefore, likely to be upheld in its pur- 
pose by it) on the ground that it already 
stands, through its spokesman in our 
mother tongue, substantially for the rea- 
sonable things suggested in "constructive 
peace programs." For England is pledged 
to reduction of militarism, she represents 
international conscience actively exercised 
in the development of the nations that 
make the so-called empire, she stands for 
the vital pledge of peace free trade. 

Is it fair or right to obscure the claim 
for moral support in a cause which is 
going to be fought to a finish of some- 
thing (please God!) by ignoring these 
facts and by issuing clouds of talk filling 
people's minds altogether with general con- 
siderations' as applicable to either side, — 
when Germany, on the other hand, stands 
by word and deed, by past history and by 
future intention for a conscience defiantly 
national not international, for militarism in 
peace as well as war, for prohibitory tariff 
which is latent war? 

Call this partisan if you please. But is 
it not true? Call it unneutral. Hut this is 
not an official utterance, only one which 
any individual has a right and duty, accord- 
ing to bis conviction, to make. 

Who for a moment believes that any jot 
or tittle of the "constructive programs" 
would have a chance with Germany's tri- 
umph ? 

Ervixg Win slow. 
I Secretary Anti- Imperialist League.] 

Boston, March s. 

To the Editor : — To many advocates of 
peace, the expressions published by The 
Si RVEY, in its supplement of the March f> 
issue and in the issue itself, are extremely 
disappointing. The first impresses one as 
a highly emotional literary relief to the 
feelings of those endorsing it; a litany in 
content and in phraseology. As a piece of 
literary expression it is fine, but as a con- 
structive step towards peace it lacks even 
the incisive emphasis upon fundamental 
causes that would surely have to precede 
anv effective work for peace. 

The second expression, the platform of 
the Emergency Peace Federation in Chi- 
cago, while not emotional in tone, obscures 
the most fundamental and important causes 
of war in the phrase, uqder the fifth item 
of its platform, "and other more funda- 
mental economic causes of war." What 
can be hoped from a peace platform which 
merely scratches the surface of the prob- 
lem and takes care not to define what in 
its own words are "more fundamental eco- 
nomic causes of war?" 

An unprejudiced study of the causes of 
war reveals two things: first, that there 
are many minor and exciting causes of 
war, so well known as not to need men- 
tion. But remove all of these causes and 
still leave the economic competition for 
world markets for the export of surplus 
products, and wars will continue — no na- 
tion can hope permanently to escape them. 
Second, only to the above in importance 
and in a measure derived from it, is the 
outstanding fact that declarations of war 
are not national matters, as is so often 
alleged, they do not represent national opin- 
ion, but rest upon the decisions of small 
minorities in the several nations whose 
interests are not coincident with those of 
the nation. 

This latter fact in its relation to war has 
received some consideration and emphasis 
from the pacifists in their demand that 
greater democratic control of foreign policy 
he secured. The influence of competition 
for markets, however, is either merelv hint- 

ed at by most pacifists or ignored, and 
roundabout or palliative measures pro- 
posed instead of some plan for the removal 
of this influence. 

The peace movement has so far failed, 
and bids fair to fail in the future because 
it makes its appeal upon a subjective, in- 
tellectualistic basis instead of upon an ob- 
jective basis of economic fact. We shall 
not secure peace by working for peace. 

Peace, like war, is the result, today, of 
specitic conditions, rather than the outcome 
of men's reasoned attitudes. Only by 
changing specific conditions may peace be 
established. Therefore, there is no simple 
peace proposal or program that could be 
effective, since economic and social condi- 
tions giving rise to war are not simple. 
Peace advocates must content themselves 
with a slow but persistent campaign to re- 
move these conditions. 

The method is to ally themselves with 
and support, both as individuals and as 
an organization, every sound movement for 
the democratization of industry and gov- 
ernment. In addition direct advocacy of 
peace by reasoned argument, even if it 
does omit a statement of the fundamental 
causes of war, will probably do little harm 
and will doubtless accomplish much good, 
for putting the case for peace before a 
large number of audiences and readers may 
start some persons to thinking of new ways 
of removing the economic and social con- 
ditions which now foster war. 

The method here proposed is not so in- 
teresting nor so emotionally satisfying as 
those now employed. Its success will de- 
pend upon how clearly the pacifists them- 
selves perceive the objective conditions of 
peace and upon the courage and persistence 
with which they analyze the steps towards 
their removal and furnish momentum for 
the success of those steps; and not, un- 
fortunately, upon the persistence with 
which they call our attention to the un- 
doubted but altogether trite fact that war 
is destructive and terrible. 

Frances Fento'n Bernard. 

Columbia, Mo. 

To THE Editor: — Since the publication by 
The Survey of that remarkable pamphlet 
Towards the Peace that Shall Last, I have 
been watching tor the reaction. 

T have read it over and over many times 
and have found each time some deeply- 
impressive thought, stated in words that 
burn with intense feeling. In its beauty of 
expression and depth of love for humanity 
it deserves to stand with the old prophetic 
writings. I hope that it may have a wider 
circulation than which has been given to it, 
for it will help to purify the common 
thought and surely lead to wise action 
when the time comes for sharing in coun- 

[Mrs. E. P.l Adelaide Earle. 

Montclair, N. J. 

To the Editor : — I cannot refrain from 
reflecting with how much more force all 
the brave words which the pamphlet con- 
tains would have been spoken, had the 
speakers accompanied them with a protest 
against the conduct of the United States in 
snipping weapons and munitions of war to 
the embattled nations. 

Of course, international law permits the 
traffic, but the justification based on this 
permission is analogous to that which ex- 
President Roosevelt characterized as "law 
honesty." This, as you know, permits the 
exploitation of child labor; the juggling 
of the stock market; the monopolization 
and consequent increase in prices of the 
necessities of life. etc. 

And what is international law but the 
rule of conduct which the strongest im- 
poses on others for his own benefit. Did 
not international law permit the making 


The Survey, April 17, 1915 

of slaves of prisoners of war? Did it not 
permit the poisoning of wells, giving over 
captured cities to the lust and rapine of 
the victorious soldiery and other horrors? 
Does it not yet permit concentration camps 
for women and children; starvation of the 
whole civilized population of entire na- 
tions, and other unspeakable crimes? 

Is it not true that by the exportation of 
arms and ammunition we have aided and 
abetted in making more widows and or- 
phans than all our so-called charity can 
relieve? We have societies for the pre- 
vention of cruelty to animals ; we — or 
many of us— become almost hysterical when 
we are told how scientists sometimes tor- 
ture cats and dogs, when in their search 
for benefits to mankind, these scientists 
have recourse to vivisection, and yet in a 
way we "brag" of the many mules and 
horses these United States have sent to the 
scene of war to be mangled and starved and 
killed in the most cruel manner. 

Oh, we have prayed, and we will pray 
more. To one cynically inclined it would 
seem that, like a distinguished Russian of 
whom I have read, we must create misery 
so that we may cultivate the Christian spirit 
for its relief, and thus purchase the bliss 
of a life eternal hereafter. 

It will be said Germany, France, Eng- 
land, Russia, Austria, etc., would do all 
these things without us, but it is also true 
that the commission of crimes by others 
furnishes no justification for our conduct. 
And besides the nations above mentioned 
are doing these things under what may be 
termed a mistaken spirit of patriotism, or 
in the frenzy of fear of their enemies. 

But what excuse have we, the people of 
these United States? Do we do these 
things because of patriotism, etc.? Do we 
do these things in the frenzy of the war 
fever? No, we do these things; we sell 
arms and ammunition, and we ship mules 
and horses to the seat of war, for only one 
reason, and that is because it is profitable 
to us in a financial way, and I most re- 
spectfully submit, that so long as all these 
good men and women who are writing 
these beautifully worded declarations for 
peace do not lift their voices to protest 
against our conduct, all they say loses much 
of its virtue, even as the prayer of the 
prospective thief lost its virtue, when, for 
the protection which he sought, he in his 
prayer promised to his Deity that some 
of the spoils of his burglary would be sent 
to the Altar. 

Solomon Wolff. 
New Orleans. 

To the Editor : — I want to congratulate 
you on the War and Social Reconstruction 
number of The Survey — by far the most 
practical and important contribution that 
has been made to the solution of the prob- 
lem. I find it attracting attention wher- 
ever I go. 

George W. Nasmyth. 


Building a Permanent Peace 
"Much of the best constructive thought of 
America on the attainment and maintenance 
of a permanent world-peace is printed in 
The Survey of March 6, a special number 
devoted to War and Social Reconstruction. 
"George W. Nasmyth, of the World Peace 
Foundation, writes on Constructive Media- 
tion._ and there is printed with his essay 
a brilliantly conceived analytical table com- 
paring ten of the most prominent peace pro- 
grams of the world. There is a remarkable 
unanimity on essentials in these programs. 
"August Schvan, the eminent publicist of 
Sweden who has been speaking in the 
United States recently, sets forth his pro- 
gram. Free trade, an international court 
of, justice and international police but no 
international parliament arc what he advo- 
cates. All ten organizations — which include, 

for example, the British Union of Demo- 
cratic Control, the Dutch Anti-War Council, 
the Woman's Peace Party and the South 
German Social-Democrats — all ten ask for 
a Concert of Powers and the Reduction of 
Armaments. Seven speak for an interna- 
tional police force, and for democratic con- 
trol within each nation of its foreign policy, 
six forbid any transference of territory 
without the voted consent of the inhabitants 
thereof and four demand removal of the 
economic causes of war. 

"And these economic causes of war are 
discussed by Frederic C. Howe in a two- 
page article, as fundamental as it is brief, 
on The Distribution of Wealth in Relation 
to the Invisible Causes of War. How the 
great landowners, the privileged economic 
class, really rule each of the great belliger- 
ent countries except France, is told in a 
swift survey of Europe: 'It is these undem- 
ocratic, irresponsible classes in all these 
countries that are the war classes.' " — The 

Spaniards, Italians, Swedes, Danes, Tartars 
and all other races fought their battles on 
German soil? And do you not know that 
Germany is far ahead of all countries in 
the work you claim to be interested in ; the 
relief of suffering among those not endowed 
with wealth? 

Geo. von Skal. 
[New York] 

To the Editor : — Enclosed find check for 
$1.25 for which please send me five copies 
of The Survey for March 6. It is a most 
remarkable number, and puts the case so 
well that I want to send it to some of my 
social worker friends in England who, much 
as they may wish to, have little chance to 
see things in their perspective so clearly and 
forcibly and impartially. 

I thank you for this peace number, not 
only as a social worker, but also as a mem- 
ber of the Society of Friends for bringing 
our age-long testimony so strongly before 
an enormous audience we could never hope 
to reach with our small numbers. 

Lydia C. Lewis. 

Lansdowne, Pa. 

To the Editor : — I have forwarded trans- 
lations of your appeal to the Berliner Lokal- 
Anaeiger and the other eleven newspapers 
which I represent in this country. I have 
abstained from all comment. 

Of course, the papers will pay no atten- 
tion whatever to this utterly ridiculous and 
almost impudent appeal. Germany is not 
in a mood to listen to peace proposals at 
this time. She has kept the peace in the 
face of great provocation for 44 years, while 
everyone of the allied nations was fighting 
almost continuously. She only took up arms 
when she was attacked from all sides with- 
out having given the slightest cause. Ger- 
many will stop fighting when her adver- 
saries ask for mercy, and not before. 

I call your appeal impudent because you 
claim to have the right to speak as a neutral 
nation, etc. The United States is not neu- 
tral, neither in words nor in deeds. You 
can stop the war instantly — not by sitting to- 
gether and praising each other for the lofty 
ideals you follow ; not by getting intoxicated 
with the sound of empty phrases— but by 
acting. Stop the exportation of arms and 
ammunition, and the war will stop. It will 
continue as long as the United States fur- 
nishes the means to kill and makes money 
by it. 

I came to this country forty years ago. 
became an American citizen and praised the 
United States with word and pen. Now I 
see that I was mistaken. However, we will 
let that pass at present. All I want to say 
is this : 

You want to convince the German people 
that peace is better than war. Do you not 
know that they are of this opinion? Do 
you not know that the Germans are the 
most peace-loving people in the world ? Do 
you really not know that they have fought 
fewer wars than any of the other European 
nations? And do you not know that they 
have always fought, and are now fighting 
for nothing else than to prevent the return 
of the times when French and English. 

Soon after the outbreak of the war a 
number of persons met at the Henry Street 
Settlemen in New York, at the call of Jane 
Addams, Lillian D. Wald, and Paul U. Kel- 
logg, leaders among "those who deal with 
the social fabric." The object of the gath- 
ering was to prepare for concerted action 
on the part of the neutral nations, and at a 
second meeting in the winter the individuals 
thus brought together in harmony of pur- 
pose and conviction decided to issue a state- 
ment of principles, which is here repro- 
duced, with permission, from The Survey 
of March 6, 1915.— The Advocate of Peace. 

To the Editor: — May I tell you how 
good I think your peace number is. I like 
so much dwelling first on the psychology 
that must underlie the passing of war — 
we must become in very thought, "inter- 
nationalists" — and then I liked following 
this with constructive peace plans — law 
experts think "world welfare" can be really 

There is one bit of peace literature that 
I wish might be added. It is called 
Mediation Without Armistice, and comes 
from the Wisconsin Peace Society, Madi- 
son. It asks the world to think whether 
we must stand helpless, indefinitely, seeing 
the welfare of the world set back day by 
day, or whether we can rise out of passive 
acquiescence and try to stem the tide of 
destruction by appointing a council of neu- 
tral nations whose duty it shall be to sit 
continuously while the war lasts, and to 
say to the belligerents simultaneously: 

Will you agree to adopt or consider 
the accompanying proposition as a basis 
of peace if and when the governments of 
the other warring powers will agree to do 

The plan presented would be a "perma- 
nent peace" plan, worked out by experts, 
calling at least for a league of nations with 
a common, international police, and asking 
that territorial disputes be worked out on 
some line of nationality. 

It points, and that even if nothing comes 
immediately, we are thus planting some- 
where in the world the flag of international- 
ism — we are standing somewhere for a new 
era, for "no more war." 

The danger is, with nothing done, that 
when the war is over, the diplomats will 
make peace on the old lines. 

I have felt that this country, in the last 
few months has shown itself ready for a 
world government, but that now it is want- 
ing to see all this "peace talk" turn into 
"peace action." It wants aggressive but 
tactful peace leadership. 

It is all very difficult, and on all sides 
we shall hear: It is foolish, but I believe 
we must now very slowly forge through 
conflicting feelings, to a resolute action. 

I should like to see the various legis- 
latures pass resolutions for a council of 
neutral nations modeled on the Wisconsin 
peace plan. 

I believe we shall find that the reform 
element everywhere are against force and 
for constructive peace, are in short, ready 
to try tn lie "internationals" — in Germany. 
Russia. France and throughout civilization 

In a mill town in New England last fall, 
the Russian peasants called together all the 
nations in the town to discuss how "|| 
nationalism might be really born." 

Fu7\hfth Ttiton 

Cambridge. Mass 




Governor Whitman has signed the 
widows' pension bill for New York state. 
It goes into effect July 1. 

C. I. Watts, who recently wrote The 
Survey without giving his address, is asked 
to communicate with the Committee of 
Fourteen, 27 East 22d street, New York 

The Boston City Council has voted to 
transfer the local quarantine station from 
municipal to federal control. It will be ad- 
ministered by federal officers under a lease 
until Congress can make an appropriation 
for purchasing the property. 

The annual convention of the Canadian 
Association for the Prevention of Tubercu- 
losis, which was to have been held in Van- 
couver, B. C, in July, has been postponed 
for another year owing to the war. 

The Rockefeller Foundation announces 
it has offered to give up to $100,000 for 
the relief of "the unemployed and their 
families in Colorado" between now and 
July 1 should "the funds from individual, 
county and state resources prove insufficient 
to meet the need." 

Last week the Belgian Relief Fund passed 
the million-dollar mark. About three- 
fourths of it are credited to newspaper 
advertising. The Rev. J. F. Stillemans, 
president of the fund, announces that the 
need for relief in Belgium continues and 
that "the Belgians have nothing to eat 
except it comes from America." 

The Racine, Wis., Industrial Educational 
school has fathered this winter a school 
for janitors. Janitors of the public schools 
were compelled to attend. The course in- 
cluded sanitation, ventilation and heating. 
The Racine superintendent of schools, Bur- 
ton E. Nelson, urged this plan on the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin Extension Department 
over a year ago. The university took it 
under consideration and it was under an 
instructor sent from Madison that the plan 
was carried out this year. 

Calendar of Conferences 

Items for the next Calendar should reach 
The Survey before May 12. 


Charities and Correction, Arkansas State 
Conference of. Pine Bluff, May 4-5. 
Sec'y, M. A. Auerbach, City Hall, Little 
Rock, Ark. 

Charities and Correction, Connecticut 
State Conference of. Stamford, Conn., 
April 18-20. Sec'y, Spencer Gordon, 
Bridgeport, Conn. 

Charities and Correction, National Con- 
ference of. Forty-second Annual Meet- 
ing. Baltimore, Md., May 12-19. Gen. 
Sec'y, William T. Cross, 315 Plymouth 
Court, Chicago. 

Charities and Correction, New Jersey 
State Conference of. New Brunswick, 
N. J., April 25-27. Sec'y, Ernest D. 
Easton, 45 Clinton Street, Newark, N. J. 

Charities and Correction, New York 
City Conference of. Brooklyn, Manhat- 
tan and at Pleasantville, May 25-27. 
Sec'y, John B. Prest, 287 Fourth Avenue, 
New York. 

Chiefs of Police, International Association 
of. Cincinnati, O., May 25-28. Sec'y, F. 
J. Cassada, Cincinnati, O. 

Child-Helping, Sixth Lehigh Valley Con- 
ference. Lafayette College, Easton, Pa., 
May 8. Further information may be se- 
cured by addressing Miss E. P. Allis, 71S 
Cattell Street, Easton, Pa. 

Child Labor Committee, National Eleventh 
annual conference. San Francisco, Cal. 
May 28-30. Sec'y, Owen R. Lovejoy, 105 
East 22d Street, New York. 

Children's Home Society, National. Rich- 
mond, Va. May 19-21. Recording Sec'y, 
C. P. Walford, 2605 East Franklin Street, 
Richmond, Va. 

Commercial Congress, Southern. Musko- 
gee, Okla. April 26-30. Director, Dr. 
Clarence J. Owens, Southern Bldg., Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Dependent, Truant, Backward and De- 
linquent Children, National Conference 
on the Education of. Baltimore, Md. May 
9-11. Sec'y, W. L. Kuser. Eldora. Iowa. 

I in cation and Industry, Southern Con- 
ference for. Chattanooga, Tenn., April 

Federated Boys' Clubs, International Con- 
ference. Pittsfield, Mass., May 26-28. 
Executive secretary, C. J. Atkinson, 1 
Madison Avenue, New York. 

Kire Protection Association, National. 
New York city, May 11-13. Sec'y, Frank- 
lin 1 1. Went worth, 87 Milk Street, Boston. 

I lorsixG, New Jersey Conference on. Un- 
der the auspices of the New Jersey Hous- 
ing Association and National Housing As- 
sociation. Passaic, N. J. May 27-28. Ex- 
ecutive Sec'y, W. Lane Shannon, 531 Fed- 
eral Street, Camden, N. J. 

Jewish Social Workers, National Associa- 
tion of. Baltimore, Md. May 9-11. Sec'y, 
Louis H. Levin, 411 West Fayette Street, 
Baltimore, Md. 

Mothers, California Congress of. San 
Francisco, Cal., May 18-19. Correspond- 
ing Sec'y, Mrs. W. F. Eschbacher, 843 
34th Street, Oakland, Cal. 

Mothers and Parent-Teacher Associa- 
tions. National Congress of. Portland, 
Ore. May 12-16. Corresponding Sec'y, 
Mrs. A. A. Birnev, 910 Loan and Trust 
Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

Nurses' Association, California State. 
San Francisco, Cal. May 31-June 5. 
Sec'y, Mrs. B. Taylor, 126 Ramsdell 
Street, Ocean View, San Francisco, Cal. 

Political and Social Science, American 
Academy of. Nineteenth annual meeting. 
Philadelphia, Pa., April 30-May 1. Sec'y, 
J. P. Lichtenberger, Univ. of Pennsyl- 
vania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Probation Association, National. Balti- 
more, Md., May 11-12. Sec'y, Hugh Ful- 
lerton, c/o The H. Black Company, Cleve- 
land, O. 

Probation, New York city conferences on. 
City Hall, New York, April 22, 23, 29 & 
30. Sec'y, Charles L. Chute, State Pro- 
bation Commission, Albany, N. Y. 

Remedial Loan Associations, National 
Federation of. Seventh annual conven- 

tion. Baltimore, Md., May 13-15. Di- 
rector, Arthur H. Hani, 130 East 22d 
Street, New York. 

Sanitary Association, Southeastern. Ashe- 
ville, N. C. May 25-26. Sec'y, Clarence 
E. Smith, Greenville, S. C. 

Societies for Organizing Charity, Amer- 
ican Association of. Baltimore, Md. May 
12. Gen. Sec'y, Francis H. McLean, 130 
East 22d Street, New York. 

Sociological Congress, Southern. Houston. 
Texas. May 8-11. Sec'y, J. E. Mc- 
Culloch, 323 South Ave., Nashville, 

["raining for Nurses, Canadian National 
Association of. Vancouver, May 24-25. 
Further information may be secured by 
addressing Miss Randall, General Hos- 
pital, Vancouver, B. C. 

Women Workers, National League of. 
Meeting of executive board. New York 
City, April 22-23. General League Sec'y. 
Miss Jean Hamilton, 35 East 30th Street. 
New York. 

Young Women's Christian Association 
of the United States of America, Na- 
tional Board of. Fifth Biennial Con- 
vention. Los Angeles, Cal. May 5-11. 
Sec'y, Bertha W. Seely, 600 Lexington 
Avenue, New York. 



Dry Farming Congress, Tenth Annual In- 
ternational. Denver, Col., Sept. 27-Oct. 
29. Sec'y, Ralph H. Faxon, Denver, Col. 

Education, International Congress of. Held 
in connection with National Education 
Association. Oakland, Cal. August 16-28. 
Sec'v, Durand W. Springer, Ann Arbor, 

Eugenics Congress, Second International 
Congress. New York, Sept. 22-28. 

Kindergarten Union, International. San 
Francisco, Cal.. August 17-22. Sec'y, Miss 
May Murray, Springfield, Mass. 

Purity Congress. Ninth International. San 
Francisco, Cal. Julv 18-24. President. 
Dr. B. S. Steadwell, La Crosse, Wis. 

Anti-Saloon League Convention, Ameri- 
can, Atlantic City, N. J. July 6-9. 
Further information may be secured by 
addressing the Anti-Saloon League of 
America, Westerville, O. 

Projection at its Best 

The beautifully vivid images and the possibility of us- 
ing lantern slides or opaque objects are features appre- 
ciated by the many teachers and lecturers using the 

Bauscli (omb 



The 60 years experience of the foremost lens makers 
in America is represented in each model. 

Model C (for slides) has the new automatic gas-filled 
Mazda lamp, fitting any lamp socket. Price $35.00. 

The new Combined Model for both slides and opaque 
objects, with instant interchange. Price $120.00. 

Many models $22.00 up. Write for circulars. 

528 St. Paul Street, Rochester, N. Y. 

Leading American makers of Photographic Lenses. 
Microscopes, Binoculars and other high grade optical 


The Survey, April 17, 1915 

City Planning, National Conference on. 
Detroit, Mich.. June 7-9. Sec'y. Flavel 
Shurtleff, 19 Congress Street, Boston, 

Civil Service Commissioners, National 
Assembly of. Los Angeles, Cal. June 
16-19. Sec'y, J. T. Doyle, 1724 F Street, 
Washington, D. C. 

Education, National Association. Oakland, 
Cal. August 16-28. Sec'y, Durand W. 
Springer, Ann Arbor. Mich. 

Home Economics Association. American. 
Seattle, Wash.. August 18-2!. Further 
information may be secured by addressing 
the American Home Economics Associa- 
tion, Baltimore, Md. 

1 Iospital Association, American. San 
Francisco, Cal., June 22-25. Sec'y, H. A. 
Boyce, Kingston General Hospital, Kings- 
ton, Canada. 

Humane Association, American. St. Au- 
gustine, Fla., November 8-11. Sec'y, Na- 
thaniel J. Walker, Albany, N. Y. 

Infant Mortality, American Association 
for the Study and Prevention of Sixth 
annual meeting. Philadelphia, Novem- 
ber 10-12. Executive Sec'y, Miss Ger- 
trude B. Knipp, 1211 Cathedral Street, 
Baltimore, Md. 

Instructors of the Blind, American As- 
sociation of. Berkeley, Cal. June 28-30. 
Secy, E. E. Allen, School for the Blind, 
Watertown, Mass. 

Library Association, American. Thirty- 
seventh annual conference. Berkeley. 
Cal., June 3-9. Sec'y, George B. Utley, 
78 East Washington Street, Chicago, 111. 

Medical Milk Commissions, American 
Association of. San Francisco, Cal. 
June 17. Sec'y, Dr. Otto P. Geier. 124 
Garfield Place, Cincinnati, O. 

Municipal Improvements. American So- 
ciety of. Dayton, O., October 11-15. Secv, 
Charles C. Brown, 702 Wulsin Bldg., In- 
dianapolis, Ind. 

Prison Association. American. Oakland. 
Cal., October 2-7. Sec'y, George L. Sehon. 
1086 Baxter Avenue, Louisville, Ky. 

School Hygiene Association, American. 
San Francisco, Cal., June 25-26. Sec'y, 
Dr. Thomas A. Storey, College of the 
City of New York, New York. 

Science, American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of. University of California. 
Berkeley, Cal. August 2-7. Sec'y, Dr. L. 
O. Howard, Smithsonian Institute, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Tuberculosis. The National Association 
for the Study and Prevention of. Seat- 
tle, Wash. June 14-16. Sec'y, Dr. Charles 
J. Hatfield, 105 East 22d Street. New 

Women's Clubs. Council of the General 
Federation of. Portland, Ore. June 1 t. 
Corresponding Sec'y, Mrs. Eugene Reil- 
ley, 508 Park Avenue. Charlotte, N. C. 

Women's Trade Union League, National. 
Fifth biennial convention. New York city. 
June 7. Sec'y, Miss S. M. Franklin, 90] 
Unity Bldg., Chicago, 111. 

Women Voters, National Council of. San 
Francisco, Cal. July 8-10. President. 
Mrs. E. S. DeVoe, 605 Perkins Bldg.. 
Tacoma, Wash. 

Workers for the Blind, American Ass.. 
ciation of. Berkeley, Cal. July 1-3, 
Sec'y, Charles F. F. Campbell, 911 Frank- 
lin Avenue, Columbus, O. 

State and Local 
Mayors and Other City Officials of New 

York State. Annual Conference of. 

Troy, N. Y., June 1-3. Sec'y, William P. 

Capes, 105 blast 22d Street, New York. 
Women's Clubs, California Federation of. 

San Francisco, Cal., May 17-21. Sec'y. 

Mrs. George Butler, San Diego, Cal. 

Travel Studies in Civic and Social Progress 

Tour of South America, June 23 — Sept. 3 
Tour of United States, July 1— Aug. 5 

Full Official Programme on Request 



The following national bodies will gladly and freely supply information and advise reading on the subjects 
named by each and on related subjects. Members are kept closely in touch with the work which each organi- 
zation is doing, but membership is not required of those seeking information. Correspondence is invited. Always 
enclose postage for reply. 


SEX HYGIENE — Society of Sanitary and 
Moral Prophylaxis, 105 West 40th St., 
New York City. Edward L. Keyes, Jr., 
President. Six educational pamphlets. 10c 
each. Quarterly Journal, devoted to sex edu- 
cation, $1.00 per year. Dues — Active, $2.00; 
Contributing, $5.00; Sustaining, $10.00. Mem- 
bership includes current and subsequent liter- 
ature. Maintains lecture bureau. 

CANCER -American Society for the Control 
of Cancer, 2N<| Fourth Ave., New York 
City. Curtis E. Lakeman, Exec. Secy. 
To disseminate knowledge concerning symp- 
toms, diagnosis, treatment and prevention. 
Publications free on request. Annual member- 
ship dues $5. 

SCHOOL HYGIENE — American School Hy- 
giene Association. Pres.. Dr. Henry M. 
Bracken, Chairman State Board of Health, 
St. Paul, Minn. Sec'y., Thomas A. Storey, M.D., 
College of the City of New York. New York. 
Yearly congresses and proceedings. 

MENTAL HYGIENE— National Committee 
for Mental Ilvgiene. 50 I'nion Square, 
New York City. Clifford W. Beers. Sec'y. 
Write for pamphlets on mental hygiene, pre- 
vention of insanity, care of insane, social ser- 
vice in mental hygiene. State Societies for Men- 
tal Hygiene. 

NATIONAL HEALTH -Committee of One 
Hundred on National Health. E. F. Rob- 
bins, Exec. Sec, 203 E. 1271 h St.. New- 
York. 'I'd unite all government health agencies 
into a National Department of Health to In- 
form the people how to prevent dise;isr 

TUBERCULOSIS— National Association for 
the Studv and Prevention of Tuberculosis, 
105 East 22nd St. New York. Charles J. 
Hatfield, M.D., Exec. Sec'y. Reports, pamph- 
lets, etc., sent upon request. Annual transac- 
tions and other publications free to members 

RACE BETTERMENT- National Confer- 

ence on Race Betterment. Regeneration 
of Race through eugenics and euthentcs. 
interesting exhibit at Panama-Pacific Ex- 
position. Official Procei dings first conference, 
050 pages, now ready, $2. no. Address Secre- 
tary, Battle Creek, Michigan. 

PUBLIC HEALTH-Amerlcan Public Health 
Association, Pres., Win, C. Woodward, 
Washington ; Sec'y, S. M. Gunn, Boston. 

Pounded for the purpose of advancing the cause 
of public health and prevention of disease. Five 
sections: Laboratory, Vital Statistics. Muni- 
cipal Health Officers, Sanitary Engineering and 
Sociological. Official organ American Journal 
of Public Health, $3.00 a year published month- 
ly. 3 months subscription, 50 cents. Address 
755 Boylston St., Boston. Mass. 

stimulate the extension of public health 
nursing; to develop standards of technique; to 
maintain a central bureau of information. Pub- 
lications* Pub. Health Nursing Quarterly, $1.00 
per year, and bulletins. Address Ella Phillips 
Crandall, R. N. Exec Sec.. 25 West 45th St.. 
New York City. 

SOCIAL HYGIENE— The American Social 
Hygiene Assoc. Inc., 105 West 40th St. 
N. Y.: Branch offices: McCormick Bldg., 
Chicago ; I'helan Bldg., San Francisco. To pro- 
mote sound sex education, the reduction of 
venereal diseases, and the suppression of com- 
mercialized vice. Quarterly magazine "Social 
Hygiene.'' Monthly fiiilletin. Membership, $5 : 
sustaining, $10. Information upon request. Pres., 
Charles W. Eliot : Gen. Secv. William F. Snow, 
M.D. ; Counsel, James B. Reynolds. 

Racial Problems 

NEGRO YEAR BOOK— Meets the demand 
for concise information concerning the 
condition and progress of the Negro 
Uace. Extended bibliographies. Full index. 
Price 25c. By mail 30c. Negro Year Book 
Company, Tuskegee Institute, Alabama. 

In addition to information in Negro Year 
Book. Tuskegee Institute will furnish other 
data on the condition and progress of the Ne- 
gro race. 

— Trains Negro and Indian youth. "Great 
educational experiment station.'' Neither 
a state nor a government school. Snpp 
by voluntary contributions. H. B. Frissell, 
Principal: F. l\. Rogers, Treasurer: W. H. 
Scoville, Secretary, l'v<^e literature on race ail 
justment, Hampton aims and methods. Southern 
Workman, Illustrated monthly, $1 a year: free 
to donors. 

Social Problems 

Industrial Bureau, Winnipeg. Canada. 
J. S. Woodsworth, Secretary. To promote 
a general interest in all forms of Social W 
fare. Departments : Social. Service Clearing 
House; Lecture and Publicity Bureau: Immi 
gration : Community Work: Organized Phllati 


AMERICA — Clearing house and bureau 
.if consultation on transportation, em 
ployment, standard of living, savings and in 
vestments, education, naturalization, legislation 
and public charges. Frank Trumbull. Ch. : Felix 
M Warburg and Fiances A. Kellor, Y.-Ch. : 
Win. Fellowes Morgan, Tivas. Dues $5 a year 

including Immigrants in American Review and 

literature. 95 Madison Ave.. N. Y. City. 

IMMIGRANT GIRLS— Council of Jewish 
Women i National i , Department of Immi 
gram Aid. with headquarters at 216 E, 

Broadway. New York City. — Miss Helen Wink 
bi-. chairman, — gives friendly aid to immigrant 

girls: meets, visiis, advises, guides: has inter 
national system of safeguarding. Invites mem 


SETTLEMENTS— National Federation of 
Settlements. Develops broad forms of com- 
parative study and concert- d action In city. 
state, and nation, for meeting the fundamental 
problems disclosed bv settlement wok : seeks the 
higher and more democratic organization of 
orhood life. Robert A. Woods. Sec. M 
CnTon Park. Boston Mass. 

Photo bu Paul Thompson 

"BELGIUM, 1914" 

A clay study of a group of refugees by Gafton Nys, the young Belgian sculptor who fought for his country until 
the fall of Antwerp, when his regiment was mustered out. He then came to America and with the help of friends 
has established a studio in New York. Reproductions of Mr. Nys' life-size bust of King Albert are being sold for 
the benefit of the Belgian Relief Fund. 

Price 10 Cents 

April 24, 1915 

Volume XXXIV, No. 4 



105 East 22d Street Robert w deFor£Sti Presidem 2559 Michigan Ave. 

New York Arthur P. Kellogg, Secretary Frank Tucker. Treasurer Chicago 

Vol. XXXIV. No. 4 


April 24, 1915 









I. Elkus 


H. Montague ..... ........... 

O GREAT REPUBLIC, a hymn Lincoln Balch 


Florence L. Sanvilte 
Kate M. McLane 

Joseph Warren Beach 

Mary Carolyn Davies 

Mary T. Richardson 

Madeleine Sweeny Miller 





RAIN AT THE MILL [Pittsburgh] 



F. R. Green. M.D. 



K. Conant .......... ...... 














Single copies of this Issue ten cents. Co-operating subscriptions $10 a year. Regular 
subscriptions $3 a year. Foreign postage $1.20 extra. Canadian 70 cents. Changes of address 
should be mailed to us ten days in advance. In accordance with a growing commercial practice, 
when payment is by check a receipt will be sent only upon request. 




^ Index for Volume XXXIII of The Survey, from 
October, 1914, to March, 1915, inclusive, will 
be sent free on application. 

^ Bound volumes, in stout cloth with leather back 
and comers, $2.50 plus postage. 

fj Survey binders, for the current issues, handy and 
serviceable, $ 1 .00 postpaid. 

The GIST of IT- 

JUDGE LIXDSEY has won out again foi 
-* his seat on the Denver children's 
bench. Page 80. 

T UDGE HARVEY H. BAKER is dead at 
J the prime of his life and his service. 
Not only Boston but the whole juvenile 
court movement has lost a man of construc- 
tive genius and patient good will for his 
fellows. Page 95. 

EMPLOYMENT and wages for all pris- 
oners and industrial farm colonies to 
take the place of county jails are the prin- 
cipal recommendations of the Pennsylvania 
Penal Commission. No state in the Union 
has so many unemployed prisoners as Penn- 
sylvania, Miss Sanville writes. The clock 
has struck for the local lock-up, where oc- 
cupation is difficult to provide except by the 
traditional emplover of idle hands. Page 

T/ 1 HE federal Supreme Court has rendered 
three unanimous decisions upholding the 
Ohio and Kansas laws providing officiaJ 
censorship for motion pictures before pres- 
entation. Page 82. 

R IGHT on the top of Beacon Hill the 
Boston City Club has put up a new 
building which, with the land, cost more 
than a million dollars. The Woman's Cit\ 
Club, in a famous old residence, is hard b\ 
Both give evidence that civic spirit in Bos- 
ton is an active and effective force. Page 

N EXT month the National Conference of 
Charities and Correction will meet in 
Baltimore after an absence of 25 years. 
Some of the gains of that quarter centurv 
reviewed by Miss McLane. Page 87. 

A NEW plan for electing officers for the 
National Conference of Charities ami 
Correction has been proposed by the com- 
mittee appointed for the purpose at the 
Memphis conference. Page 81. 

'J" 1 1 E children of San Francisco hav< • 
theater of their own and all the best 
seats are reserved for them. Page SO. 

Q XT', rounded, highly efficient public 
health organization is proposed by Dr. 
Green. The various national bodies now in 
the field distract attention, lack a common 
plan of campaign ami duplicate expenses 
Minnesota and Texas have fused their 
health forces and, he argues, set a good ex- 
ample for all the national organizations 
striving to prevent disease. Page 91. 

Q HIO'S "conservancj act." passed aftei 
the flood of two years ago. is likely bo 
come to naught. An unfavorable court de- 
cision threw it back into the Legislature. 
and there its enemies are making ducks and 
drakes of the recommendations of a group 
oi distinguished engineers. Pag» 

| N eight years New York's highest -:.<t. 
ouirt has right-about- faced as to the 

"right" of "an adult female" to sell her 
labor, rite court take^ an advanced - 
position in upholding the law forbidding 
night work for women in factories Pagi s l 



Two years ago this spring, Day- 
ton and a score of other cities in the 
fertile valleys of Ohio stood up to their 
hips in water. With a speed and or- 
ganization that amazed the world the 
state seemed to lift itself from the drag- 
ging currents, dry its skirts, and re- 
pair the damage to its people and prop- 

No less amazing was the promptness 
with which it started measures to pre- 
vent future floods. A huge fund was 
raised, expert engineers were called in, 
their advice was taken, and in less than 
a year the Legislature had passed the 
famous "conservancy act." 

Now it appears that all this good work 
is to come to naught. Beaten by a 
favorable court decision on the consti- 
tutionality of the "conservancy act," the 
opponents of this measure have taken 
the fight back into the Legislature. Two 
bills have been introduced, one practical • 
ly repealing the entire measure, the 
other amending it to the point of emascu- 

The "conservancy act" provides for 
the division of the state into districts, 
each of which could devise its own sys- 
tem of flood prevention. It contem- 
plates the construction of reservoirs, de- 
tention basins and river improvement 
projects, and gives large powers to spe- 
cially created boards of directors to ex- 
ercise the right of eminent domain, to 
issue bonds, to construct works and as- 
sess the cost equitably upon the owners 
of property benefited. 

It is these last provisions that have 
made the trouble. Land-owners especial- 
ly have become aroused. There seems 
to be a fear that property will get the 
worst of it. One of the two bills intro- 
duced, known as Senate bill No. 38. 
makes the following principal amend 
ments to the "conservancy act" : 

1. It deprives the courts of the power 
to appoint the directors of conservancy 
districts, who are to condemn property 
and assess costs, and provides for their 
election by the voters ; 2. It prohibits 
the construction of any detention basins 
or reservoirs, or the flooding of any lands 
for the purpose of flood protection ; 3. 
It prevents the construction of any 

Volume XXXIV, No. 4 

works until the damages for flooding 
any land' have been completely deter- 
mined and paid ; 4. It complicates the 
amendment of the official plan by such 
additional technicalities as to make 
change in the plans almost impossible; 
it deprives the district of the power to 
condemn the fee title in lands, giving 
the owner the option of selling such 
title or of selling an easement. 

The amendment prohibiting the con- 
struction of detention basins or reser- 
voirs is nothing short of a proposal to 
substitute the judgment of legislators for 
that of the distinguished group of en- 
gineers who unanimously agreed that 
such basins were necessary in the Miami 
Valley. The contention of the opposi- 
tion is that levees are adequate. 

Indiana, moving: more slowly, lias a 
bill similar to the Ohio "conservancy 
act" before her general assembly. 



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FjE* ,*-.' ~tK^B 

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r J~ < HIS is neither explosion nor or- 
chid, but the magnified head of 
one of America's disease-bearing mos- 
quitoes. Flies and mosquitoes, screens 
and swatters, are now topics in spring 
bulletins of health. Already larvae 
have been found in piles of waste, 
entering upon their active stage. 
Borax is being recommended as a 
larvicide. The picture is by permis- 
sion of the surgeon general of the 
War Department. 


With only a few social meas- 
ures enacted, the Alabama Legislature 
adjourned in February to reconvene on 
July 13. Various other bills sought by 
social workers will be considered by 
legislative committees during the recess. 
Their favorable report and passage is 
urged all the more vigorously as the 
Alabama Legislature convenes only once 
in four years. 

Among the bills passed were much- 
needed educational measures, providing 
for the submission to the people of an 
amendment to the state constitution per- 
mitting local taxation for schools, mak- 
ing women eligible to serve on school 
boards, permitting counties to purchase 
wagons for the transportation of chil- 
dren to school, and establishing an adult 
illiteracy commission. 

The fight over an effort to strengthen 
the child labor law was bitter, the cot- 
ton mill men, led by ex-Governor B. B. 
Comer, making every effort to defeat it. 
They succeeded in keeping the hours the ' 
same — sixty a week. But the age limit 
was raised to fourteen years after 1916. 
All occupations, including street em- 
ployment, are covered and enforcement 
has been strengthened. 

Other bills passed include several ad- 
vantageous to the agricultural interests 
of the state. One permits the state to 
loan money to farmers, another regu- 
lates business of dealers in farm pro- 
duce, and others provide appropriations 
for tick eradication and a hog cholera 
serum plant. 

New election laws were passed, one 
of which is aimed to combat the buying 
of votes or influence. 

Measures of large constructive value 
which await the action of the Legislature 
in July provide for a constitutional con- 
vention, equal suffrage, a state welfare 
department, a public health department, 
workers' compensation, a strict law 
against loan sharks, a state utility com- 
mission and compulsory education. 

When the Legislature convened in 
January, the fight over a state-wide pro- 
hibition bill occupied the attention of 
the members to the exclusion of prac- 



The Survey, April 24, 1915 

tically every other measure. It passed 
over Governor Henderson's veto. 

The delegation from Jefferson County, 
which includes Birmingham, failed to 
achieve the unity of action which had 
been sought last fall through the confer- 
ences and hearings which it held for the 
purpose of finding out what legislation 
the people of the community desired. 
The delegation went to the Legislature 
with little common purpose and some 
members lined up with the reactionaries. 

The Boys' Industrial School, the 
Training School for Girls and the Mercy 
Home Industrial School for Girls, all 
state institutions, were denied the ap- 
propriations which they earnestly sought. 

An effort is being made to abolish the 
office of state prison inspector. The bill 
has already passed the House and will 
be acted upon by the Senate in July. 
It is denounced by social workers who 
feel that the present state prison in- 
spector, Dr. William Oates, has ren- 
dered effective service. 

The session thus far has not been de- 
void of humorous episodes. A bill re- 
quiring the schools of the state to teach 
the old "blue back spelling book" was 
introduced, and passed by the House, 
modern methods of spelling being round- 
ly condemned. "The House spent half 
a day haranguing over it," said one legis- 
lator. "The legislative sessions cost 
only about $1,100 a day, so this im- 
portant conversation cost Alabama a 
paltry $500." 

Alabama people find comfort, how- 
ever, in reflecting upon the more be- 
nighted attitude of a Florida legislator. 
At a recent session of the Legislature 
of that state a bill was introduced for 
the improvement of public roads, recom- 
mending that the sand be removed. It 
was vigorously opposed — its passage in- 
deed finally blocked. 

"God Almighty put the sand thar," 
exclaimed one member of the lower 
house, "and he meant it to stay !" 


The latest attack on Judge 
Ben B. Lindsey has collapsed like the 
many others which have been made on 
him. The present result is the more note- 
worthy because his assailants not only 
struck at his personal character, with 
their usual bitterness, but they also made 
a determined effort to abolish the Den- 
ver Juvenile Court and transfer its work 
to the District Court, thus eliminating 
the position occupied by Judge Lindsey. 
Details of this legislative scheme were 
reported in The Survey for March 20. 
The bills were vetoed last week by 
Governor Carlson, after a vigorous pro- 
test against them by many citizens. In 
addition, the grand jury exonerated the 
judge of the charges of misconduct and 
indicted one of his accusers for crim- 
inal libel. 



The melodrama of the movies 
has a competitor for children's hearts in 
San Francisco. A Children's Theater 
has been opened, under the auspices of 
the Recreation League of San Francisco, 
to give real plays at an admission price 
that most any youngster can afford. 

^m* Shock Headed 

VL Peter was the first 

^^^ play given, then 

gk Alice in Wonder- 

WM l^W land adventured on 

,£j m i^s. t ' le children's stage 

^Y" twice a week; and 

S next Aladdin and 

■ W His W o n d e r f u ! 

^^ Lamp delighted the 

w children. 

Garnet Holme, the producer, and Mrs. 
D. E. F. Easton have been untiring in 
their efforts to establish this theater for 
the children of San Francisco. The ob- 
ject of such an experiment, as stated in 
the program, is to present bright and 
amusing plays which will both interest 
children and awaken in them the better 
and more poetic side of their imagina- 
tions ; to accustom the future audience 
of San Francisco to witnessing charm- 
ing plays; to set up a somewhat higher 
standard of humor than that appearing 
in the comic supplements, and to form 
a center of high dramatic work which 
will encourage the formation of clubs 
and classes wherein young folks may 
themselves learn to study 
and express by acting the 
many beautiful stories and 
legends now entirely neg- 

It is not the purpose of 
the enterprise, however, to 
train children to become 
professional actors and 
actresses. Mr. Holme has 
selected players from the 
theaters and foremost 
amateur clubs of the city for the prin- 
cipal roles. The chorus is composed of 
children selected from a private dancing 
school, but the children in the chorus 
are constantly changed, so that "the ills 
that arise from demanding from and 
giving too much attention to children 
during school terms" are avoided. 

Ten cents is the price charged for half 
the seats — those reserved in the front of 
the auditorium for the children. No ac- 
companying k and view- 
obstructing ^^ parents 
may enter here; they 
m u s t pay . .'M twenty-five 
and fifty N(^^ cents i ° r 
the seats in vHM| A ''"-' 

T h e at- A tendance of 


nearly 2.500 children since the play- 
house opened several weeks ago is proof 

that an eager audience of young drama 
lovers already exists in San Francisco. 
The work of the theater has not met 
with unqualified approval. The Cali- 
fornia Outlook, while heartily welcom- 
ing the new project, rather severely 
criticized the production of Shock 
Headed Peter. The second play it found 
a distinct improvement, however. 


The Department of Public 
Charities of New York city, of which 
John A. Kingsbury is commissioner 
and which figured so prominently in the 
recent civil service clash, is again to be 
the subject of investigation. The in- 
vestigating body this time is the state 
Board of Charities, of which Robert W. 
Hebberd is secretary. 

The inquiry is called for by a concur 
rent resolution passed by Senate and 
Assembly April 1. This bases the need 
for an investigation on the fact that 
newspaper reports make it appear that 
Commissioner Kingsbury "has for a year 
or more been cognizant of alleged evils, 
abuses and defects in the management 
of the New York city Children's Hos- 
pitals and Schools on Randall's Island," 
and that he "has taken no steps to 
remedy" such conditions. Some weeks 
prior to the passage of this resolution 
Commissioner Kingsbury had suspended 
the superintendent of the Randall's Is- 
land institutions, Mary C. Dunphy, un- 
der charges. 

William Rhinelander Stewart, presi- 
dent of the state Board of Charities, has 
declared that the board will make this 
investigation "of its own volition, as 
well as by direction of the Legislature." 
and that while the inquiry will deal 
largely with conditions on Randall's 
Island, "other branches of the work wih 
also be given consideration." The pur- 
pose of the inquiry, he said, will be 
purely constructive. It will be conduct- 
ed by Commissioners Stephen Smith. 
M.D., and J. Richard Kevin, M.D.. with 
Mr. Stewart as chairman. 

Commissioner Kingsbury, who has 
asked that the inquiry be not begun 
until April 23 or 24. has assured the 
board of his fullest co-operati®n. He 
has requested that "the board pursue to 
its ultimate and conclusive end, any 
single matter, before taking up another." 
This suggestion, he says, is based on the 
experience of the corporation counsel in 
the civil service investigation, in which 
great injustice is declared to have been 
done by the introduction of testimony on 
particular subjects, without giving the 
defendent body a fair opportunity to an- 
swer or explain. 

This is the not unfriendly tone of the 
official overtures between the depart- 
ment and the board. To reporters 
Commissioner Kingsbury said : 

"This feverish activity on the part ol 
the State Board of Charities is the last 
gasp of a dying and discredited ma- 

Common Welfare 


chine. Secretary Hebberd was com- 
missioner of the department from 1906 
to 1910, and during that time it is a mat- 
ter of record that the ill-treatment of 
children was repeatedly called to his at- 
tention. In addition, the state board has 
been approving certai private asylums 
for children in this city which the de- 
partment has found to be totally unfit 
for human beings to live in. 

"I believe the public should demand 
an immediate investigation of the state 
Board of Charities, and would respect- 
fully suggest to Governor Whitman that 
he inquire at once why the board has 
been so derelict in its duty in respect to 
Randall's Island." 


The proposed changes in the 
methods of nominating the officers of 
the National Conference of Charities 
and Correction have been made public 
by the special committee appointed last 
year at Memphis. The committee has 
sought to formulate a plan which would 
avoid as far as possible all electioneer- 
ing at the conference meetings, give 
each member opportunity to participate 
in the nominations without at the same 
time creating any elaborate system of 
balloting by mail, place responsibility 
for decision as to the best nominees up- 
on a small but representative committee, 
and make sure that the election of offi- 
cers expresses the deliberate judgment 
of the majority of qualified members 
present at any annual meeting. 

The proposed new system provides 
that a nominating committee of nine 
members shall be appointed by the presi- 
dent with the approval of the executive 
committee within ninety days after each 
conference. In the fall Bulletin of the 
conference the committee shall request 
from all members suggestions of nom- 
inations. The committee report is then 
to be drafted and submitted to the mem- 
bers ninety days before the conference 
convenes, preferably in the January 
Bulletin. Nominations in addition to 
those made by the committee may be 
made on the signed petition of any 
twenty-five members sent to the general 
secretary at least thirty days in advance 
of the conference meeting when all nom- 
inations close. In such nominations any 
addition to those of the nominating com- 
mittee shall appear in the final Bulletin 
sent out before the conference. 

Election of officers shall take place at 
the first business section of the confer- 
ence held more than twenty-four hours 
after its opening. The vote shall be by 
acclamation if there is only one set of 
nominations and by printed ballot if 
other nominations have been made. In 
the latter case the balloting shall take 
place in twenty-four hours preceding 
the business meeting and the result shall 
be announced at the meeting. Members 
entitled to vote shall be those who have 
paid dues for two years immediately pre- 
ceding the conference and who have at- 
tended at least one previous conference. 



"Surely it is a matter of vital 
importance to the state that the health 
of thousands of women working in 
factories should be protected and safe- 
guarded from any drain which can 
reasonably be avoided, this not only 
for their own sakes, but, as is and 
ought to be constantly and legitimate- 
ly emphasized, for the sake of the 
children whom a great majority of 
them will be called upon to bear and 
who will almost inevitably display in 
their deficiencies, the unfortunate in- 
heritance conferred upon them by 
physically broken-down mothers." 

This sentence is taken from the re- 
cent unanimous opinion of the New 
York Court of Appeals declaring con- 
stitutional the statute forbidding night 
work for women in factories. 1 The de- 
cision is interesting in contrast with the 
opinion of the same court in the Wil- 
liams case, decided eight years ago, when 
the court said: 

"An adult female is not to be re- 
garded as a ward of the state, nor in 
any other light than the man is re- 
garded when the question relates to 
the business pursuit or calling." 

Then the court declared the statute un- 
constitutional because it deprived adult 
women of the liberty of contract guar- 
anteed them by the state and federal 
constitution. Now this same court de- 
clares a similar statute constitutional. 

This changed attitude of the Court of 
Appeals on one of the most important 
subjects of social legislation may be ac- 
counted for in three ways: 

1. The presentation of facts accur- 
ately and scientifically gathered. Mat- 
ters of common knowledge and of 
other legislation to which the court's 
attention was specifically and careful- 
ly called upon the subject of night 
work for women. 

2. The selection of a real and fair 
test case, and its proper preparation. 

3. The changed attitude of the peo- 
ple generally and of the courts on all 
matters of this nature. 

It is of interest to trace the facts lead- 
ing up to the enactment of this second 
night-work law and the proceedings to 
test its constitutionality. 

First, as to the investigation. Shortly 
after the New York State Factory In- 
vestigating Commission was appointed 
in 1911, its attention was called to the 
evil conditions caused by night work of 
women in factories. The Williams case, 
however, was cited as a bar to all reme- 
dial legislation upon that subject. The 
commission determined that it was its 
duty in any event to obtain the real facts 
in connection with night work and sub- 
mit them to the Legislature and to the 

An investigation was accordingly un- 
dertaken. This was conducted by train- 
ed investigators employed by the com- 

1 People vs. Schweinler Press. 

mission and by the commissioners them- 
selves personally visiting large industrial 
plants, in one of which over one hun- 
dred women were employed on a regular 
night shift, and themselves taking testi- 
mony right in the factories. 

The indignation which the public gen- 
erally felt at the disclosures made by the 
commission of conditions in the Twine 
Mills at Auburn, where a regular night 
shift of women workers was in opera- 
tion, will be readily recalled. 

After drawing attention to the condi- 
tions discovered, the commission recom- 
mended that a statute be enacted pro- 
hibiting the night work of women. This 
bill became a law by unanimous action 
of the Legislature. 

The value of the Factory Investigating 
Commission's work was emphasized up- 
on the argument of this case in the 
Court of Appeals, the judges making 
specific inqui 'es as to the scope of the 
investigation, the facts disclosed and the 
findings made. 

In the Court of Appeals Judge His- 
cock, speaking of this investigation, 

"Thus at the time when this statute 
was adopted there was before the 
Legislature the report of the commis- 
sion created by it, based on actual 
facts and actual investigation, a large 
volume of expert and medical opinion 
and a large number of statutes adopt- 
ed in various jurisdictions." 

It will thus be seen how important it 
is. in order to sustain the constitution- 
ality of a law, that the facts, to serve as 
a basis for legislation, be carefully and 
accurately ascertained. When these 
facts are obtained, if they justify the 
legislation, the courts will not be slow to 
find the legislation valid, as they have in 
this case. 

Upon the argument of the later case, 
attention was strenuously called to the 
earlier Williams case to the effect that 
the Williams decision was conclusive of 
the unconstitutionality of the present 
statute. The Court of Appeals answers 
this argument directly and clearly by 
calling attention to the lack of evidence 
in the earlier case of the opinion, which 
has since been created and which has 
spread during the past seven or eight 
years, that night work for women is in- 
jurious. The Court of Appeals now 
very properly says that it should not be 
reluctant to give effect to this "even if 
it did lead us to take a different view of 
such a vastly important question as that 
of public health or disease than former- 
ly prevailed." 

Second, this was a real test case : the 
woman selected was not one who was 
working a few minutes or a short time 
after the closing hour, but a woman who 
worked all night long and did so regu- 

Too often test cases of this kind. 


The Survey, April 24, 1915 

which involve the constitutionality of a 
statute, are lost because the case which 
is actually presented to the court does 
not fairly present the real evil which the 
statute seeks to abolish. A formal vio- 
lation of the statute only is presented, 
and the court necessarily takes a some- 
what prejudiced view of the case be- 
cause of that. 

Third, as to the change in the trend 
of public opinion. I have already quoted 
from the opinion of the Court of Ap- 
peals showing that even if the Williams 
case, deciding the earlier statute was un- 
constitutional, it was not conclusive as 
to the later statute. But the court sig- 
nificantly states that even i.f this were 
true, there has also been a great change 
in public sentiment, based upon these 
facts which could not have been shown 
when the earlier statute was under con- 

The past two decades has witnessed 
a marked change in social and economic 
needs. There is greater strain in in- 
dustry. Speeding up and high tension, 
due to complicated machinery and sub- 

division of work, particularly in indus- 
tries in which women are employed, ex- 
ist now as never before. 

This apparent reversal of decision and 
the entire history of the night work case 
show the necessity for presenting the 
complete facts to the court where the 
constitutionality of a statute, which is 
based upon the exercise of police power, 
is under consideration. Too often are 
the courts blamed, without reason, be- 
cause they have decided that a statute 
does not properly come within the exer- 
cise of the police power, when a careful 
examination would show that the facts 
upon which the court might properly 
base its decision have never been pre- 
sented. Too often no real attempt was 
made to gather facts for presentation. 

The New York Court of Appeals has 
shown by this decision that it is respon- 
sive to the prevailing sentiment of the 
people concerning the question of night 
work for women in factories, and that 
it is alive to the changes of opinion 
which exist among well-informed peo- 
ple upon such subjects. 


A great forward step in gov- 
ernment regulation of business and so- 
cial conditions was quietly taken on 
February 23, when the United States 
Supreme Court, in three unanimous de- 
cisions, sustained the Ohio and Kansas 
statutes creating official censorship of 
motion pictures before exhibition. 1 

Arguments directed against these 
statutes on the ground that they burden 
interstate commerce and attempt to dele- 
gate "legislative power" to the censors 
are refuted by the Supreme Court with 
the same decisiveness with which the 
court has repeatedly disposed of the 
same arguments when directed against 
statutes providing for compulsory in- 
spection and enforcible regulation of 
conditions affecting health, sanitation, 
morals and public welfare, in factories 
dwellings and buildings, public business 
and professions, in living and working 
conditions, and even in food and articles 
of commerce. 

Equally decisive is the disposition that 
the Supreme Court makes of the argu- 
ment that official censorship of motion 
pictures before exhibition violates lib- 
erty of speech and publication. "Not 
only the state of Ohio," says the Su- 
preme Court, "but other states have 
considered it to be in the interest of the 
public morals and welfare to supervise 
moving-picture exhibitions. We would 
have to shut our eyes to the facts of the 
zuorld to regard the precaution unrea- 
sonable or the legislation to effect it a 
mere wanton interference ivith personal 
liberty." [Italics mine.] 

The balance of considerations on 
which this issue depends has been 
thoughtfully weighed by this body. 
"Counsel have gone," says the Supreme 
Court, "into a very elaborate description 

A/JR- MONTAGUE here puts 
the case of those who be- 
lieve that so far as censorship of 
"moz'ie" films is needed at all, it 
should be official. Their hands 
have been strengthened by the 
three decisions of the United 
States Supreme Court which he 

The contrary view, standing for 
a purely voluntary censorship act- 
ing through the force of public 
opinion, will be given extensively 
in the second and third of a series 
of articles by John Collier, the 
organizer and first secretary of 
the National Board of Censorship 
of Motion Pictures, which will run 
through The Survey's summer 
issues. — Editor. 

'Mutual Film Corporation vs. Industrial 
Commission of Ohio, 236 U. S. 230; Mutual 
Film Company vs. Industrial Commission of 
Ohio, 236 U. S. 247 ; Mutual Film Corpora- 
tion of Missouri vs. Hodges, governor of 
the state of Kansas, 236 U. S. 248. 

of moving-picture exhibitions and their 
many useful purposes as graphic expres- 
sions of opinion and sentiments, as ex- 
ponents of policies, as teachers of science 
and history, as useful, interesting, amus- 
ing, educational and moral. And a list 
of the 'campaigns,' as counsel call them, 
which may be carried on is given. We 
may concede the praise. It is not ques- 
tioned by the Ohio statute, and under 
its comprehensive description, 'cam- 
paigns' of an infinite variety may be 
conducted. Films of a 'moral, educa- 
tional or amusing and harmless charac- 
ter shall be passed and approved' are 
the words of the statute. No exhibition, 
therefore, or 'campaign' of complainant 
will be prevented if its pictures have 
those qualities. 

"Therefore, however missionary of 
opinion films are or may become, how- 
ever educational or entertaining, there is 
no impediment to their value or effect 
in the Ohio statute. But they may be 
used for evil, and against that possibility 
the statute was enacted. Their power 
of amusement and. it mav be, education. 

the audiences they assemble, not of wom- 
en alone nor of men alone, but together, 
not of adults only, but of children, make 
them the more insidious in corruption 
by a pretense of worthy purpose or if 
they should degenerate from worthy 
purpose. [Italics mine.] 

"Indeed, we may go beyond that pos- 
sibility. They take their attraction from 
the general interest, eager and whole- 
some it may be, in their subjects, but a 
prurient interest may be excited and ap- 
pealed to. Besides, there are some 
tilings which should not have pictorial 
representation in public places and to all 

Must "a precedent right of exhibition' 
be conceded to the motion-picture ex- 
hibitor, leaving to the state merely the 
right to enforce "subsequent responsi- 
bility only . . . for abuse?" 

The Supreme Court does not blink the 
fundamental issue involved. "We need 
not pause," it says, "to dilate upon the 
freedom of opinion and its expression, 
and whether by speech, writing or print- 
ing. They are too certain to need dis- 
cussion — of such conceded value as to 
need no supporting praise. . . . Are 
moving pictures within the principle, as 
it is contended they are? They, indeed, 
may be mediums of thought, but so are 
many things. So is the theater, the cir- 
cus, and all other shows and spectacles, 
and their performances may be thus 
brought by the like reasoning under the 
same immunity from repression or su- 
pervision as the public press — made the 
same agencies of civil liberty. 

"Counsel have not shrunk from this 
extension of their contention and cite a 
case in this court where the title of 
drama was accorded to pantomime ; and 
such and other spectacles are said by 
counsel to be publications of ideas, satis- 
fying the definition of the dictionaries, — 
that is, and we quote counsel, a means 
of making or announcing publicly some- 
thing that otherwise might have remain- 
ed private or unknown, — and this being 
peculiarly the purpose and effect of mov- 
ing pictures they come directly, it is con- 
tended, under the protection of the Ohio 

"The first impulse of the mind is to 
reject the contention. We immediately 
feel that the argument is wrong or 
strained which extends the guaranties oj 
free opinion and speech to the mult] 
tudinous dhows which arc advertised on 
the billboards of our cities and towns 
and which regards them as emblems <'■ 
public safety, to use the words of Lord 
Camden, quoted by counsel, and which 
seeks to bring motion pictures and other 
spectacles into practical and legal simil 
itude to a free press and liberty of 
opinion. [Italics mine.] 

"The judicial sense supporting the 
common sense of the country is against 
the contention. As pointed out by the 
District Court, the police power is famili- 
arly exercised in granting or withhold- 
ing licenses for theatrical performances 
as a means of their regulation. The 
court cited the following: cases : Marmet 
vs. State, 45 Ohio, 63, 72, 73; Baker vs 
Cincinnati, 11 Ohio St. 534: Common- 
wealth vs. McGann, 213 Massachusetts. 
213, 215; People vs. Steele. 231 Illinois 
340. 344, 345. [Italics mine.] 

"The exercise of the power upon mov- 

Common Welfare 


ing-picture exhibitions has been sustain- 
ed. Greenberg vs. Western Turf Asso- 
ciation, 148 California, 126; Laurelle vs. 
Bush, 17 Cal. App. 409; State vs. Loden, 
117 Maryland, 373; Block vs. Chicago, 
239 Illinois, 251; Higgins vs. Lacroix, 
119 Minnesota, 145. See also State vs. 
Morris, 76 Atl. Rep. 479 ; People vs. Gay- 
nor, 137 N. Y. S. 196, 199; McKenzie 
sir. McClellan, 116 N. Y. S. 645, 646. 

"It seems not to have occurred to any- 
body in the cited cases that freedom of 
opinion was repressed in the exertion of 
the power which was illustrated. The 
rights of property were only considered 
as involved. It cannot be put out of 
view that the exhibition of moving pic- 
tures is a business pure and simple, 
originated and conducted for profit, like 
other spectacles, not to be regarded, not 
intended to be regarded by the Ohio con- 
stitution, we think, as part of the press of 
the country or as organs of public opin- 

'They are mere representations of 
events, of ideas and sentiments publish- 
ed and known, vivid, useful and enter- 
taining no doubt, but, as we have said, 
capable of evil, having power for it, the 
greater because of their attractiveness 
and manner of exhibition. It was this 
capability and power, and it may be in 
experience of them, that induced the 
state of Ohio, in addition to prescribing 
penalties for immoral exhibitions, as it 
does in its criminal code, to require cen- 
sorship before exhibition, as it does by 

the act under review. We cannot re- 
gard this as beyond the power of govern- 

To the well-advertised fact that mo- 
tion pictures are now the ally of the 
churches, the Sunday schools and the 
public schools, the Supreme Court re- 
marks that "it does not militate against 
the strength of these considerations." 

TnAT official censorship may become 
arbitrary, whimsical or capricious or 
at any rate discriminatory against propa- 
gandist^ films does not impress the Su- 
preme Court as likely. 

"The objection to the statute," it says 
"is that it furnishes no standard of 
what is educational, moral, amusing or 
harmless, and hence leaves decision to 
arbitrary judgment, whim and caprice : 
or, aside from those extremes, leaving it 
to the different views which might be 
entertained of the effect of the pictures, 
permitting the 'personal equation' to en- 
ter, resulting 'in unjust discrimination 
against some propagandist film,' while 
others might be approved without ques- 

"But the statute by its provisions 
guards against such variant judgments, 
and its terms, like other general 
terms, get precision from the sense 
and experience of men and become 
certain and useful guides in reasoning 
and conduct. The exact specification of 
the instances of their application would 
be as impossible as the attempt would be 
futile. Upon such sense and experience. 

therefore, the law properly relies." 

Substantially the same views have 
been expressed in unanimous decisions 
by state courts where the same issues 
have been raised." With this array of 
authority for their support, these views 
can hardlv be called "unAmerican." 

Voluntary motion-picture censorship, 
possessing no enforcible powers and de- 
pending on volunteer censors and on the 
consent and contributions of the interests 
censored, has long borne witness to the 
need of some kind of motion-picture cen- 
sorship. So far as this need is real, 
voluntary motion-picture censorship, like 
other forms of vigilance organization, 
must expect to see its extra-legal and 
therefore imperfectly performed func- 
tion undertaken by duly authorized and 
legally equipped governmental agencies. 

2 The Ohio statute provides that "only such 
films as are in the judgment and discretion 
of the board of censors of a moral, edu- 
cational or amusing and harmless charac- 
ter shall be passed and approved by such 
board." The Kansas statute requires the 
censorship authority to approve such films 
as are moral and proper, and to withhold its 
approval from such films as are sacriligious. 
obscene, indecent or immoral or such as 
tend to debase or corrupt the morals. 

'See especially Block vs. Chicago, 239 111. 
251, at pages 262-265 (1909). See also 
Laurelle vs. Bush, 17 Cal. App. 409 (1911), 
State vs. Loden, 117 Maryland 373 (1912) 
and Higgins vs. Lacroix, 119 Minn. 145 at 
pages 150-151 (1912). 


Lincoln Balch 


OGRE AT Republic of the West 
Where North and South and East unite 
In one vast people, richly blest, 

Beneath their starry banner bright, 
With every throb of thy warm heart 
Thank Him who made thee what thou art! 


Arise, O people, strong and great! 

Bid greed of power and pelf depart 
Prom halls of justice and of state — 

From out the forum and the mart- 
For where the people are not heard 
There freedom is an empty word. 


Land where the races blend and melt- 
Dark Latin and blond Teuton meet — 

Land where the Saxon and the Celt 
Fraternally the Hebrew greet, 

From out thy crucible at last 

A compact nation has been cast. 


Prom toiling children strike the chains 
That avarice has shackled there! 

Bid wealth divide with work its gains 
And give the laborer his share! 

So let the torch of knowledge shine 

That all receive its ravs divine. 

Staff of our fathers! shield and sword 

Through stress and storm in days of yore, 

Mighty Jehovah, Saviour, Lord, 

Thy peace ordain, and banish war, 

That we may live life's fleeting span 

Tn one blest Brotherhood of Man ! 


in the 





By Florence L. Sanville 


d SUMMARY of the report and recommendations of the 
Pennsylvania Penal Commission appointed "to con- 
sider the revision and amendment of the penal laws of the 
state, so as to provide for the employment of all inmates 
of all penal institutions ; to provide for compensation for 
their labor, and to devise a system whereby the results of 
such labor shall be utilized in the penal and charitable in- 
stitutions of the state." 

WOULD the state of Pennsyl- 
vania support, or even toler- 
ate within its borders, a sana- 
torium which regularly dis- 
charged into the community, confirmed 
consumptives who had entered the in- 
stitution with merely tubercular tenden- 
cies ? How long would public sentiment 
permit the continuance of a hospital 
which infected more patients than it 
cured? In a whole group of institutions 
supported by the citizens of Pennsyl- 
vania this process is actually being in- 
flicted on a large number of the 10,000 
inmates which form the average popula- 
tion within their walls. 

Several years ago The Survey pub- 
lished a report of the American Prison 
Association which contained the follow- 
ing statement concerning jail condi- 
tions throughout the country : 

"Little children are kept in rooms with 
polluted and diseased adults; a thought- 
less lad is thrust by the hand of our 
country's law in the school of vice and 
crime, taught by trained scoundrels ; a 
girl for venial fault is shut up to her 
damnation for a night with some strum- 
pet; a poor insane victim of brain dis- 
order howls all night in company with 
ruffians ; an honest fellow, unable to pay 
a fine for a spree, is locked in with bur- 
glars and thieves. These are not pictures 
from novels; they are bald prosaic facts 
set down by honest eye-witnesses in an- 
swer to printed questions." 

In other words, the jails were in- 
fection centers. They took relatively 
innocent people and turned them into 
confirmed criminals, in a way that would 
not be permitted in a hospital aiming to 
cure disease. And though conditions 
have improved, many states must still 
plead guilty to the indictment they made. 

The universally conceded purpose of 
prison systems is to lessen crime, — to 
protect the community. Yet, stubbornly 
we have resorted to methods which 
arouse the worst elements in the natures 
of the men and women who are most in 
need of help and guidance. We have 


persistently kept alive and nourished in 
them the spirit of revenge and hatred, 
and then we have set them free to loose 
upon society this stored-up resentment. 
In this perverse policy, no one element 
more effectually breaks up the last foun- 
dation stone of a man's character than 
enforcing idleness upon him. 

Unemployment in the normal free 
world is the most pressing of all eco- 
nomic problems. For the past year, 
city, state, and nation have focused their 
attention upon it. They have recognized 
the double disaster which unemployment 
produces: the social loss which results 
from want and distress in the family, 
and the character loss which is entailed 
by long or frequent periods of idleness 
upon the unemployed man. 

These two reactions are no more true 
of the man arbitrarily deprived of work 
by economic conditions than they are 
true of the man whom the state deliber- 
ately restrains from working as part of 
his punishment for wrongdoing. The 
family of the latter falls just as ready 
prey to want and hunger; his own nature 
is just as warped by enforced idleness. 
But in this case the state invites the very 
conditions which it seeks to overcome in 
the community at large. Warden 
Francies of Western Penitentiary is 
quoted in a recent interview as saying: 
"If you're ever going to reform such 
people, you must feed them properly 
first, then put them to work, and when 
as a result of these two things they im- 
prove physically and mentally, then go 
after improving their morals." 

There are in Pennsylvania two state 
penitentiaries, a reformatory for adult 
males, and 70 county jails. In addition, 
there are 4 institutions for juvenile de- 
linquents. Of the two state institutions, 
one has the splendid record of keeping 
91.4 per cent of its total inmates at work. 
— 35 per cent of these, being employed 
on articles for sale, the remainder large- 
ly being employed in erecting the build- 
ings of their now institution. The 

other penitentiary gives 17 per cent of 
its prisoners work for sale, thus falling 
short by 18 per cent of the amount to 
which they are legally entitled, under 
the terms of an act to be described later. 

Among the county institutions, 42. 
more than one-half, keep their victims 
in complete idleness. Five make goods 
for sale, and the remainder usually em- 
ploy their inmates in institutional work 
of some description. The character of 
the goods made for sale is confined to 
chair caning, carpet and rug weaving, 
broom and brush making, a small amount 
of cloth weaving and knitting of stock- 
ings for prisoners, and the quarrying 
and breaking of stone. 

The possibilities of work for the in- 
stitution itself are much more varied, 
ranging through the whole field of 
household, farm and garden, and skilled 
occupations. The scope of this labor 
depends, most naturally, on the size and 
location of the institution. A city house 
of correction keeps a number of its in- 
mates at work manufacturing gas for 
city consumption, and employs practical- 
ly all the rest in stable work, horseshoe- 
ing, farm work, painting, tailoring, 
household work, laundering, baking, etc. 

Two upstate county jails, both near 
fair-sized cities, use 90 to 95 per cent 
of their prisoners as tailors, boiler 
tenders, gardeners, and in making sheets 
and towels, repairing clothing and mak- 
ing shoes; a second is able to keep three- 
quarters of its inmates busy in this way. 

Out of the 73 institutions, it is 
possible to find perhaps a half dozen in 
which the great majority of inmates are 
provided with some employment. There 
are. in addition to this group, another 
half dozen county prisons which give 
work to from one-third to three-fourths 
of their inmates. The Huntington Re- 
formatory for males provides, to be 
sure, regular trade instruction for 90 
per cent of its inmates. But. under the 
present system, the instruction consists 
of building a wall only to knock it dov 

Thk Survbv. April 24. 1918 

Social Legislation in the Keystone State 


again ; constructing a house, only to de- 
stroy it — a process no less wasteful of 
material and energy than it is of char- 

All of these institutions together, with 
the Western Penitentiary, house 2,238 
of the 8,355 adult prisoners in the state. 

What tortures of enforced idleness 
have been and are being inflicted on the 
0,000 unfortunates who are in the other 

The word torture is not too strong to 
apply to forcibly keeping a man or 
woman day after day, week after week, 
and unending months or years without 
occupation or interest. The cumulative 
effect is no less maddening to the aver- 
age human being than is some terrible 
experience of fright or physical suffer- 

Lai^s on Prison Labor 

It is estimated that no state in the 
nation has so many unemployed prison- 
ers as Pennsylvania. The state now sup- 
ports in complete idleness thousands of 
able-bodied men who might be contribut- 
ing to, or wholly defraying, the expense 
of their maintenance. Meanwhile the 
families of these men are largely de- 
pendent upon public or private charity. 

We have thus succeeded, in this trav- 
esty of an effort to reduce crime, 
both in breaking down the self-respect 
of the family, and in destroying in the 
breadwinner the desire or ability for 
steady work after his release. This 
seems to be the net profit of the half- 
million dollars of public money invested 
yearly in the maintenance of prisoners 
under the present system in the county 

One of the obstacles in the path of 
employment for the inmates of the pris- 
ons in Pennsylvania is the existing law, 
enacted in 1897 and amended in 1899, 
which prohibits the employment of more 
than 35 per cent of the inmates of any 
state or county institution in the mak- 
ing of goods for sale — without pro- 
viding any alternative method of gen- 
eral employment. This act, in conjunc- 
tion with the present restricted oppor- 
tunities for institutional work in the 
county jails, effectually operates to 
thwart the efforts of any enlightened 
warden toward relieving the sufferings 
of his charges. 

There is a later act, passed in 1907. 
which opens up employment on the high- 
ways for able-bodied men in jails and 
workhouses. However, only 3 *ut of 
the 67 counties of the state, have taken 
advantage of this opportunity. 

The compensation of prisoners for 
their work seems to be provided for by 
two enactments, which will not bear too 
great scrutiny. The first, passed in 
1883, provides that quarterly wages shall 
be fixed by the authorities of each in- 
stitution and that the dependents of a 
prisoner shall receive whatever is left of 
these after board, lodging, food, and 
the costs of trial are paid. The ray of 

hope for the needy family of a prisoner 
is dim indeed, when the limitation of 
occupation and the restricted number of 
men allowed to work are taken into ac- 

In 1913, an act was passed which pro- 
vided that wages of 65 cents a day 
should be paid to the dependents of all 
prisoners sentenced to hard labor, any 
discrepancy between the value of their 
labor and this wage to be met by the 
county from which the prisoner was 
committed. The emptiness of this prom- 
ise is revealed each time the judges re- 
call, in pronouncing sentence, that no 
labor at all is available in most prisons. 
Hence it is that, as is recorded in the 
supplement of the Journal of Prison 
Discipline for October, 1914, only four 
counties in the state report a compliance 
with this law. The Eastern Penitentiary 
possesses a sustained scale of rates and 
system of wage payments. 1 

This situation appears exactly to 
parallel the condition in most of the 
states of the nation. As the result of 
a study of this feature which was made 
by the Penal Commission of Pennsyl- 
vania, it appears that 34 states provide 
some sort of compensation. Some pro- 
vide it only for overwork, some only 
to those who work on public roads, ail 
limit it to prisoners in institutions con- 
ducted by the state itself. Here again, 
as in the case of the insane, there is the 
breaking-up of what should be a co- 
herent state-wide policy into discon- 
nected, decentralized fragments, with as 
many standards as there are institutions. 
Yet the character of a man who falls 
from grace in Bucks County is as worth 
rebuilding as the man who does a wrong 
deed in Chester County. 

The Penal Commission of Pennsyl- 
vania, after its study of the situation in 
our own state, comes to the conclusion 
that the real cause for the idleness im- 
posed upon prisoners in the county jails 
lies in the nature of the institutions 
themselves, rather than in any laws 
which seem to offer a barrier to regular 

In the eighteenth century this same 
truth was found to apply to the jails of 
England, and Elizabeth Fry at that time 
carved her channel of reform at once 
in the direction of centralizing control 
under the government. This policy has 
been steadily developing in England 
since her time, until in 1878 the central 
government assumed entire control of 
the jails of the country. In the United 
States the same tendency is now appar- 
ent, and nine states have taken the first 
steps toward the establishment or de- 
velopment of state industrial farms. 

There are two controlling reasons 
which are leading the states to take 
away from the various localities the 
burden of care for the delinquents. In 

'The Allegheny County Workhouse paid 
over $7,400 to the probation officer of the 
county as prisoners' wages under this act 
in 1914. 

the first place, the county represents too 
small a unit of prison administration to 
afford adequate opportunities of work, 
exercise and trade instruction. The in- 
vestigations of the Penal Commission 
have revealed that 40 out of the 70 
county jails in Pennsylvania had, in 
September, 1914, fewer than 30 inmates. 
Many of these institutions had in fact 
only two or three prisoners, and some 
had none at all. A concentration of 
these institutions in adjoining counties, 
so that a single one under state control 
would suffice for a number of localities, 
is the reasonable foundation for an 
economical and result-achieving pro- 

It is assumed that such concentration 
cannot be carried on ad infinitum. 
When institutions combine to the extent 
of bringing too many individuals under 
one management, an anti-climax in effi- 
ciency and economy follows ; the pro- 
cess has gone on until it has defeated 
its own ends. This is the situation 
which would be created if the present 
Legislature should see fit to enact into 
law a recent bill which provides for the 
combining of the Eastern and Western 
Penitentiaries into one institution. No 
such unwieldy machine as this can 
operate effectively, and it is greatly to 
be hoped that the Legislature will re- 
fuse to create it. 

A second cause of the distressing con- 
ditions which have been found to exist 
in many county jails is the lack of wise 
and efficient management. This is an- 
other logical result of the restricted re- 
sources of small institutions. The 
sheriff, who usually represents the man- 
agement of most of these jails, is justly 
declared to be chosen for every other 
reason than his ability to run an insti- 
tution. The uncertain duration of his 
term of office precludes any inducement 
toward developing a permanent, pro- 
gressive policy. Even less can be ex- 
pected of the occasional keeper whose 
low pay and restricted opportunities 
scarcely invite a man of large capacity. 

The Penal Commission 

It was to study this situation that the 
Penal Commission was appointed by the 
governor of Pennsylvania in June, 1914. 
in accordance with an act of the Legis- 
lature of 1913. With only seven months 
in which to do its work, and with only 
$5,000 at its disposal, it has nevertheless 
presented a convincing statement to the 
Legislature at its present session. 

The commission has recognized em- 
ployment as the basic factor in fashion- 
ing a program for better things. The 
six methods of prison employment 
known or practiced in the United States 
are the lease system, the contract sys- 
tem, the piece-price system, the public 
account system, the public works and 
ways system, and the state use system. 
The first two methods the commission 
summarily dismisses from its considera- 
tion. In both, the contractors assume 


The Survey, April 24, 1915 

entire control of the labor of the con- 
victs — under the first method even feed- 
ing and housing them; the profits go to 
the contractor. The state account sys- 
tem already is in operation in Pennsyl- 
vania under the acts referred to. Since 
the commission recognizes the iniquity 
of any plan that places the product of 
prison labor on the open market in com- 
petition with free labor, it confines its at- 
tention to the two systems free from this 
universally repudiated element, namely, 
;he public works and ways system and 
the state use system. 

The first of these offers only a re- 
stricted field of employment on streets, 
highways and other public works. It 
therefore lacks the character re-forming 
features of more widely varied occupa- 
tions, and also possesses the undesirable 
element of exposing "prison gangs" to 
the humiliation of the general public 
gaze while they are at work. 

The State Use System 

The state use system alone seems to 
provide for employment which, by its 
wide variety, accomplishes the double 
purpose of reformation of the prisoner 
and economy to the state. Under this 
system the state itself employs the 
prisoners and uses the products of their 
labor either in the various departments 
of government or in the public institu- 
tions under the direction of the state or 
its various political subdivisions. It is 
like the state account system, except 
that the goods made are consumed only 
in state institutions, instead of being sold 
in the open market. 

In the organizing of such a system, 
obvious problems lea]) into being. What 
institution shall produce which things? 
Who shall determine the variety and 
the style of these things? Who shall 
plan the methods of production and set 
the price? The determination of these 
points rests largely on whether the type 
of administration which is chosen for 
the institutions is centralized or de- 
centralized. Under the former type, 
one board has the management of all 
state institutions, sometimes including 
hospitals and asylums as well ; under 
the latter, each institution is conducted 
under its own board of control. 

The first plan is followed in Ohio to 
its full extent : Massachusetts follows 
it so far as prisons alone are concerned. 
In New Jersey the prisons are. like 
those of Pennsylvania, conducted under 
separate boards. In developing a state 
use system there it seemed wiser, there- 
fore, to avoid complicated machinery bj 
creating a board representing both the 
consuming and producing interests, 
through the representation of both 
classes of institutions or state activities. 
This would seem to be the simplest 
course for Pennsylvania to follow. 
' A gloomy walled-in structure covering 

all of the appropriated land does not 
offer any opportunity to practice such a 
system as has been suggested here. 
Gray cell blocks must give way to brown 
earth and green fields. The city prison 
must disappear and the industrial or 
penal farm take its place. These farms 
are in successful operation in our own 
country as well as in Europe. 

The whole history of prison legisla- 
tion in Pennsylvania demonstrates that, 
logically and chronologically, we have 
arrived at the moment for the next step. 
The development of public sentiment in 
the treatment of criminals falls into 
three periods in Pennsylvania's history, 
dating from the old colonial days of 
1676. Between that date and 1818, the 
penal system of the state was repre- 

Program presented to the Legislature 

by the Pennsylvania Penal 


These measures provide in sub- 
stance : 

That the inmates of the Eastern 
Penitentiary, the Western Peni- 
tentiary and the Huntington Re- 
formatory be employed under the 
so-called state use system ; 

That the inmates of tlicse three 
institutions be paid a leayc vary- 
ing from io to 50 cents a day; 

That six industrial farms be 
established to take the place of 
county jails for the detention of 
prisoners sentenced by courts of 
record. The commission would ex- 
tend to these institutions, once 
they are established, the state use 
system of employment and the rate 
of compensation mentioned in the 
preceding paragraph ; 

That a moderate sized farm be 
purchased for the use of the East- 
ern Penitentiary ; 

As some time must elapse before 
the establishment of the state in- 
dustrial farm, the commission fur- 
ther recommends that county in- 
stitutions be allowed to produce 
goods for the county or for any 
county institutions. 

sented by gaols and local prisons. These 
were the days when the public was re- 
galed by the spectacle of offenders in 
stocks and pillories. Although the law 
imposed penalties of hard labor, there 
was no system of labor provided. 

By an act of 1790, the inmates were 
to be kept "to labor of the hardest and 
most servile kind, in which the work is 
least liable to be spoiled by ignorance, 
neglect or obstinacy, and where the ma- 
terials are not easily embezzled or de- 
stroyed." This act marked the real be- 
ginning of prison labor, but the reforma- 
tory element in its provisions was all but 
hidden in the obvious intention to in- 

flict punishment as a deterrent to crime. 

The second period, 1818 to 1871, rep- 
resents the development of the peniten- 
tiary idea on the principle of solitary 
confinement rigidly enforced. In the 
last year of the sixties the congregation 
of prisoners was allowed in Western 
Penitentiary "for the purpose of labor, 
learning tend religious services," and 
the door was thus open for the extension 
of prison labor under the factory sys- 

The birth of the principle of reforma- 
tion among wrong-doers was marked by 
the establishment of Huntington Re 
formatory in the year 1881. Here at 
last it was written into law that the 
employment of inmates was to be of a 
character which would be "useful after 

From then until the present day this 
idea has been gaining the ascendency, 
culminating in the acts of 1911 and 1913. 
In these two years the Legislature 
granted authority for the purchase of 
a tract in a rural district to take the 
place of the Western Penitentiary, and 
provided that the inmates should as far 
as possible conduct the work of the in- 
stitution and that necessary livestock 
and farming implements should be pur- 

Sign-Posts of Progress 

The prisoners are now engaged in 
erecting the buildings of their new insti- 
tution. All the energy and good sense 
that there is in the commonwealth should 
be directed toward preventing the 
calamity of compelling these men to 
build cell blocks for the incarceration 
of themselves and their erring brothers 
of the future. If Rellefonte is to mean 
anything, it must be a sign post pointing 
away from the cell blocks of Pennsyl- 
vania's past to the homelike cottages of 
the future which will call out of a man 
all his deeper yearnings for a normal 
life, and all his determination to win 
that life back. 

With the further provision by the 
Legislature of 1913 for a State Indus- 
trial Home for Women the fact has 
been completely established that the in- 
dustrial reformatory principle has come 
to Pennsylvania to stay. 

Thus through the years there has been 
growing in the Keystone State, slowly 
but irresistibly, a clearer recognition of 
society's relation to the wrong-doer. 
And row we have the crystallization of 
this slow-dawning conception in the 
concrete program presented to the pres- 
ent Legislature by the Pennsylvania 
Penal Commission. 

The enactment of the proposed meas- 
ures into law would not plunge Penn- 
sylvania into new and untried ways. It 
would simply fuse into a permanent and 
consistent policy, the various wise but 
sporadic acts which she has taken dur- 
ing more recent years, 

Baltimore 1890-1915 

A Retrospect and a 

Kate M. Mc Lane 


TWENTY-SIX years ago the late 
John Glenn, then chairman of 
the executive committee of the 
Baltimore Charity Organization 
Society, went to the sixteenth National 
Conference of Charities and Correction 
in San Francisco, and urged the con- 
ference to hold its seventeenth meeting 
in the leading southern city on the At- 
lantic seaboard. 

Although physically handicapped by 
blindness, Mr. Glenn was gifted with un- 
usual intellectual and spiritual farsight- 
edness. With prophetic vision he fore- 
saw what a quickening effect the ses- 
sions of such a body would have on the 
then small contingent of Baltimore char- 
itable workers. His judgment was jus- 
tified by events. Much of the philan- 
thropic and educational development of 
the past quarter-century in Maryland 
can be traced to that 1890 meeting and 
to its influence on those Baltimore men 
and women who were committed to 
sound social service principles. 

The questions that social workers 
planning to come to Baltimore next 
month might ask are : What can Mary- 
land offer me educationally, and Has 
Maryland made any special contribution 
to social work? They might also ask: 
What is Maryland doing which ought 
not to be done? We often learn as 
much from the mistakes as from the 
successes of life. 

Maryland is making two contributions 
of real value to social work. The state 
cares for her insane in a comprehen- 
sive, merciful and scientific way, and 

through co-operation between private 
and public agencies, she is rapidly es- 
tablishing a high standard of care for 
her children, normal, dependent and de- 
linquent. This work for children is 
done in the face of the depressing fact 
that only in Baltimore and in a few pro- 
gressive counties is there any pretense 
of a standard for literacy or for school 

In 1890 the Henry Watson Children's 
Aid Society of the city of Baltimore 
was a small private endowment, greatly 
in need of vivification. Today it is an 
enlightened child-saving and child-plac- 
ing agency, with a broad and construc- 
tive program for statewide child wel- 
fare work. The realignment of the 
Henry Watson Children's Aid Society 
on modern principles dates from 1898 
when Mary Willcox Brown (now Mrs. 
John M. Glenn) became its general sec- 
retary. Recently the society has extend- 
ed its work into four counties that in- 
clude some large towns. It aims to make 
the child a normal center of all social 
agencies in a county. Excepting Massa- 
chusetts, I believe that no other state 
has such a logical plan for saving the 
dependent child for future productive 

To quote a letter from its general sec- 
retary : 

"The state of Maryland has never 
assumed its responsibility for the de- 
pendent and neglected child beyond 
its well-known subsidy system to pri- 
vate institutions. These subsidies con- 
sist of small lump sum appropriations. 

made every two years by the Legisla- 
ture. The institutions receiving these 
appropriations are nearly all located 
in Baltimore city or its vicinity. With 
the exception of two or three of the 
larger towns in the state, no effort had 
been made in the counties up to 1911 
to meet and solve the family problems 
and the child problems which were 
responsible for the ever-increasing 
neglect and impoverishment of child 

"To meet this need the Henry Wat- 
son Children's Aid Society, limited by 
its charter to Baltimore city, brought 
about the organization of the Mary- 
land Children's Aid Society with a 
view to establishing in each county at 
the earliest possible moment a local 
agency under the leadership of a 
trained social worker to prevent de- 
pendency, disease and crime by giv- 
ing or securing the proper treatment 
to each child in trouble ; and to pro- 
mote local interest in matters per- 
taining to child welfare. Frederick, 
Baltimore, Harford and Talbot Coun- 
ties have been organized to deal di 
rectly with the problems of relief, 
parental responsibility, and with phy- 
sical and mental defectives, etc. 

"Probation is being extended in 
these counties to boys and girls who 
have committed minor offenses, while 
commitment to county jails and state 
prisons is being eliminated altogether. 
The conditions which have been 
studied and the results obtained in 
child care in these selected areas mark 
the way for the complete organization 
of the state by establishing in each 
governing unit a local organization 
under the direction of a .trained so- 
cial worker." 



The Survey, April 24, 1915 

Although Maryland still unwisely and 
wastefully neglects the social needs of 
her colored population (we have prac- 
tically no provision for the colored tu- 
berculous), few states now provide bet- 
ter or friendlier care for the majority of 
its insane, both white and black. The 
problems of education and of the right 
limits for physical restraint have always 
presented difficulties, even to advanced 
alienists, for the care of the mentally 

I have no recollection of any more 
pathetic groups of human wreckage 
than the pauper insane at Bay View, the 
Baltimore city almshouse, or of those in 
the county almshouses before the days 
of "reform." The general conditions 
have been revolutionized at Bay View 
under the enlightened and non-political 
Board of Supervisors of City Charities 
(new city charter, 1898). 

Moreover, within the last five years, 
through generous state appropriations 

the Johns Hopkins Medical School and 
Hospital and of such other private sana- 
toria as the Sheppard and Enoch Pratt 
Hospital. Today a large percentage of 
the state insane patients are made con- 
tented and tractable by varied occupa 
tions under trained instructors. The 
latest development is that of gardening 
and farming for women, both at Spring 
Grove and at Crownsville. 

Maryland gives her colored insane the 
best care provided by any state. At the 
Crownsville institution for the colored 
insane — on a large farm — provision is 
being made for some tuberculous patients 
and some epileptics. Only two other 
hospitals on similar lines antedate 
Crownsville ; one at Petersburg, Va., 
and one at Goldston, N. C. The illus- 
trations show graphically the change 
within recent years from cruel treat- 
ment and neglect to modern scientific 

Maryland has no provision for feeble- 

receipts from the state. The cost of 
such local charities, on any principle of 
sound economics, should be paid for by 
Baltimore taxpayers and philanthropists, 
and should not be taken out of the gen- 
eral tax levy. Perhaps the conference 
will show us how the more advanced 
communities meet this problem. 

There is no better way to show the 
growth of Maryland and Baltimore, 
since 1890, in charitable methods and 
in a community sense of duty, than to 
name the most useful and virile charit- 
able movements that have come into life 
or greatly enlarged their service since 
the conference last met in Baltimore. 

In 1890 the new Baltimore Charity 
Organization Society, with no material 
relief fund (organized 1883) and the 
old Association for the Improvement of 
the Condition of the Poor, the relief- 
giving body (organized 1849) looked 
askance at each other, and as events 
proved, became quite unable to handle 


At the left, a glimpse of Maryland of the past — a crowded county almshouse with insane women sleeping on straw 
in the corridor. At the right, outdoor games for women patients at the Springfield State Hospital. 


and revised legal powers, our able state 
Board of Lunacy has established at the 
four state hospitals for the insane, and 
at Rosewood State School for the 
Feeble-minded, the most advanced medi- 
cal and scientific care and treatment. 
They have introduced at all the institu- 
tions a wide range of occupations, in- 
doors and out, for both male and female 

At the Spring Grove State Hospital, 
Catonsville, at the Springfield State 
Hospital, Sykesville, at the Eastern 
Shore State Hospital, Cambridge (open- 
ed March, 1915), and at the Crownsville 
Hospital for the colored insane of both 
sexes in Anne Arundel County, Maryland 
now does her full duty to her insane 
citizens. The latest addition is the 
Hubner Psychopathic Hospital at 
Springfield, to be dedicated June 9. 

No longer are there insane paupers 
at the Maryland county almshouses. By 
July of this year the Baltimore city alms- 
house will be relieved of all its insane 
inmates. Before 1916, all criminal in- 
sane will be under proper state care and 
not in penitentiary or house of correc- 
tion. The good work of the state Board 
of Lunacy has been aided in its educa- 
tion of a right public opinion by the 
psychiatric and mental hygiene work of 

minded women ; practically none for her 
epileptics, and most inadequate provision 
for feebleminded children. 

Our state finances suffer, as do the 
finances of many states, from insidious 
abuse in connection with state care of 
the insane, — from the failure, due partly 
to our laws and partly to a dormant pub- 
lic conscience, of public authorities to 
collect from well-to-do relatives and 
friends of patients either the whole or 
a portion of their maintenance cost. 
Nor is it only for the care of the insane 
that the state is mulcted. The report 
of Maryland's state comptroller for 
1914 shows an expenditure of many 
thousands of dollars, over and above 
state receipts, for charitable, correction- 
al and educational purposes. The next 
Legislature will be forced by economic 
pressure to heed the oft-repeated ad- 
vice of the State Aid and Charities Com- 

Two old-established abuses, rooted in 
vicious political methods, are the custom 
of continuing appropriations to private 
local institutions and the habit of mak- 
ing state appropriations to various Balti- 
more city charities which have no logical 
claim on the state treasury. A number 
of admirable Baltimore private charities 
get annually a lar^e percentage of their 

needy cases in the effective way which 
their final consolidation in 1908 has made 

In 1890 there was no Instructive Visit- 
ing Nurse Association; no Babies' Milk 
Fund Society (a recent outgrowth of 
the summer work of the Thomas Wil- 
son Sanatorium and of other local 
groups); no Association for the Pre 
vention and Relief of Tuberculosis; no 
state or private war of anj sort on 
tuberculosis; no hospital social service 
work. We had no Playground Associa- 
tion, or Public Athletic League, or Bo\ 
.scouts. Fresh-air work was in its in- 
fancy. There was no Juvenile Court ; 
no Social Hygiene Committee, or that 
admirable new Mental Hygiene Commit- 
tee. The Jewish Charities had not yet 
federated, although the Hebrews then 
as now cared tor their own needy cases 
The St. Vincent de Paul Conferences 
were still curiously indifferent to sound 
principles of relief and co-operation. 

In 1890 the city was still making lump 
sum appropriations to private hospitals 
and other charitable institutions without 
any supervision oi inmates or expendi- 
ture, a practice which was ended by the 
provisions in the Charter of 1898 creat- 
ing the Board >^' Supervisors of Cit\ 
t barities. 

Baltimore 1890-1915 


In 1890 we had no state Board of 
Health. In Baltimore there was only 
a small annual appropriation for a 
politically appointed, and sanitarily 
ignorant, city Health Department. We 
had no Social Service Club; and no 
Men's City Club or Women's Civic 
League, with weekly lunch lectures on 
social topics. 

The leading private benefaction for 
Maryland's sick poor, without regard to 
race or color, is Johns Hopkins Hos- 
pital, with its incomparable Medical 
School, and now with its Social Service 
Department of many paid and volunteer 
workers. It was the Johns Hopkins 
Hospital authorities, led by Dr. Charles 
Emerson, who years ago made clear 
both to medical and lay workers the inti- 
mate co-opeiation that should exist be- 
tween the medical and the charitable ex- 
pert. The section on health of the 1915 
conference should both give and receive 
inspiration in the Johns Hopkins Social 
Service Department. 

As we hark back twenty-five years, 
and compare the present keen public in- 
terest in social questions with the then 
indifference of the general public, — if 
we measure the meager attendance in 
past decades of the faithful few (fifty 
to a hundred) on carefully planned meet- 
ings, with the large attendance of twelve 
io fifteen hundred persons, of all ages 
and conditions, who heard Edward T. 
Devine's six lectures in March on The 
Normal Life of Man, we realize how 
wonderfully the Baltimore of today has 
justified the teachings and devotion of 
her charitable and educational leaders of 
the past. The day that Daniel C. Gil- 
inan, president of the Johns Hopkins 
University, became president of the 
Baltimore Charity Organization So- 
ciety, a community consciousness of so- 
cial duty was stirred. 

The enormous increase in expendi- 
tures — and debts — in charitable work- 
gives the judicious cause for reflection. 
Baltimore is not without her experi- 
ences, which have this year led to a 
federation of some eight charitable 
agencies, with a constitution and good 
intentions that promise results. 

The personality of the sponsors 
back of the young United Charities 
(this name is only tentative) gives 
hope that this new Baltimore venture 
in philanthropic co-operation will prove 
effective, and set the pace for other com- 
munities seeking efficiency and economy 
of effort in charity work. The new fed 
eration is based specifically on the de- 
sine for a better understanding, and 
closer working relations, among social 
service agencies. The United Charities 
has an open door and a ready welcome, 
at any time, for societies whose stand- 
ards meet the accepted requirements. 

There is one phase of Baltimore's 
charitable organization, which, promi- 
nent in 1890, has in all these years dis- 
tinguished the community ; that is, the 
many groups of volunteers active in the 
Federated Charities, in the Hospital So- 
cial Service, in Johns Hopkins Hospital, 
in the student bodies of Johns Hopkins 
University and Goucher College, in the 
St. Vincent de Paul Society, and in 
various Protestant churches. The sure 
foundation of this helpful and friendly 
service is the old gospel of painstaking 

case work for needy individuals and 
family units, preached in season and out 
of season for thirty years by the leaders 
of organized charity. 

I quote here a paragraph written by 
a leading volunteer worker with an inti- 
mate knowledge of social work in Bos- 
ton, New York and the West : 

"In 1890 when the organized chanty 
movement was in its infancy, the same 
group of men who brought the seven- 
teenth annual Conference of Charities 
and Correction to Baltimore and pre- 
pared Baltimore to receive it and 
profit by it, had seven years before 
started the first Charity Organization 
Society and were still giving largely 
of their time and money to keep it 

"Twenty-five years has seen a 
steady and wholesome development of 
organized charity in Baltimore. The 
sound principle of careful inquiry and 
adequate treatment by trained work- 
ers in all cases of distress is very gen- 
erally recognized as the only right 
method of charitable relief, and the 
confidence of the public in the Fed- 
erated Charities ( practically the suc- 
cessor to the Charity Organization 
Society) is shown by the fact that in 
all times of unusual distress no new 
agency has been required. 

"We count ourselves fortunate that 
we have gone through the past winter, 
with its pressure of unemployment, 
without those emergency measures 
which most large American cities 
have had to inaugurate. A large Fed- 
erated Charities Confidential Ex- 
change is widely used, and co-opera- 
lion among agencies is in a highly 
satisfactory condition. 

"[•Tom the splendid example of that 
C.O.S. group of 1890 has sprung a 
tradition of volunteer service which 
has grown with the years, so that 
Baltimore today stands second to none 
but Boston in the number of those 
volunteers who are giving valuable 
volunteer assistance in the work of 
family rehabilitation." 

The Baltimore method of dealing with 
beggars and vagrants is new and novel, 
in that it guarantees to every mendicant 
a square deal and humane treatment. 
At the same time, it has been gradually 
working since its adoption in July, 1912, 

children's AID SOCIETY 

toward the removal of the ne'er-do-well 
from the streets. Other cities have 
since adopted the scheme, adapting it to 
their special needs. The plan provides 
a squad of plain-clothes mendicancy offi- 
cers, whose function is not, as hereto- 
fore, to arrest but to remove from the 
streets all beggars by conducting them 
to their homes, and all vagrants by con- 
ducting them for detention to the police 
station, at once notifying the Federated 
Charities, the Federated Jewish Chari- 
ties or the St. Vincent de Paul Society, 
as the case requires. 

The proper charity organization 
promptly takes up the case of the beggar 
as a resident Baltimorian, and of the 
vagrant as a homeless man, securing to 
each relief, disciplinary or other treat- 
ment, according to his needs, with a view 
to proper care or rehabilitation. The 
public authorities and private charities 
have been doing team-work, so much so 
that Baltimore has gone through the 
strain and stress of war and industrial 
depression of the last two years with 
fewer mendicants than ever before, and 
with practically no bread lines, no march- 
ing of the so-called unemployed. 

The past winter has tried and tested 
throughout the cities of the United 
States theories and customs of relief. 
The worldwide disturbance due to the 
war in Europe and consequent industrial 
disturbance at home have forced social 
workers to look at their problems from 
a wider horizon than that of city or 
state, and to question whether too much 
of our money and energy have not gone 
into palliative rather than into prevent- 
ive measures. The socialization of the 
American community on a much wider 
scale than at present should appeal to 
the social worker with moving power. 

Maryland's development in charitable 
activity has been furthered by cognate 
development in less specific charitable 
work. Agitation for the protection of 
women and children, and for the work- 
ing classes generally, has resulted in a 
fair child labor law, uncommonly well 
administered ; in a ten-hour law for 
women ; in a workman's compensation 
law ; and in a distinct voluntary move- 
ment toward the socialization of busi- 
ness, indicated by some welfare secre- 
taries in large industrial plants. 

Agitation in favor of the wider use 
of schools and school buildings has 
brought us school attendance officers, 
medical inspectors of schools, and some 
school nurses. A municipal dance hall, 
under charge of the Playground Asso 
ciation, promises still more recreational 
opportunities under both private and 
public control. Socialization of the 
churches is indicated by the recently or- 
ganized Social Service Commission of 
the Episcopal Church. Women's suff 
rage clubs have forced into public notice 
certain troublesome social problems, 
which less radical societies might have 
let lie, like the proverbial sleeping dogs. 

In a word, Baltimore's community 
conscience has been touched by the same 
influences that have stirred other com- 
munities. The speakers on the confer- 
ence program will find audiences ready 
to respond to every question that af- 
fects the individual need or the com- 
munity's duty. Baltimore has but one 
word for the conference — that word is 

Four Poems of the Workday 


BEYOND the bleak space of the wintry common 
Sprawls the dark body of the mills, as shapeless 
As some defeated monster stretched along 
Beneath the chilly sunset. But the chimneys 
Still spout their inky fumes, that stream across 
Like the foul ghost of the monster taking flight. 
And the same blast that harries the smoke above 
Darkens the snow of the common with hurrying feet 
Of the men who have set their blackened faces homeward. 
Like a cloud they sweep across the floor of the common 
And straight are scattered down sidestreet and alley. 
Home ! home ! and two long nights for bones that ache 
Before the gray dawn of the Monday morning ! 
The granaries overflow. Six mortal days 
The earth has labored, adding strength to strength, 
And pain to pain, to win them food and shelter, 
Till there is made provision for one day 
And a brief truce with that devouring monster. 

Joseph Warren Beach. 


SAW ye a white ghost, lifting o'er the fields at noon '! 
Saw ye a hurt wraith on the hills at night ? 
Heard ye the sobbing, like a dead lute-player's mating 
Heard ye the foot-falls, on the rose-blooms white :' 

Saw ye a white ghost? ay, it was the heart of me 

Threading its fingers through the grass I may not 

Setting its foot where my worn foot may never be, 
(Worn with the travail of the swinging wheel.) 

Haunting the roadside, see! our longings leap and run; 

Haunting the wayside, our feet slip out and play; 
Setting our feet to race against the flying sun, 

Slipping our fingers through the fingers of the day. 

Felt ye within doors, a breath upon your hearth at night \ 
Saw ye a white mist at your ingleside .' 

'Twas but the little ghost (all that's free of me to go) 
Ghost of my soul — for my soul long since has died. 

Mary Carolyn Davies. 


TWILIGHT still in the north 
As the early local slowed, 
And I watched them streaming forth 
Where the station lights still glowed. 
Not the cheerful, chattering throng 
That the fast 8 :3'0 brings. 
Never a snatch of song — 
Never a step that rings. 
Feet that plod along, 
Faces wan and grey, 
Never a lighted eye! 

Youth and age pass by. 

Youth, that has spent in toll 

For pleasure brief, the dole 

Of sleep — of sleep and rest. 

A grey-beard, shabbily drest. 

A girl-face, ghastly beneath the smears 

Of red, to hide the ravage of tears. 

(0, for the lilt of a song 

From one as they hurry along!) 

They plod along to work 

Through a hard and dreary day 

That other women may shirk 

Through an idle, golden day. 

(Shall I ever again be gay. 1 ) 

< hi to a long day's strife. — 

To feed a machine's great maw, 

A cruel iron jaw, 

Beady to crush out a life 

If a motion be forgot. — 

Eyes heavy, dull head hot, 

In a crowded shop, to serve 

A restless, careless throng. 

Heedless of aching nerve. 

They should be laughing, glad, 
( her the new-born day. 
God weeps to see them sad! 
Ah, man has taken away 
God's gift, his brother's day! 

There, in the Fast, the Sun! 
What tho' the night be longl 
My night of doubt is done. 
Mankind shall right the wrong! 

Mary T. Richardson 


FOG filled with dust, 
Rain full of smoke, 
Air bearing vapors that stifle and choke; 

Odors of must 
Drenched with wet steam, 

Puffed from the stacks shooting flames of red 
gleam ; 

Tricklings of rust, 

Leaked through the roof, 

Rotting men's garments the warp from tho woof. 

Then a young face freshly touched by the rain, 
Moulded in sorrow and sweetened by pain, 
Looks shyly in through the wide-open door, 
Waiting for father, at work down the floor. 
And when he sees her and notes how the boys 
Gaze in delight till their staring annoys. 
Quickly he goes to the child of his heart, 


Hungrily kisses her, bids her depart. 
Then walking back with the basket she's brought. 
Works with the joy that her coming has wrought; 
All is more bright in the mill than before, 
When he remembers that smile at the door. 

What if tho dust, 
Odors of must, 

Rise from the flames that shoot out their red 
gleam ? 

What if the smoke, 

Fire-fumes that choke 

All afternoon bring their stilling steam? 

For he is thinking of home through the rain. 
Where a young face at the clear window pane 
Watches at evening, as one long before 
Watched for the father and smiled at the door. 

M \IM 1 BINE Swi'lNV Mil l.KK. 

Tin- Si i:\r\. April 24, 1MB 





The prevention of disease and 
the conservation of human life are clear- 
ly too great a task for individual effort. 
Some form of social machinery is an 
obvious necessity. 

If our conceptions of present condi- 
tions and future possibilities are vague, 
it is not strange that the organizations 
and methods by which this knowledge is 
to be utilized, should be equally vague, 
largely accidental in origin, and based 
on temporary needs and considerations, 
rather than on any broad principles or 
critical analysis of the situation. 

Increased interest in public health and 
increased efforts to improve sanitary 
conditions, have led to the organization 
of many societies and bodies interested 
in special phases of the public health 
campaign. There is danger of present 
interest leading to over-organization and 
over-development of unnecessary socie- 
ties with overlapping and interfering 
functions, leading to the duplication of 
machinery, the incurring of unnecessary 
expense and confusion in the public 
mind as to the relation between different 
organizations interested in this cam- 

The manner in which these bodies 
have been organized is much the same. 
A small number of men and women, 
especially interested in some particular 
problem, have become impressed with 
the necessity of a national organization 
devoted to their particular subject. A 
call has been issued for a meeting, at 
which a general program has been pre- 
sented, emphasizing the dangers of the 
particular disease in question, the need 
of further study and control, the possi- 
bilities and means of suppression, etc. 

During the enthusiasm engendered by 
this first meeting, some one has made 
the customary American proposition to 
organize a national society. Such a 
motion generally carries unanimously 
without opposition or discussion, as any 
positive and apparently constructive 
proposal always will in a mass meeting. 
Officers are elected, constitution and by- 
laws are adopted. 

If the cause is a popular one, and if 
the leaders are energetic, enough money 
may be obtained to secure the services 
of an able man or woman as executive 
secretary and to equip an office. If the 
membership is limited or the dues are 
low, then either the part time services 
of a good man or the whole time services 
of a mediocre man are secured. If fi- 
nancial support is even more limited, a 

'A resume of a paper delivered before the 
American Public Health Association in 
Jacksonville, Fla. 

volunteer executive gives what time he 
can spare from his own work. 

In any event, an essential part of the 
duties of the secretary is the securing 
of enough new members and renewals 
of enough old members each year to get 
funds enough to keep the society going. 
Consequently, each organization is a 
competitor with each other organiza- 
tion for members. 

\s those interested in these move- 
ments are comparatively few, each or- 
ganization sends out annual appeals for 
support to about the same persons, in- 
cluding state and municipal health offi- 
cers, officers of national, state and local 
medical organizations and persons 
known through their connection with 
other organizations to be interested in 
such movements. From this limited 
field, each organization secures a certain 
number of members. 

Comparison of the membership lists 
of leading societies will show that they 
contain the same names in probably 60 
per cent of their membership. This 
speaks well for the enthusiasm and un- 
selfishness of these men, but it also 
means that the present public health 
movement is being largely supported by 
a very limited number of people, mul- 
tiplying; themselves in a number of or- 
ganizations and so producing a member- 
ship that is largely fictitious. 

After the central organization is more 
or less complete, the society generally 
proceeds to organize state and local 
branches. This also seems to be in- 
grained in our American idea of admin- 
istration. F.ach vear an effort is made 
to stimulate interest, to secure a pre- 
sentable program, to obtain as large 
a registration as possible and in general 
"to make a showing." Yet even in the 
strongest, best managed and hest fi- 
nanced of these national organizations 
the majority of state branches are prac- 
tically paper organizations. 

When one considers the extent to 
which support has been divided, this 
is not strange. Still less is it strange 
that when we come to countv or city 
subdivisions, thev are few and far be- 
tween and are due more to accident than 
to any systematic plan of organization. 

Specifically, then, the criticisms which 
I would make on the existing situation 
are : 

1. The justification and ostensible 
purpose of these societies are the or- 
ganization of the public for united effort. 
The objects are not being accomplished 
bv present method-;. We have divided 
the public health field up into so many 
portions that one must practically be a 
specialist or have -pecial interests in 

order to find a place. There is no pro- 
vision for the ordinary citizen. 
Such public sentiment as exists is di- 
vided among so many interests as to 
lack the force which a single united 
body would have. 

2. The second criticism, which fol- 
lows as a corollary of the first, is that 
multiplication of organizations, each of 
which seeks to secure its support from 
practically the same persons, is necessar- 
ily self-limited. 

3. The third criticism which can be 
brought against the existing situation is 
that, although all of these organizations 
exist for the same general purpose — 
namely, the prevention of disease — and 
although their membership is largely 
composed of the same men and women, 
yet they have today no common plan 
of campaign, nor any method by which 
such a common plan can be devised and 

4. The fourth criticism is that there 
exists at present duplication of offices, 
equipment and expenses, unavoidable 
under existing conditions. 

5. The fifth criticism is that the dupli- 
cation and multiplication of organiza- 
tions has on the public a confusing 
rather than an educational effect. News- 
paper editors are today literally swamp- 
ed with bulletins and press matter. Yet 
the American newspaper today offers 
the most promising medium for public 
education on health topics that can be 
secured, [and] the growing interest of 
the newspaper management in this field 
and the increasing willingness of news- 
papers to co-operate must be apparent 
to everyone who has followed this sub- 
ject for any number of years. Authori- 
tative matter from a single central office 
would be gladly used, but the mass of 
material at present is such that most of 
it goes into the waste-basket. 

Let it be admitted without question 
that these various organizations have 
been created with the most unselfish and 
public-spirited intentions ; that the men 
and women who have organized and 
maintained them are entitled to great 
credit for their efforts; that these or- 
ganizations have each of them been the 
source of much good. 

My purpose, therefore, is not the con- 
demnation of previous conditions. It is 
rather to raise the question whether the 
time has not come for the creation of 
a united, coherent and effectively or- 
ganized public health body to take the 
place of, or at least to co-ordinate, the 
independent, accidental and uncorrected 
organizations which have so far occu- 
pied the field. 

If anvthing definite is accomplished in 
public health reform, it must be through 
the education of the average man and 
woman rather than throueh the efforts 
of the physician, the specialist or the so- 
ciologist. These must indeed act as 



The Survey, April 24, 1915 



I WO medical-social problems are being 
effectively attacked by the Associated 
Charities of Memphis, with which recently 
various social agencies of the city consoli- 
dated. The tuberculosis colony for chil- 
dren is an out-growth of the dispensary 
service. It is placed at present on the fair- 
grounds in portable cottages lent by the 
city. Groups of children are cared for in 
the colony under supervision of the dis- 
pensary nurse. 

In charge of each cottage is the mother 
of one or more of the children. In some 
cases the mother had been on a pension 
allowance; under this plan she is self- 
supporting with her salary of $5 a week 
and living expenses for herself and chil- 

^ second problem in Memphis is being 
met by the anti-narcotic hospital. 
Alter the Harrison law became effective, 
on March 1, the medical department of the 
Associated Charities was swamped with 
applicants for drugs. To a conference, im- 
mediately called, came representatives of 
city and county commissions, boards of 
health, medical and drug associations, 
police department, and hospitals. As a 
hospital for curable drug-users, the club- 
house at the fair-grounds seemed avail- 
able; and was opened just a week after tin 
law became operative. Already fifty pa- 
tients have been discharged as cured. 

Cocain habitues are being sent to the 
workhouse, not for punishment, but to be 
removed from reach of the drug, and fed 
and cared for until they become normal. 

leaders and furnish the necessary tech- 
nical information and experience on 
which successful efforts must rest, but 
the rank and file of this public health 
army must be drawn from the public. 

An ideal organization would be one 
without limitations as to subject, which 
any man or woman who desired could 
join by the payment of a nominal mem- 
bership fee. 

We should substitute for the existing 
many and weak organizations one 
strong public health league, made up 
of all classes of citizens. We should 
appeal to the public to support a public 
health campaign rather than ask the 
public to support separate organizations 
for each particular phase of public 
health work. 

Nor would it be necessary for the 
special national organizations now in 
existence to lose their identity in such 
a body. They could become affiliated 
organizations or sections of a national 
organization existing for the purpose of 
stimulating interest in their special sub 
ject and working through the general 
organization in states and cities rather 
than through independent organizations 
<>f their own. 

In the same way material bearing on 
cancer, sex hygiene, school hygiene, 
open-air schools, mental hygiene, epi- 
lepsy or any of the other numerous sub- 
jects on which national organizations 
now exist, could readily be distributed 
through the general machinery. The 
headquarters and offices of such a body 
would naturally serve as the clearing- 
house for the various allied organiza- 
tions or sections. Direction of such a 
national health league could be lodged 

in a central board made up of execu- 
tive officers or representatives of sec- 
tions or affiliated societies. 

Such a reorganization has already be- 
gun in two states. In Minnesota, the 
state Association for the Study and Pre- 
vention of Tuberculosis was merged 
in a new organization, called the Minne- 
sota Public Health Association, which 
co-ordinates the state Board of Health, 
the state university, the state normal and 
school system, the newspapers, churches 
and all other educational bodies in the 
state. This fusing of resources and 
support made it possible for them to se- 
cure at once a full-time, salaried, highly- 
trained public health man as executive 
secretary. In Texas the same thing has 

If all the public health organizations 
in a state can be united to form a state 
public health association, why could not 
all the public health organizations in 
the United States be united to form an 
American public health association? 


BE( u m it discusses health 
conditions as vitally affecting social 
work, the pamphlet entitled Contribu- 
tions from the Psychopathic Hospital, 
Boston, deserves more than a passing 

In his introduction to these collected 
papers. Dr. E. E. Southard comments 
on the strategic value of having a psy- 
chopathic department in the state system 
of hospitals. It brings much and varied 
material ; it makes possible many 
methods of investigation and appliances 
for treatment ; and. as "the crux of the 

matter from the public standpoint," con- 
crete problems as they arise in the dis- 
trict are brought directly into focus with 
the medical problems of psychiatry at 

The result to social work is not less 
valuable than to psychiatry; "the psy- 
chiatry thus developed can hardly be 
unilateral and scholastic but will not fail 
to breathe of sociology and anthropology 
in their higher senses." 

In the collection are papers on Juven- 
ile Crime and Psychopathic States, the 
Incidence of Syphilis, Some Problems of 
the Adolescent. Conditions and Treat- 
ment of Stuttering, the Study of Human 
Behavior, and several aspects of alco- 
holic mental diseases and after-care. 


"Help the state to save minds and 
money." is the slogan of the New York 
State Charities Aid movement in be- 
half of the insane. At a conference on 
mental hygiene in Albany at the end of 
March, the first gathering of its kind in 
this state, emphasis was laid not only on 
the need for understanding the causes 
of insanity, the danger of alcohol and 
syphilis, and the perils threatening chil- 
dren of mentally defective or disi 
parents; but also, on the means for pre- 
venting insanity. 

The conference urged increased fa 
cilities for housing and caring for those 
suffering from mental disease, and for 
extended social service, that the environ- 
ment as well as the health .if patient- 
may be improved. A carefully prep; 
exhibit and a series of moving picture- 
illustrated these need- of the state and 
-nine methods of meeting them. 




Photos Courtesy of American Architect 

Civic spirit in Boston is an 
active and effective force. Something 
of its vigor may be realized from the 
fact that during the past winter two 
large homes for civics clubs have been 
opened. One, for the 4,000 members of 
the Women's City Club opened on No- 
vember 4 and the other for the Boston 
City Club, the older, with a membership 
of 5,000 men, on February 15. 

The women's club has leased a fam- 
ous old house of Georgian architecture 
on Beacon Street. It has been remodel- 
led to suit every need of a modern club 
but many valuable Georgian relics have 
been preserved. 

The Boston City Club erected a 
splendid new sixteen-story building on 
the very top of Beacon Hill. There are 
twenty-two small dining-rooms in which 
many important conferences are held 
every day, and two large club dining- 
rooms and a banquet hall. 

Many old paintings, modern paintings 
of exceptional value, statuary and old 
Boston relics make the club beautiful. 
With the good library, the alcoved news- 
paper room, the comfortable lounge, 
surrounded with conference rooms, the 
writing rooms in galleries, the grill and 
billiard rooms in the basement, sixty 
chambers, the bowling alleys in the sub- 

basement, the flat roof with its distant 
views, the club is most attractive. 

The architect, Louis Newhall, a mem- 
ber of the club, has succeeded in pro- 
ducing throughout a cozy and home- 
like club by means of ingenious alcoves, 
mezzanine floors and galleries at a cost 
including furnishings less than that of 
an office building. 

The Boston City Club was organized 
in May, 1904. Some 300 invitations 
were sent to business and professional 
men of Boston. From them fifty replies 
were received. At the end of two years 
a membership of over 300 had been se- 
cured. After another year of meeting 
in hotels, restaurants, and offices, $25,- 
000 was borrowed and a building leased ; 
$35,000 was spent in preparing the build- 
ing for occupancy. Since that time the 
club has been thoroughly successful. 
The membership has grown steadily so 
that it has been possible to build this 
$900,000 house on land costing $230,000. 

The success of the club is due to the 
work of a body of men whose interest 
had never before been aroused for such 
a democratic and serviceable institution. 
To Secretary Addison L. Winship is due 
much credit for the growth of the club. 

The club meetings on Thursday even- 
ings are largely devoted to discussions 


Famous Old 
House of Georgian 
architecture o n 
Beacon Street, re- 
modeled for the 
Club's use. 

men's CITY CLUB 

men's CITY CLUB 

of civic and social progress. Each is 
attended by five hundred to a thousand 
members and the civic secretary is able 
to get for these audiences speakers of 
national reputation. 

The Boston City Club has provided 
for business men a place where many 
business transactions are consummated. 
So also it has provided for men engaged 
in social work in Boston the place and 
the people necessary for the quickest 
and most effective development of ideas. 

The Women's City Club is two years 
old. On May 15, 1913, thirty women 
met to consider the organization of a 
large democratic club for women. 
These thirtv women each interested ten 



The Survey, April 24, 1915 

Photo Courtesy of American Architect 

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y c y 

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Is/. ji> 1 , »■. 



(1 tlfcl 

vnr li 


others, representing many and varied in- 
terests, and these 300 organized the club 
"to establish broad acquaintance among 
women through their common interest 
in the promotion of the civic welfare 
of Boston and the commonwealth." 

The interesting and important thing 
about both clubs is the spirit of social 
service and civic progress for which 
each strives. At the women's club, club 
women, home-makers, self-supporting 
women, and women of leisure have al- 
ready found a common meeting ground. 
Groups of social workers meet regular- 
ly to discuss problems. The civics com- 
mittee is composed of women who are 
closely in touch with charitable, phil- 
anthropic and political activities. The 
officers of the club are largely women 
who are taking an active part in such 
movements, and the meetings, large and 
small, which are held at the clubhouse 
emphasize such ideas. 



Meetings of the Pennsylvania 
Housing and Town Planning Associa- 
tion in Pittsburgh last month were ar- 
ranged so as to bring not only the mem- 
bers but the general public to a discus- 
sion of the housing problem, several of 
the gatherings being held under the au- 
spices of local organizations in Pitts- 

At a joint luncheon of the Pittsburgh 
Association of Credit Men and the Civic 
Club of Alleghany County, Carol Arono- 
vici of Philadelphia and Mildred Chad- 
sey, chief of the Cleveland Bureau of 
Sanitation, spoke. Mr. Aronovici dis- 
cussed business aspects of constructive 
housing reform. He warned against 
taxation which would overstimulate the 
building of skyscrapers in the heart of 
the city, explained the desirability of a 
zoning system, and urged that municipal- 
ities should loan money for home build- 
ing at Zy 2 per cent to relieve poor peo- 
ple of paying 6 to 10 per cent. 

Miss Chadsey explained the work of 

sanitary inspection and pointed out how 
greatly the sanitary inspector needs pub- 
lic support and encouragement. 

Housing for industrial workers was 
discussed by several speakers. D. W. 
Harper of Erie told of a movement for 
group building of small homes. Levi 
Burnett of the Carnegie Steel Company 
and Marshall Williams of the American 
Bridge Company described efforts of 
these corporations to house their workers 
well at low cost. And M. R. Scharff, 
sanitary engineer of Pittsburgh, outlined 
a plan of co-operative housing organi- 
zation for industrial workers. 

City planning accomplishment by 
York, Harrisburg, Altoona, Reading and 
other Pennsylvania cities was described 
by Albert Kelsey of Philadelphia, and 
Congressman W. W. Bailey of Johns- 
town laid emphasis on the necessity for 
transportation development. He also 
urged the adoption of the single tax 

Housing and sanitary problems of the 
rural population were discussed by Mrs. 
George K. Foulke, farm adviser and in- 
structor in home sanitation of the State 
Department of Agriculture. 

Officers of the association, re-elected 
for the ensuing year, are : President, 

A. B. Farquhar of York; vice-president, 
D. W. Harper of Erie; treasurer, Wil- 
liam Jennings of Harrisburg, and sec- 
retary, Sherrard Ewing of Reading. 


New stimulus to public recrea- 
tion in San Francisco has recently come 
through the creation of a "department 
of physical education, school athletics, 
social and lecture centers," under the 
board of education. The plan of or- 
ganization was worked out by Edward 

B. De Groot who was secured from 
Chicago to head up the new activities. 
The co-ordination of public effort along 
recreational lines is still further assur- 
ed through the fact that Mr. De Groot 
is also retained by the San Francisco 
Playground Commission as its advisor. 
He is also to lecture on public recrea- 
tion at the University of California, 
where he gave a course last summer. 

The work of the department under 
the board of education will include the 
organization and supervision of physical 
education in all grades, from elementary 
schools through the high schools, the 
supervision of high school athletics and 
of the activities of the Public Schools 
Athletic League, and the organization 
and direction of social centers. Thus 
far only one school has been opened as 
a social center. 

The Public Schools Athletic League 
was organized along lines similar to 
those of the New York city organiza- 
tion of the same name. Its activity 
thus far, however, has been primarily to 
help the board of education secure ap- 
propriations for school athletics during 
the past two years, though at times it 
has not worked in thorough harmony 
with the board. Mr. De Groot hopes to 
develop the League's efforts so as to be 
increasingly helpful to the board. And 
he plans a broadening of its activities 
to include not only the giving of dis- 
tinction to bovs who win in track ath- 

letics, but the honoring of girls and 
boys who master certain games, do 
chores at home, secure superior rank in 
school, exercise thrift, and spend their 
out-of-school time in a useful way. 
Loyalty to parents and home is to be put 
alongside loyalty to team and school. 

To this varied scope of work in San 
Francisco Mr. De Groot brings the ex- 
perience of years in Chicago where, as 
director of the famous playgrounds and 
recreation centers of the South Park 
Commission his work made him widely 
known throughout this country and 
abroad. From its very inception he was 
officially identified with this system of 
recreation facilities, which set a new 
type of city provision for recreation 
meeting the needs of young people and 
adults as well as children, and which 
attracted world-wide admiration. Much 
of the success of these recreation cen- 
ters has been credited to his practical 
genius in scheming out the arrange- 
ment and construction of facilities, and 
his social vision in their administration. 
After he resigned as their director he 
served two years as secretary of the 
Playground Association of Chicago, 
leaving that work last January to go to 
San Francisco. 


"Cold figures" in the last annual re- 
port of the Board of Tenement House 
Supervision of New Jersey are em- 
bodied in text which defends with 
warmth the work accomplished. The 
ten years of the law's operation have 
meant that 346,300 oersons are housed 
in 11,119 new-law tenements in 107 mu- 
nicipalities. These tenements contain 
no room less than 70 square feet in area, 
no room less than 9 feet in height, no 
room without a window to outer air and 
no apartment without sink and toilet. 

Visits in 1914 were made to 304 mu- 
nicipalities to inspect existing tenement 
houses. Figures on fire-escapes, interior 
rooms, sinks, toilets, privy vaults, com- 
plaints, callers at the department, prose- 
cutions by law. violations, and orders, 
and manv other things are given. 


Who is now organizing public reci 
Hon i" San Francisco 




Boston Juvenile Court died at his 
home in Brookline, April 10, 1915. He 
was born in Brookline, April 11, 1869, 
graduated from Harvard in 1891 and 
from Harvard Law School in 1894. He 
was engaged in the practice of law in 
Boston and served for a time as special 
justice of the Brookline Municipal 
Court. Even before this time he had de- 
veloped an interest in social service as 
the secretary of a conference of child- 
helping agencies. 

When the Boston Juvenile Court was 
established, in 1906, he was at once rec- 
ognized as the man best fitted for the 
judgeship. During his nine years of 
service he made the court an unusually 
fine instrument for the training and care 
of Boston's neglected and delinquent 
children. He gave time and money 
without stint when there was opportunity 
to expend them for the benefit of boys 
and girls. 

His busy life as a judge did not pre- 
clude other activities. He was much 
interested in Brookline town affairs, and 
in the town meetings was recognized as 
a powerful support for wholesome meas- 
ures. He was also an active officer of 
the Unitarian Church at Jamaica Plain. 

Judge Baker did not confine his ener- 
gies to local interests. He took an ac- 
tive part in the annual meetings of the 
National Probation Association and of 
the National Conference of Charities 
and Corrections. He was last year 
president of the Massachusetts Society 
for Mental Hygiene the inception of 
whose work was due to him more than 
to any other man. 

Rarely has a judge more clearly rec- 
ognized the interrelation of the various 
activities in social work and the impor- 
tant part a juvenile court may play in 
the community's plan of organization. 
His many-sided character led him to rec- 
ognize the services which various agen- 
cies could best perform, and with rare 
insight he developed a co-operation in 
the Boston Juvenile Court that will al- 
ways be remembered as the best expres- 
sion of Judge Baker's power. 

C. C. Carstens. 

FO say at all adequately what Judge 
Baker was and what he did would 
be very near to setting forth the ideal 
for all judges of such courts as his. In 
the first place, he was a man beautiful, 
simple and genuine in personal charac- 
ter. He always loved the right and fol- 
lowed truth because this was his nature, 
as the artist loves the harmonies of 
form and color and is distressed at the 
sight of ugliness. His conscience was 
like a delicate instrument. Its use though 
costly and painstaking was wonderful- 
ly normal and happy, like the use of 
every healthful faculty. 

This artist of the good life, who had 
always been a good boy himself, was put 


in charge of the most wayward boys 
and girls of a great city. He who was 
the very embodiment of energy and effi- 
ciency was set to the work of aiding the 
slovenly and disorderly. Was there any 
defect of sympathy in this strange re- 
lation? No more than in the case of 
Jesus or the loving and skilful physician 
in a children's hospital. It was as if he 
were always thinking, "These poor chil- 
dren have never had a fair chance." 
With his keen and critical intelligence, 
he was always the "bad" boy's good 
friend, bringing all possible faith and 
hope to bear on their necessity. 

This office, coming to him wholly un- 
sought, and accepted at first as a ven- 
ture, with the most modest sense of duty, 

soon came to be an increasing satis- 
faction to him. He was using to the 
utmost every faculty of his being in 
cheerful abandon, with a constant good 
will, in the service of the highest ideals, 
through ministration to the lowliest and 
most needy. 

Charles F. Dole. 

T N the death of Judge Harvey H. 
Baker of Boston, the Juvenile Court 
has lost a devoted friend. 

The statute which established the 
Boston Juvenile Court was passed in 
1906, and the governor, with rare judg- 
ment, offered to him the position of 
justice. He brought to his work a 
spirit of consecration, and he placed at 
the service of the court a keen intelli- 
gence and unfailing sympathy. At 
every stage of the development of the 
court in the past decade, he contributed 
in a most significant way to the en- 
lightened and unprejudiced considera- 
tion of the many difficult questions con- 
cerning the court and its ideals. 

It was Judge Baker's high purpose, to 
use his own words, to see "the whole of 
the child . . . from top to toe," 
and to achieve this he interpreted broad- 
ly the court's function. It combined, 
he urged, "the consecration of the de- 
voted clergyman, the power to interest 
and direct of the efficient teacher and 
the discernment of the skilful physi- 

Bernard Flexner. 


Washington's new police chief 

A NOTHER police chief of the newer 
type has been chosen. A young 
man, thirty-two years of age, with a so- 
cial appreciation of the work the police 
can do, is now at the head of the blue 
coats of the national capital. In appoint- 
ing Raymond W. Pullman to this im- 
portant post, the commissioners of the 
District of Columbia selected a man with 
no police training, but with the wide 
knowledge of public affairs and the pe • 
culiar understanding of the people and 
activities of a city which years of news- 
paper experience give. 

A native of Virginia, he has lived in 
Washington all but the first two years 
of his life. After graduation from high 
school he taught for two years in the 
Washington high schools, at the same 
time taking an interest in the settlement 
work at Neighborhood House. In 1905 
he began his newspaper work on the 
Washington Post. For two and a half 
years he was in charge of publicity in 
the United States Forest Service, under 
Gifford Pinchot. He also conducted the 
publicity for the White House Confer- 
ence on Care of Dependent Children, 
called by President Roosevelt. 

In his newspaper writing Mr. Pullman 
has devoted much attention to the work 
of the various departments of the gov- 
ernment, emphasizing those activities 
which fall particularly in the field of so- 
cial service. A weekly syndicated letter 
prepared by him along these lines has 
been widely used by newspapers. He 
has covered Capitol and White House 
news for the Detroit Times, and for 
nearly a year he has been the Washing- 
ton correspondent of The Survey. 

As head of the Washington police Mr. 


The Survey, April 24, 1915 

Pullman succeeds one of the best known 
police chiefs in the country — Major Syl- 
vester, who is generally credited with 
having developed police organization and 
methods, along traditional lines, to a 
very high degree of efficiency. The an- 
nual reports of the departments under 
his control have approximated closely 

the standard formulated by the National 
Municipal League. He was the first to 
establish a clearing house of Bertillon 
and finger-print records at the disposal 
of all the police chiefs of the United 
States. He has been president of the 
International Association of Chiefs of 
Police ever since its organization. 



To the Editor: Is lynching Negroes 
immoral? That seems to be the question 
raised by the approval of the Ku-Klux 
and anti-Negro features of the Birth of 
a Nation film. Appealing to the strongest 
race prejudice in the most vivid possible 
way at the precise point where it has 
led to wholesale murder in the South is, 
of course, an incitement to continued 
murder. One only possible point of 
doubt is whether murder is wrong. Or 
no — that is not the only point. Safe, 
cold-blooded incitement to murder is a 
meaner and more cowardly offense. 

Joseph Lee. 



To the Editor: The National Con- 
ference of Charities and Correction has 
lost, within a period of four days, two 
notable men from its list of ex-presi- 
dents, both of whom were also ex-presi- 
dents of the American Prison Associa- 

Up to the present time there has been 
a remarkable situation with reference to 
the longevity of the ex-presidents of the 
National Conference. Previous to the 
death of the Rev. Samuel G. Smith on 
March 25, all the ex-presidents of the 
conference were dead up to Alexander 
Johnson, president of the conference of 
1897, except Frank B. Sanborn, presi- 
dent of the conference of 1882, and 
Hastings H. Hart, president of the con- 
ference of 1893, and all the ex-presidents 
from 1897 on were living. Then, with- 
in four days of each other, Dr. Smith 
and Professor Henderson passed away. 
Hastings H. Hart. 

New York. 


To the Editor: I am not sure, judg- 
ing by your editorial comment, in The 
Survey of April 3, whether you know 
anything more than the name of Edmund 
Niles Huyck, author of the verses pub- 
lished in that issue under the caption. 
Old Age. 

I cannot resist the impulse to tell read- 
ers of The Survey that Mr. Huyck, 
whom I have been proud for many years 
to reckon perhaps first among' my 
friends, is head of a large manufacturing 
corporation, which, without fuss or self- 
advertising or any other kind of ex- 
ploitation of its efforts in the direction 
of industrial justice and peace, has done 
more for and with its employes than any 
other privately-owned concern within my 

personal knowledge. 

That such a poem should have been 
written by an employer of labor, most of 
it unskilled, seems to me to be one of the 
most significant of the signs of our times. 

I might add that the mutual benefit 
scheme in effect at the factory of F. C. 
Huyck & Sons, at Albany, N. Y., is one 
worthy of study by anyone interested in 
enterprises of this kind. 

John P. Gavit. 

New York. 


To the Editor: In addition to the 
various methods of providing relief 
work which have been mentioned in The 
Survey, I would like to mention a plan 
which has been carried out successfully 
by the Associated Charities of Dayton 
the past winter. 

Two of the local improvement clubs at 
our request listed vacant lots and alleys 
which needed cleaning and trees which 
needed to be cut down in their respec- 
tive districts. Different members of the 
clubs acted as superintendents of the 
work and different groups of men were 
sent daily to places where work was be- 
ing done, payment for work being made 
in coal or groceries by the Associated 

The men employed took pride in work- 
ing for the betterment of their sections 
of the city and the men in charge of the 
work became personally acquainted with 
men needing employment and were able 
to help them in other ways. 

Relief work was provided for women 
in the Y. W. C. A., sewing rooms at first 
by the Daughters of the American Revo- 
lution and later conducted by the Asso- 
ciated Charities. 

Relief work was given in janitor serv- 
ice at local hospitals, the Day Nursery 
and Widows' Home. This work, while 
not adequate to the need, taken in con- 
nection with the public work carried on 
by the city, employing men in rotation 
one day each week, kept some work 
available at all times. 

Grace O. Edwards. 
[Secretary Associated Charities.] 

Dayton, O. 


To the Editor : It has been said that 
most people think they could manage a 
farm, keep a hotel, or edit a newspaper 
better than the man who is doing each 
of these things. T cherish no such de- 
lusion, and yet I am going to make some 
remarks which vour waste-basket mav 


The Survey is edited very intelligent- 
ly and its general purpose is most laud- 
able. But many people who sympathize 
with its aims can hardly help being some- 
times half-amused and half-provoked at 
its lack of a saving sense of humor and 
proportion. Is it true that everything 
which is, is wrong? Are all remedies 
good, provided they are drastic? Is the 
most radical legislation always expedi- 
ent? Is every employer (who is not a 
crank) either foolish, or wicked, or both ? 

We have now in Philadelphia an hon- 
est, high-minded, able city administra- 
tion; but it has accomplished very little 
because it has persistently assailed and 
quarreled with the elected representa- 
tives of the people, some of whom may 
be foolish, or even venal and corrupt, 
but they certainly don't like to be told 
so ; and they can hardly be blamed for 
having no strong desire to please those 
who so accuse them. 

We used to have a weekly paper here 
devoted to civic betterment. It lost its 
influence, bored its friends to death, and 
finally succumbed itself, because it 
could not realize that anything which 
"the gang" did, could possibly be right. 
A little reflection ought to have con- 
vinced its very earnest and really bril- 
liant editor, that most of the gang's 
deeds were quite right; that they were 
only occasionally wrong. 

This is true of all gangs, social and 
political. Why cannot a paper like The 
Survey say so sometimes? Would it 
not tend to smooth matters? Most re- 
formers seem to think that all reform 
must be violently aggressive ; that no 
quarter should be given the enemy ; and 
that everyone who does not entirely 
agree with the reformer in the matter 
which interests him at the moment is an 
enemy. But does this attitude pay in 
the long run ? I doubt it very much. It 
arouses antagonisms which might be 
avoided; and it often secures half-baked 
legislation the results of which prove to 
be anything but satisfactory. 

Edward G. Pugh. 



To the Editor: May I comment on 
some of the points in regard to the mini- 
mum wage made by Mrs. Florence 
Kelley in the issue of March 27? 

The essential difference between con- 
ditions in Australia, New Zealand and 
England and conditions in the United 
States, is neglected. The regulations 
here are not made by the federal gov- 
ernment, but by the individual state. Is 
it fair for Massachusetts, for example, 
to place a handicap on a manufacturer 
within the state which will enable a com- 
petitor from New Hampshire or Rhode 
Island to undersell and take away the 
trade of the former? 

Mrs. Kelley mentions a "slight in- 
crease of wages at the bottom." I do 
not see how this procedure can have a 
result othej than raising wages all along 
the line, from the least to the most ef- 
ficient. If this were not the case, the 
more efficient worker would descend to 
the level of the least efficient, and any 
loss of efficiency is a general economic 

Tn most of the industries affected hv 



minimum wage legislation, a great deal 
of the work is paid by the piece. Sup- 
pose we have an operation which pays a 
fair living wage to the average woman 
employed; there would be workers who 
earn more than the average and workers 
who would earn less. Would the result 
then be to eliminate the women below 
the average, or would the rate have to 
be raised for all workers? 

Mrs. Kelley also states that "the de- 
mand for labor of women and minors in- 
creases by leaps and bounds from year 
to year and from decade to decade." 
Will not this, therefore, work its own 
relief by the operation of the economic 
law of supply and demand, without ar- 
tificial restriction and legislation on the 
subject? Donald G. Robbins. 

Newton Highlands, Mass. 

To the Editor: Donald G. Robbins 
states five difficulties in regard to mini- 
mum wage legislation. 

1. Of these the first arises in part 
from an error of fact. In Australia and 
New Zealand this legislation is not fed- 
eral. It began in Victoria and spread 
from colony to colony by slow contagion, 
like woman suffrage in our western 
states. In free trade England, wage 
boards have proved not a handicap but a 
stimulus to the industries in which they 
have been introduced. This has been 
convincingly shown by R. H. Tawney in 
his very valuable little book entitled 
Minimum Rates in the Chain-Making 

2. The second is an assumption. There 
is no evidence upon which to rest the 
statement that leveling up the lowest 
wages in the worst paid industries in 
Massachusetts "will enable a competitor 
from New Hampshire or Rhode Island 
to take away the trade from the former. 
Moreover, the Massachusetts law ex- 
pressly requires that regard must be 
paid to the financial state of the indus- 

3. The third is an inference. Why 
would an efficient worker become less 
efficient because her worst paid fellow 
workers ceased to be starvelings? In- 
stead of her descending to their starva- 
tion level, they would begin to live. How 
could this change hurt a skilled worker? 
While this is true, however, the teach- 
ing of experience is that the better paid 
workers maintain their relative position 
only in proportion as they are organized, 
not by any automatic effect of minimum 
wage legislation, shoving them upward 
while they remain passive. 

4. The fourth is a hypothetical ques- 
tion abundantly answered by the Aus- 
tralian experience. The aim of these 
laws is to bring up the lowest levels of 
pay of average workers. For persons 
below the average of ability, the elderly, 
the slow, the deaf, etc., special permits 
in carefully restricted numbers are au- 
thorized. These have been found not to 
affect the general level of wages of 
normal workers. 

5. The fifth is stated as a question, 
and is most readily answered in the 
Yankee manner by another question, viz., 
the demand for the labor of women and 
minors having increased for a half cen- 
tury, accompanied by numerous evils 
arising from underpayment of increasing 
numbers of these classes of workers. 

Program for Constitutional Amend- 
ment recommended by Labor 

LI/ E favor the following pro- 
** visions in the new constitu- 
tion : 

To provide that the writ of 
habeas corpus shall never be sus- 
pended and that military tribunals 
shall not exercise civil or criminal 
jurisdiction over citizens while 
the regularly constituted state 
courts arc open to administer jus- 

Against a state constabulary and 
the employment of private armed 
forces in labor disputes. 

For defining labor's rights in the 
bill of rights in terms similar to 
the trades dispute act of Great 

For empowering the legislature 
to protect men, women and chil- 
dren in factories, shops and other 
places of employment by any re- 
striction of hours, wages and con- 
ditions found necessary. 

For ample poiver to enable the 
state to insure 'workers against ac- 
cident, sickness, invalidity, old 
age and unemployment. 

To make suffrage a human right. 

For the extension of popular 
rule and control of officials by the 
initiative, referendum and recall. 

For securing minority represen- 
tation in legislative bodies by pro- 
viding for proportional represen- 

what basis exists for the hope that the 
law of supply and demand will work dif- 
ferently henceforward? 

It is precisely the intolerable human 
experiences consequent upon "the op- 
eration of the economic law of supply 
and demand, without artificial restriction 
and legislation" which have led Aus- 
tralia and New Zealand, England and 
eleven American states to enact mini- 
mum wage laws, Kansas and Arkansas 
being the latest additions to the list. 

Florence Kelley. 
[General Secretary National Consumers' 

New York. 


To the Editor: I have read with 
interest Prof. Henry R. Seager's article 
on The Constitution and Social Prog- 
ress in the State of New York in The 
Survey of April 10. To every friend of 
social and labor legislation, of what- 
ever economic school, the coming con- 
stitutional convention should be the 
center of interest and effort. More- 
over, the friends of a progressive con- 
stitution should organize for a concert- 
ed program. 

At a convention of organized labor 
in Brooklyn last June, a program for 
the constitutional convention was adopt- 
ed unanimously and is to be submitted 
to labor organizations throughout the 
state. It is given in full above. 

Professor Seager's proposed amend- 
ments, while permitting wide power for 

social legislation and largely insuring 
against unfavorable court decisions on 
the constitutionality of statutes of this 
character, are fatally lacking in what 
they omit. In this dark day of reaction, 
in which most of the important labor 
and much of the social legislation has 
been erased from the statute books, any 
proposal for a constitution that fails to 
take from the legislature a part of its 
power and give it to the people by some 
practical scheme of initiative and refer- 
endum, such as is contained in the Ohio 
constitution, seems unsuited to our pe- 
culiar political conditions. 

There is to my mind a splendid op- 
portunity to accept the challenge which 
the present Legislature has made to the 
people of New York by going before 
the convention with a program at least 
as broad as the new Ohio constitution 
on initiative and referendum and an 
added provision for proportional repre- 

Let all friends of progress stand 
solidly behind this program and im- 
mediately begin the work of agitation 
among the people of the state for the 
rejection of the forthcoming constitu- 
tion if it does not contain provisions 
which forever make impossible such ac- 
tion by a legislature under the control 
of political accidents from the canner- 
ies, the oyster beds and the Indian reser- 
vations, whose vision, limited as it is to 
a knot-hole in the back-yard fences of 
their rural homes, has never observed 
the pressure of social forces on the in- 
dividual in our modern industrial system. 

The time for organized labor and all 
organized friends of progress to settle 
the question forever is at this fall's elec- 
tion. No state officers will be elected 
except assemblymen. Let us mark the 
reactionaries that come up again, but let 
us make our fight and get our test on the 
new constitution. 

I have no doubt of the action of that 
convention, presided over by Senator 
Root and William Barnes, leading a ma- 
jority of kindred spirits and making al- 
liances with the representatives of vari- 
ous corporate interests. 

In Brooklyn and elsewhere, if I can 
judge from the angry rumblings, organ- 
ized labor proposes to give battle. Con- 
stitutions are usually not adopted by 
great majorities. The 500,000 working- 
men will not divide into parties. Their 
vote on the constitution is yes or no. 
Our task is to line up the workers ac- 
cording to their interest, to show them 
what they are getting at Albany and 
how to clip the wings of that piratical 
band. Our slogan is to defeat the new 
constitution and vote for the concurrent 
resolution for woman suffrage. 

In 1916 the question, shall the consti- 
tution be revised, will again be submit- 
ted to the voters of the state. Then we 
can rally the forces of progress for a 
new convention in 1917 and, with our 
eyes open and the lesson of 1915 to guide 
us, we can elect a popular convention 
and build a modern constitution with 
enough legislative power reserved to the 
people to enable them to make their laws 
and to preserve legal safeguards to 
health and well being already won. 

James P. Boyle. 
[President Central Labor Union.] 



The Survey, April 24, 1915 



An institute on sex education, consisting 
of a series of lectures by Dr. Mabel 
Ulnch, of Minneapolis, was given recently 
in New York by the Commission on Socia'l 
Morality of the National Board of the 
\ .W.C.A. Secretaries, students, teachers, 
social workers and physicians attended. 

Marie Moss Wheat, member of the Wom- 
an's Club of Manila, has formed a Little 
Mothers' League among the girls of Meisie 
Primary School, in the slum quarter of 
Tondo. There are 3,100 children at Mei- 
sie, all in the first four grades of public 
school, and Mrs. Wheat is the only Ameri- 
can worker there. The league numbers 225 
girls from eleven to seventeen years of 
age. On Saturday there is a meeting to 
which the real mothers are asked through 
their daughters. The Saturday talks are 
in Tagalog. the native dialect. 

East and West is a new monthly an- 
nouncing as its mission, "to reveal to those 
sufficiently interested, the fountains of 
spiritual life in Jewish Ghettoes here and 

In proof of the claim that Yiddish 
writers and artists stand high in inter- 
national ranks of honor, this issue of East 
and West introduces Rosenfeld, Asch. 
Perez, Libin, Raisin and others, closing 
with a literary review of these writers by 
Prof. John Erskine. 

Naturally, perhaps, since its aim is to 
introduce new writers, the paper's strength 
seems to be in its contributions rather than 
in its editorials. It is a matter for regret 
that with so high an aim, and so promising 
a beginning, East and West should open 
its columns to medical advertisements. 

A tremendous increase of deposits in 
Russian savings banks is reported from 
Petrograd by United States Consul North 
Wmship. The total for 1913 was $17,510,- 
000; for 1914, $43,260,000. December, 1913, 
was $361,000; December, 1914, $14,987,000. 
The first two weeks of January, 1914, were 
$155,000, and the same period this year 
$7,880,000. Mr. Winship reports that "so 
far as the poorer classes are concerned, the 
increased savings are undoubtedly due to 
the absolute prohibition of the sale of 
vodka." Among the better-to-do he men- 
tions as reasons the cut in importations of 
luxuries, the curtailing of public amuse- 
ments, the reduced size of families with 
the men folks at the front, and the in- 
creased income in many families from the 
receipt of both partial salaries and armv 

Missouri social workers have just learned 
that the Legislature, in the rush of the 
closing hours, created a senatorial commis- 
sion of three to draft a children's code, 
and appropriated $1,500 for its work. The 
commission was thus created at the instance 
of the State Committee for Social Legisla- 
tion because so much of the legislation for 
children had failed of passage. The reso- 
lution was introduced by Senator Michael 
Kinney of St. Louis. The commission is 
charged with the duty of codifying existing 
state laws relating to children and propos- 
ing needed new legislation. 

Missouri is the third state to take up 
actively the preparation of a complete chil- 
dren's code. A national movement to sug- 
gest uniform standards for such codes is in 
the making and will doubtless afford much 

material from which state commissions, such 
as the new one in Missouri, may draw. 

Another result of the legislative session 
not covered in the summary which appeared 
in The Survey for March 27 is the pro- 
vision for a reformatory for first offenders 
under thirty years of age. It is to be locat- 
ed on a tract adjoinng the Boys' Training 
School at Boonville and the whole institu- 
tion is to be known as the Missouri Re- 

A plan for the redistribution of valuable 
duplicate material on applied sociology — 
books, periodicals, reports and pamphlets — 
has been worked out by Frederick W. Jen- 
kins, librarian of the Russell Sage Founda- 
tion, 130 East 22 Street, New York city, 
with the Library Journal. Duplicate ma- 
terial may be sent, transportation prepaid to 
the library, which will act as a clearing- 
house. The Library Journal will print the 
titles so received from time to time so that 
libraries throughout the country may apply 
for them. Mr. Jenkins does not wish value- 
less books or current reports which may be 
secured readily from the institution issuing 


Stolen Jobs and the Thief. By Moses 
Franklin, Pueblo, Col. Price 10 cents. 

Address. By Frank P. Walsh, chairman 
United States Commission on Industrial Re- 
lations, before the City Club, Chicago. 

Mediation Without Armistice ; the Wis- 
consin Plan. Wisconsin Peace Society, 

The General Education Board ; an ac- 
count of its activities, 1902-14. 61 Broad- 
way. New York city. 

Peace Proposal : a Business Man's Plan 
for Settling the War in Europe. By 
Charles S. Bernheimer. P. O. Box 1158. 
New York. 

List of Books on the Prevention of Dis- 
ease. Pamphlet No. 6. Council on Health 
and Public Instruction, American Medical 
Association. ">:{r> North Dearborn Street. 

Fundamental Planks in a Public Utility 
Program. By Delos F. Wilcox, franchise 
expert, New York city. Reprinted from 
The Annals of the American Academy of 
Political and Social Science, Philadelphia 

Some Facts Regarding Unorganized 
Women in the Sweated Industries. 5 
cents. National Women's Trade Union 
League of America. 127 North Dearborn 
street, Chicago. 

Why New York State Should Enact a 
Legal Minimum Wage for Women and 
Minors. Published by authority of the 
Brooklyn Central Labor Union. 764 Metro- 
politan Avenue. Brooklyn. 

A Study of Mentally Defective Children 
in Chicago. Text by John Edward Ransom. 
Appendix by Alexander Johnson. An in- 
vestigation made by the Juvenile Protective 
Association, son Halstead Street, Chicago. 

Small Houses within the City Limits for 
Unskilled Wage-earners. By George M. 
Sternberg. M.D. No. 27. December, 1914. 
Price 5 cents. National Housing Associa- 
tion Publications, 105 East 22 Street. New 

field survey exhibition. Reprinted from the 
American City. Price 5 cents. Department 
of Survey and Exhibits, Russell Sage 
Foundation, New York city. 

Housing Conditions Among Negroes in 
Harlem, New York city. Report of an 
investigation made through the Housing 
Bureau of the National League on Urban 
Conditions Among Negroes. 2303 Seventh 
Avenue, New York. 

Women in Industry : a Bibliography. 
Selected and arranged by Lucy Wyatt 
Papworth and Dorothy M. Zimmern. Price 
postpaid 1 shilling 2 pence. Published by 
the Women's Industrial Council, Inc., 7 
John Street, Adelphi, London. W. C. 

Teaching Agriculture to Families as a 
Relief for Unemployment and Congestion 
of Population. Bulletin No. 3, January. 
1915. Arthur C. Comey, Massachusetts 
Homestead Commission, 32 Beacon Street. 

First Formal Report of the Work of the 
Mayor's Committee on Unemployment. 
Submitted by Elbert H. Gary, chairman 
Mayor's Committee on Unemployment, 
Room S52. Municipal Building. New York 

The Interest of Life Insurance Companies 
in Social Hygiene. By Lee K. Frankel. 
Reprinted from Social Hygiene, December, 
1914. The American Social Hygiene Asso- 
ciation, Inc., 105 West 40 Street. New 
York citv. 

The Neglect to Provide for the Infant 
in the Antituberculosis Program. By Al- 
fred F. Hess, M.D., visiting physician. 
Willard Parker Hospital. Reprinted from 
the Journal of the American Medical Asso- 
ciation, 535 N. Dearborn Street, Chicago 

Hand Firing Soft Coal under Power- 
Plant Boilers. By Henry Kreisinger 
Technical paper 80.' Department of the 
Interior. Bureau of Mines. Price 10 cents 
from the Superintendent of documents. 
Government Printing Office. Washington. 
D. C. 

Butter Prices, from Producer to Con- 
sumer. By Newton H. Clark. Bulletin of 
the U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics 
Whole No. 164. Retail prices and cost of 
living series, No. 15. November 30, 1914 
Government Printing Office. Washington. 
D. C. 

What a Miner Can Do to Prevent Ex- 
plosions of gas and of coal dust. By 
George S. Rice. Miners' Circular 21. De- 
partment of the Interior. Bureau of Mines 
Price 5 cents from the superintendent of 
documents. Government Printing Office. 
Washington. D. C. 

Cooking in the Vocational School. By 
Iris Prouty O'Leary. special assistant for 
vocational education. Department of Pub- 
lic Instruction, New Jersey. United States 
Bureau of Education. Bulletin 1915. No. 1 
Whole No. 625. Price ."> cents. Govern- 
ment Printing Office. Washington, D C. 

Unconstitutional Claims of Military \u 
thority. By Henry Winthrop Ballantine. 
professor of law in the University of Wis- 
consin. Bulletin No. 1. January. 1915 
\merican Society of Military Law. Re- 
printed from Journal of the American In- 
stitute of Criminal Law and Crimin 
Washington. D. C. 

An Effective Exhibition of a Community 
Survey. A brief description of the Sprinc- 

Minimum Sanitary Requirements for 
Rural Schools Prepared by Dr. Thomas 
D, Wood, chairman of the Committee on 
Health Problems of the National Council 


\S V 

Price 25 Cents 

May I, 1915 

Volume XXXIV, No. 5 



An Austrian born 
sculptor who had 
complete faith in 
American ideals 

An appreciation by 

O S W A L D 

A fragment from the 

V I L L A R D 

Sleepy Hollow, I 903 

Ulh? Nnu fork ^rtjnol nf pjilaniltrnfig 



Family Rehabilitation Porter R. Lee 

Probation for Juveniles Henry W. Thurston 


Kate Holladay Claghorn 



1. Social Work. Mr. Devine. 2 hours. 

2. Individuals and Families. Mr. Lee and 

Mr. Thurston. 3 hours. 

3. Industrial Conditions. Miss Van Kleeck. 

One hour. 

4. Social Research. Miss Claghorn. 2 hours. 

5. Types of Social Work. Various lecturers. 

2 hours. 

6. Hygiene and Preventable Disease. Dr. 

Miller. One hour. 

7. Field Work. Mrs. Worthington. Ten hours 

per week for six months. (Individual 

8. Excursions, with Conferences. Mrs. 

Worthington. Thursdays. 

Each student chooses iwo subjects of major interest from among 
courses 1, 2, 3, and 4, to each of which he devotes not less than ten 
hours per week throughout the year, including the time spent in class 
For each of these courses not chosen as major subjects a minimum of 
five hours per week, including time in class, is required. The total 
schedule amounts to not less than 4 5 hours per week. 


11. Social Work. Mr. Devine. Two hours. 
12A. Enforcement of Social Legislation. 
12B. Administration of Social Agencies. Mr. 

Two hours: 12A First Term; 12B Second Term. 

13. Seminar, with Thesis and Field Work. 
iThirty hours) in one of the following subjects: 

A. Family Welfare. 

B. Child Welfare. 

C. Recreation. 

D. Medical Social Service. 

E. Social Work of Churches. 

F. Settlements and Social Centers. 

G. Delinquency and Prison Reform. 
H. Public Service. 

I. Industrial Betterment. 

Other subjects provided for on application 
from qualified students. 

Number 1 : Social Work with Families and Individuals: By Porter R. Lee 

A Brief Manual for Investigators 

Number 2: Organized Charity and Industry: By Edward T. Devine 

A chapter from the history of the New York Charity Organization Society 

Number 3 : The Probation Officer at Work : By Henry W. Thurston 
See page 109 of this number of THE SURVEY. 

Single copies, five cents; 25 copies, $1.00 postpaid. 

Additional numbers in this series will be announced from time to time on this page. 


Entrance Examination: May 15, 10 A. M. 



105 East 22d Street 
New York 


Robert W. deForest, President 
Arthur P. Kellogg, Secretary Frank Tucker, Treasurer 


2559 Michigan Ave. 

Vol. XXXIV, No. 5 


May i, 19x5 









TURPENTINE. Impressions of the Convict Camps of Florida Marc N. Goodnow 103 


KARL BITTER Oswald Garrison Villard 112 

OLD ORDERS-NEW NEEDS Roger N. Baldwin 114 

THE MINIMUM OF SAFETY David Starr Jordan 115 



the Immigrant's Chances in Pennsylvania Today .... Florence L. Sanville 118 



CAPITAL PUNISHMENT John Haynes Holmes 122 


National Council 

ROBERT W. dk FOREST, Chairman 










JOHN M. GLENN. New York 



WILLIAM .1. KERBY, Washington 
JULIAN W. MACK. Washington 
V. EVER1T MACY, New York 
SIMON N. PATTEN, Philadelphia 
LILLIAN D. WALD, New fork 
ALFRED T. WHITE, Brooklyn 

The Survey Associates. Inc.. is an adventure in co-operative journalism ; incorporated 
under the laws of the state of New York. November. 191:!. as a membership organization 
without shares or stockholders. Membership is open to readers who become contributors of 
$10 or more a year. It is this widespread, convinced backing and personal interest which 
has made The Survey, a living thing. 

The Survey is a weekly journal of constructive philanthropy, founded in the 90's by the 
Charity Organization Society of the City of New York. The first weekly issue of each month 
appears as an enlarged magazine number. 

From the start, the magazine and its related activities have been broadly conceived as an 
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The GIST of IT— 

JJEHIND the war lies the real struggle 
of our century — between law and an- 
archy, justice and force, writes David Starr 
Jordan. Armies and navies may make for 
victory, but never for peace. Militarism 
is a poison to society. Page 115. 

gRYAN MULLANPHY gave a half mil- 
lion dollars to St. Louis in trust to 
help homeseekers and gold-miners in the 
days when St. Louis was the point when- 
all changed from the last tie on the rail- 
road to prairie schooners with "Pike's Peak 
or Bust" painted on their canvas sides. Idle 
for years, the fund has been revived by a 
group of social workers to help the great 
stream of modern immigrants in need of 
funds, advice and a friendly boost over the 
thank-you-ma'ams in the modern trails. 
Page 114. 

Y) RIVKX to our shores by the mere chance 
of a domineering officer in the Aus- 
trian army, Karl Bitter reached not only 
the front rank among sculptors but a rare 
degree of Americanism. An appreciation 
of the man by Mr. Villard and some ex- 
amples of his work. Page 112. 

*y HE way of a probation officer with a kid 
set forth as a parable by one who i-. 
neither officer nor boy but has been both, 
and lives to share his experience a hundred- 
fold. Page 109. 

pLORIDA has made a bit of progress 
toward better treatment of her Negro 
prisoners. But they still are hired out, at 
the mercy of drivers, licked with great 
straps, worked in standing water, chased 
by bloodhounds. A striking story of what 
lies behind the vial of clear spirits of tur- 
pentine in your medicine closet. Page 103. 

tribute to Andrew Furuseth, the gaunt 
Norse champion of the seamen's bill. La 
Follette in the Senate and Furuseth at large 
in the United States were prime factors in 
bringing about the "sailors' emancipation 
day." Page 116. 

PJY bills providing for public employment 
bureaus and stricter regulation of pri- 
vate bureaus, Pennsylvania proposes to 
strike at one of the factors which keep 
her great immigrant population the prey of 
padroni, gang politicians and saloon-keep- 
ers. A further instalment of Miss San- 
ville's series on Social Legislation in the 
Keystone State. Page 118. 

*yHE State Industrial Commission, created 
in the closing hours of the legislature 
which adjourned last Saturday, is hailed 
by John B. Andrews as New York's most 
important law since workmen's compensa- 
tion was established. Page 101. Mrs. Kel 
ley, on the other hand, roundly denounce - 
it as a ripper measure, rushed through in 
haste, bad in principle and weak in organ- 
ization. Page 102 




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Travel Studies in Civic and Social Progress 

Tour of South America, June 23 — Sept. 3 
Tour of United States, July 1 — Aug. 5 

Full Official Programme on Request 



<J Index for Volume XXX 
March, 1915, inclusive, w 

<fl Bound volumes, in stout 
plus postage. 

^ Survey binders, for the 



RVEY, from October. 1914, to 
on application. 

:her back and corners, $2.50 
handy and serviceable. $1.00 

III of The Su 

ill be sent free 
cloth with lea 

current issues. 




Some personal experiences at 
the front are given in the current issue 
of the American Journal of Nursing in 
letters just received from Red Cross 
nurses who have seen service in France 
and Servia. 

One of the Servian letters describes 
the hospital, formerly a factory run by 
the Sultan of Turkey, but now cleaned 
and converted into something more than 
a mere shelter for the men, — 2,000 of 
them, lying on straw on the floor. Beds 
are available for only 250 of the more 
seriously wounded and actually ill. 

The letter was apparently written be- 
fore the outbreak of typhus, and the 
nurse mentions only smallpox and chol- 
era which they did not dread before 
warm weather. She adds : 

"Personally, the hardships are not easy 
to bear. I am selfish and feel keenly the 
loss of heat, light and other comforts. 
Water is as precious as alcohol is to the 
average hospital." 

This reported scarcity of water re- 
veals a situation very serious for those 
who face the typhus epidemic, for at 
present the best known protection against 
the fever is cleanliness. 

The nurses who went to France felt 
that they had "stepped right into the war 
as soon as we got on board La Touraine 
at her wharf in New York, for she was 
loaded down with horseshoes for the 
French cavalry, with automobiles to 
make ambulance cars, ammunition, and 
men good and true going back to fight 
for France." 

Of these would-be soldiers, the letter 
says "they were all quite cheerful, even 
to the weak-looking youth whose mother 
had come over to fetch him back to 
fight." Another man was returning, al- 
though a naturalized American citizen, 
so that his mother need not feel "out of 
it" with no man belonging to her on the 
firing-line ! 

Personalities are sketched with con- 
vincing lines. There is the plump order- 
ly who so highly esteemed afternoon 
tea, reiterated that he would "do any- 
thing for the boys" until it came time 
for a particularly difficult dressing, when 
he added to his slogan "but I can't stand 

Volume XXXIV, No. 5. 

that smell," and fled from the ward. 
There is the young lady, more zealous 
than instructed, who thought a patient 
was "getting on beautifully" because his 
temperature went up a little more every- 
day . And the Tommy Atkins, who an- 
noyed by an auxiliary's slowness in serv- 
ing his meals, called: "Say, tell one of 
them there countesses to hurry up with 
my broth." 

The soldiers called the nurses such 
names as "petite were" and one another 
"mon vieux." Bullets or bits of shell 
taken out of their wounds seemed to 
them almost mascots, and to lose one of 
these precious mementos was a very seri- 
ous matter. There was a Senagalese 
soldier who did not mind having his arm 
cut off, — he did not need to work, for 
he had two wives at home ! 

The six months' experience convinced 
the writers of these letters that France 
needs less the personal service on the 
battle line than money, clothes and hos- 
pital supplies "because everyone in 
France is poor now"; and besides the 
destitute French, there are thousands of 
destitute Belgians to be cared for. 

aQUR Argosy— a ship of life and 
love" — is to sail about May 1 
laden with food for the 85,000 war 
babies and mothers of Belgium. It 
goes consigned to little nine-year-old 
Princess Marie Jose, and its contents 
are being contributed in large part by 
the children of the United States. 
Prizes of $50, $30 and $20 will be 
awarded to the children under sixteen 
writing the three best messages to 
the Princess. The Belgian Relief 
Fund is responsible for the project. 


The detention of 82 Greek im- 
migrants suspected of having typhus 
gave practical point last week to the 
meeting at the Academy of Medicine to 
discuss the proposed transfer of the 
quarantine station at the port of New 
York from state to federal control. 

It was the consensus of opinion that, 
faced with such risks as America runs 
from the plague-ridden Balkans, only 
the great resources and trained person- 
nel of the federal service can be safely 
set as watchdog at our principal port 
of entry. 

That every measure possible should 
be taken to protect this country, was 
made clear by the vivid description of 
conditions in Servia given by Henry 
James. Jr. Only five weeks ago Mr. 
lames was traveling in that warswept 
region, and at that time epidemics had 
already begun. Typhus cases had been 
reported, and typhoid, relapsing fever, 
smallpox, scarlet fever, pneumonia and 
meningitis patients were in sufficient 
numbers to make their care a serious 
problem at any time, and an incredibly 
difficult problem under the present dis- 
integration of society. 

Mr. James referred to the general des- 
titution which in itself is the most 
favorable condition for the spread of 
disease. Material is not available for 
new clothing; and therefore the clean- 
liness which is so great a necessity is 

The civilian population rather than 
the army is at present the chief sufferer. 
It is houseless and hungry in an im- 
poverished country. 

Mr. James considered that the con- 
ditions in northern France were in the 
matter of overcrowding and insufficient 
support, appallingly similar to earlier 
conditions in Servia. A disease break- 
ing out among refugees here must be- 
come epidemic with the same appalling 
rapidity as further east. 

The whole situation pointed. Mr. 
James believed, to an immediate neces- 
sity for most vigorous measures of pre- 
caution for the safety of this contin- 

Dr. William C. Woodward, health of- 



The Survey, May 1, 1915 

ficer of the District of Columbia, made 
practical application to the proposed 
quarantine transfer, of such facts as 
those given by Mr. James. Dr. Wood- 
ward urged federal control of all quar- 
antine stations for the sake of the na- 
tion's relations to foreign governments, 
for the sake of its relation to our own 
government, and in the interests of 
economy and efficiency of the service. 

He recalled the experience of Cali- 
fornia a few years ago when in fear of 
the spread of plague a conference of 
public health officials was called. As a 
result, the state was notified that unless 
its quarantine were brought under fed- 
eral administration, other states would 
quarantine against California. The 
transfer was shortly after completed. 

"No matter how excellent a local 
quarantine may be, how adequate for 
ordinary work week in and week out," 
said Dr. Woodward, "when an emer- 
gency comes it is not elastic enough. It 
cannot control immediately a sufficient 
number of men, or adequate machinery 
and supplies to meet instantly the de- 
mand for doubled or tripled exertion." 

The chief speaker of the evening, 
William Howard Taft, took up one by 
one some of the criticisms of the pro- 
posed transfer. Drawing on his person- 
al experience, Mr. Taft told of the work 
of the federal Public Health Service in 
the Philippines, Cuba and Panama with 
all sorts of plagues. It has the work of 
Gorgas and Strong and Heiser and 
Perry to draw upon, — to mention only a 
few officials who have rendered dis- 
tinguished service in preventive as well 
as remedial measures. 

"The Public Health Service has ex- 
perience, numbers, and supplies to draw 
upon," said Mr. Taft. "It has a back- 
ing of funds and available laboratories 
which make it equal to any corps in the 
world. It maintains now more than 
fifty quarantine stations. It has agents 
at every port of the world who send in 
constant communications concerning 
health conditions abroad and immediate 
notification of emergencies." 

The New York state health law, Mr. 
Taft believed the best at present in the 
country, but quarantine is a peculiarly 
national matter — as much so as com- 

The criticism that local opinion should 
be consulted as to local conditions, Mr. 
Taft had small sympathy for. He said 
that when there is no necessity for 
quarantine there is no local opinion ; 
when a need for emergency measures 
arises, local opinion should be disre- 
garded if it attempts to suppress the 
truth or to interfere with measures 
which are for the good of all. 

One great advantage of the federal 
service, he pointed out, is its imper- 
sonality. By this, it will carry out pre- 
cautionary measures which are for the 
good of the whole country without re- 
gard to the views of local persons not 
directly responsible and politics is elim- 

inated from the service, he said. 

Just because of the enormous immi- 
gration which come to the port of New 
York and passes thence into all parts of 
the country, Mr. Taft believed quaran- 
tine at the port of New York a pecu- 
liarly national responsibility. 

Dr. Walter B. James, president of the 
Academy of Medicine, presided at the 
meeting and read several letters from 
health officials in different parts of the 
country, including General Gorgas, tes- 
tifying to a widespread desire for fed- 
eral control of this port. He announced 
that the Republican Club of New York 
had passed a resolution endorsing the 
transfer. He considered it highly sig- 
nificant, that a prominent party or- 
ganization was ready to transfer this 
function from the Republican adminis- 
tration in Albany to the Democratic ad- 
ministration at Washington — an interest- 
ing testimony to the elimination of 
politics from the Public Health Service. 



The largest survey of a city's 
educational system since the New York 
school inquiry is to be undertaken in 
Cleveland. The work will be under the 
auspices of the survey committee of the 
Cleveland Foundation, and at least $30,- 
000 will be expended. 

All phases of Cleveland's educatioral 
activities will be covered and a voca- 
tional survey of the principal industries 
will be made for the purpose of formu- 
lating a constructive program of indus- 
trial education. The inquiry will an- 
alyze industrial processes in all the 
more important manual occupations, and 
related to this there will be a study of 
trade and educational conditions among 
the wage-earning groups for which vo- 
cational training would be of benefit. 

The plans contemplate a detailed 
study of the present school facilities 
and of means for their improvement and 
extension. It is expected that the work 
will be completed by the end of the pres- 
ent year. As general director of the 
survey, the Cleveland Foundation has 
secured Leonard P. Ayres, director of 
the Division of Education of the Rus- 
sell Sage Foundation. The industrial 
inquiry will be in charge of R. R. Lutz, 
also of the Russell Sage Foundation. 

Phases of the survey, which will not 
necessarily be undertaken now but which 
are ultimately contemplated, cover 
studies of the assimilation of immi- 
grants; of mental and physical defec- 
tives and the kinds of training and oc- 
cupation possible for each grade ; the 
opportunity of the schools in connection 
with leisure time and recreation and 
health factors — such as the physical 
conditions of school children which may 
limit their educational capacities, the re- 
action of school life on physical wel- 
fare, and neighborhood sanitary habits — 
to determine what health instruction 

should be emphasized in schools ; re- 
sponsibilities and opportunities of citi- 
zenship to furnish the basis of recom- 
mendations for training in social and 
civic duties. 


Pursuant to a concurrent reso- 
lution of both houses of the Arkansas 
Legislature, the governor has just ap- 
pointed an unpaid commission to inves- 
tigate the conditions and needs of the 
feebleminded in that state. It is to pre- 
pare a full report of its investigations 
and make recommendations to the next 
session. It is given authority to call on 
state, county and municipal officers for 

The resolution for the commission 
was introduced after a special commit- 
tee of five from the senate and seven 
from the house had heard a lecture on 
the defective given in Little Rock by 
Alexander Johnson, director of the ex- 
tension department of the Training 
School at Vineland, N. J. The depart- 
ment is pledged to hearty co-operation 
and Mr. Johnson will probably spend two 
months or more in Arkansas during the 
fall and winter. 

It is probable that the federal Chil- 
dren's Bureau, which is doing some re- 
search work along these lines, will co- 
operate with the commission and the ex- 
tension department. 

The plan as now outlined is to make 
a wide inquiry by questionnaire, followed 
by an intensive canvas of certain sec- 
tions of the state, which will include the 
testing of many school children and 
others. This will be accompanied, or 
followed, by a publicity campaign, to 
include public lectures, newspaper work, 
the formation of local committees and 
the like, the whole leading up to the 
presentation of a bill to the next ses- 
sion of the legislature to create an in- 
stitution for all classes of mental de- 
fectives except the insane. 

At the present moment there are more 
than 100 feebleminded persons in the 
state hospital for insane, since the law 
allows counties whose quota of insane in 
the hospital is not full to send feeble- 
minded persons there. These cannot 
have what they need at the hospital and 
they are a conflicting and disturbing ele- 

The chairman of the commission is 
Dr. J. L. Green, formerly superintend- 
ent of the Hospital for Insane, now of 
Hot Springs; the vice-chairman is Dr. 
C. W. Garrison of Little Rock, state 
health officer and state epidemiologist 
of the Public Health Service; the sec- 
retary is Durand Whipple, president of 
the Associated Charities of Little Rock 
and an active social worker ; and the 
other members are J. M. Futrell of 
Paragould and Louis Josephs of Texar- 
kana, two of the leading members of the 

Common Welfare 




In the closing hours of its ses- 
sion the New York Legislature of 1915 
by creating the State Industrial Com- 
mission, has enacted the most advanced 
system for the administration of its 
labor laws, including its workmen's com- 
pensation act, that has yet been adopted 
by any American state. Following 
mass meetings and circular protests 
against "raids" upon the labor law, 
there has come from a conservative 
legislature at the eleventh hour the 
most important labor law since the pass- 
age of the workmen's compensation act. 

A striking analogy in the enactment of 
the two laws lies in the fact that in both 
cases advanced measures were secured 
with apparent suddenness, but in reality 
after mature consideration. One year 
ago, it will be remembered, Governor 
Glynn, with unfaltering resolution, put 
through in the closing hours of a spe- 
cial session the most liberal workmen's 
compensation law in this country. To 
the compensation commission he appoint- 
ed at least one national figure, John 
Mitchell. At the head of the reorgan- 
ized State Labor Department he placed 
James M. Lynch, longtime president of 
the International Typographical Union. 

With the political overturn in 1914, 
more conservative men, representatives 
for the most part of business sentiment, 
came into control at Albany. They be- 
gan early in January to hack at the labor 
laws. Exemptions partially to nullify 
one-day-of-rest-in-seven, amendments to 
break down legal limitations upon the 
day and night work of women in up- 
state canneries, provisions permitting 
casualty insurance companies to dicker 
with workmen injured in the course of 
duty, were introduced and hurried to- 
ward passage. 

Came then the crowning assault upon 
the labor law, by Senator Spring, serv- 
ing his first term from Cattaraugus, in 
a nastily drafted, inadequate and un- 
workable bill proposing to consolidate the 
Labor Department and the Compensa- 
tion Commission. A public hearing was 
held in the Senate chamber. Organized 
labor appeared, solid against consolida- 
tion. "We have built up the Labor De- 
partment through twenty-eight years"; 
"Leave it alone" ; "Go out and create 
some new jobs for yourselves !" were 
bits of information and advice hurled by 
representatives of labor at Senator 
Spring. The Associated Industries, rep- 
resenting 467 employers, urged immedi- 
ate enactment of that bill, and the forces 
in control at Albany declared their in- 
tention of passing it. Efforts to secure a 
commission for further study proved un- 

The Association for Labor Legislation, 
through its special committee, was, as a 
result of long investigation, "without ex- 
ception in favor of the industrial com- 
mission form of administration of all 

labor laws, including workmen's com- 
pensation, but unanimously opposed to 
this Spring bill." Out of the clash of 
contending interests came a request for 
a real commission measure, carefully 

This new industrial commission bill, 
substantially as enacted, was drafted by 
Thomas I. Parkinson, director of the 
Legislative Drafting Bureau of Colum- 
bia University, who had the advant- 
age of intimate association with the 
legislative drafting work of the New 
York State Factory Investigating Com- 
mission. The bill includes in its provis- 
ions the conclusions of the association's 
New York committee, as well as the con- 
structive ideas worked out and tested by 
John R. Commons in connection with 
his great service to Wisconsin as a mem- 
ber of the pioneer Industrial Commis- 
sion created in that state by the law of 
1911 and copied two years later by Ohio. 
It is thus directly in line with the unmis- 
takable tendency in American legisla- 
tion, the New York Industrial Board 
created within the Department of Labor 
in 1913 being itself a halting step in 
the same direction. 

Under this new Industrial Commission 
of five members to be appointed by the 
governor for six-year terms expiring dif- 
ferent years, with salaries of $8,000, the 
existing bureaus and their staffs are re- 
tained intact. Each commissioner will be 
made personally responsible for some 
portion of the administrative work. The 
commission will have all the powers of 
the previous Industrial Board for the 
formulation of rules and regulations, and 
will also administer the workmen's com- 
pensation law. Those who realize that 
the most important function of compen- 
sation is not the mere payment of claims 
but rather the prevention of accidents 
by means of that "co-operative pressure" 
made possible by this form of social in- 
surance will understand the importance 
of thus unifying the work of accident 
compensation and factory inspection. 

Moreover, to secure uniform and ex- 
peditious enforcement, in the interests 
of both employer and employe, it is pro 
vided that the question of legality or rea- 
sonableness of a commission order can- 
not be used as a defense in case of prose- 
cution for alleged violation, but must be 
raised directly in proceedings for the re- 
peal or modification of the order. 

An unsalaried Industrial Council, with 
advisory powers only, is to be appointed 
by the governor, five members to repre- 
sent employers and five to represent em- 
ployes. Its purpose is not only advisory 
to the commission in matters of general 
policy, but also to the State Civil Serv- 
ice Commission in making appointments 
in the department, and to bring repre- 
sentative employers and labor men to- 
gether for conferences on questions 
arising in the administration of the laws. 

The provision for the nomination of 
the ten members of the advisory council 
by representative organizations of em- 
ployers and employes in the state, which 
would have provided for their expenses 
in attending occasional meetings, was 
practically the only feature rejected by 
the Senate Committee on Labor and In- 
dustries in advance of the introduction 
of the bill, which was then passed with- 
out amendment. As under the old law, 
temporary joint committees may be ap- 
pointed to assist in the formulation of 
rules for different trades. 

Provision is made for the appointment 
of three deputy commissioners, a secre- 
tary, and a counsel with two assistants. 
All other employes are to be selected 
from either the competitive or the non- 
competitive civil service lists, special pro- 
vision being made to keep positions from 
becoming political plums under the 
"exempt" classification. It is expected 
that thus a higher grade of persons, in- 
cluding qualified industrial workers with 
practical experience, will be attracted by 
the prospect of permanence and advance- 

A carefully considered section of the 
law authorizes the commission to act for 
individual employes who have been sub- 
jected to fraud, extortion, or other im- 
proper practices, but who have not the 
means or the opportunity to seek redress 
individually, in the same manner as the 
Interstate Commerce Commission and 
several state public utility commissions 
take up the cases of individual shippers. 
Frequently, these cases involve a general 
practice from which many individuals 
suffer, and one successful suit inures to 
the benefit of all persons similarly situat- 
ed. This provision, and the requirement 
for a permanent advisory industrial coun- 
cil, mark important new steps in the de- 
velopment of labor law administration in 

Among the advantages to be secured 
through the commission are economy in 
inspection and the avoidance of the fric- 
tion caused by rival bodies of inspectors, 
elimination of duplicate reports and 
statistics of accidents, consolidation of 
all interests for efficient accident and 
disease prevention, and the general intro- 
duction of the rule of "co-operation 
versus clubbing" in the administration of 
the labor law. Proponents of the meas- 
ure, including such men as Professors 
Seager and Lindsay of Columbia Uni- 
versity, John A. Fitch of The Survey, 
Dr. George M. Price of the Joint Board 
of Sanitary Control, formerly director of 
investigations for the State Factory in- 
vestigating Commission, have, of course, 
made no claims as to its perfection. As 
in all legislation, minor flaws will have 
to be remedied as they are revealed by 
experience, but the central principles of 
this industrial commission plan are be- 
lieved to be sound and lasting. 

By timely work, made possible only 
by previous preparation, "something good 


The Survey, May 1, 1915 

has been brought out of Nazareth." And 
now that super-important question natur- 
ally arises: "Will the governor put the 
right men on the commission?" It is 
widely rumored that labor will be repre- 
sented by the reappointment of John 
Mitchell and James M. Lynch, both men 
of national reputation. Will the gov- 
ernor succeed in getting for this import- 
ant work practical administrators of 
equal vision and power to represent 
other interests? 

In one respect, at least, the time of 

reorganization has been opportune. Ad- 
ministration of the labor laws, like other 
agencies of similar importance in the 
affairs of the state, should be given a 
place in the constitution. As constitu- 
tional offices the responsible positions at 
the heads of departments could not be 
altered with every change of the poli- 
tical majority in the legislature and 
would be secure against political upheav- 
als. And the Constitutional Convention 
which meets but once in twenty years is 
now in session. 



The Consumers' League has 
opposed the Industrial Commission bill 
at every stage and now urges Governor 
Whitman to veto it, primarily because 
it provides for a momentous leap in the 
dark, and also for several other reasons. 

For the enforcement of a labor law, 
the prime requisite is clearness, pre- 
cision, definiteness in its provisions. 
From the commission bill this quality is 
conspicuously absent. Doubt and uncer- 
tainty are its characteristics. 

In the first paragraph the whole un- 
dertaking is placed in jeopardy by the 
following words: "There shall be a de- 
partment of labor the head of which 
shall be a commission." Whether this is 
possible in the state of New York, the 
courts will have to decide. 

The bill creates an Industrial Council 
which is intended to act as an advisory 
check on the Industrial Commission. It 
is in the words of Mr. Parkinson "frank- 
ly an experiment." This experimental 
council is to be unpaid and without an 
allowance for expenses. It is to have no 
secretary of its own, but depend upon 
the secretary of the commission. It is 
to be composed of five representatives 
of employers and five of employes, and 
a chairman who shall be "any person not 
a member of the council." 

The Industrial Council is not required 
to give its whole time to its work. But 
all rules and regulations proposed by the 
political Industrial Commission must 
first be submitted to the experimental 
unpaid council for their consideration 
and advice; and the rules and regula 
tious of the political Industrial Commis- 
sion shall constitute the industrial code! 

Among many questions yet to lie an- 
swered about this alarming innovation 
are three important ones: How are the 
labor representatives on the experimental 
council to subsist without salaries or ex- 
penses? Arc they to be paid out of the 
treasuries of the unions? If so, how are 
they to represent the interests of the 
great mass of unorganized labor, and of 
children, and of women who are the 
most rapidly increasing part of the work 
insr class ~1 

While the experimental, unpaid coun- 
cil involves delay and uncertainty, an- 
other provision equally new in labor 
legislation in this state and alien to the 
development of the labor code during a 
quarter century, does away with the 
labor law outright so far as all provis- 
ions for safety are concerned, and sub- 
stitutes for it an interminable series of 
decisions by the political Industrial Com- 
mission in innumerable individual cases. 
It reads as follows : 

"If in the opinion of the commission 
there shall be practical difficulties in 
carrying out the strict letter of a pro- 
vision of this chapter, or of a rule or 
regulation adopted by the commission af- 
fecting the construction or alteration of 
buildings and structural changes therein, 
the installation of fixtures and apparatus, 
safeguarding the machinery and pre- 
vention of accidents, a variation from or 
modification of its requirements, so that 
the spirit of the provision or rule or 
regulation shall be observed, public 
safety secured and substantial justice 
done, may he permitted by the commis- 
sion as provided by this section." 

There an- to lie petitions with state- 
ments of 'Mounds and hearings and re- 


From tiic announcement of the 
Southern Sociological Congress which 
meets Ma\ 8-11 at Houston, Texas. 

hearings and appeals to the Supreme 
Court and the Court of Appeals, not 
from classes of persons affected, but 
from each individually. 

This highly technical work is to be 
done by commissioners whose only quali- 
fication set forth in the law is purely 
political. They must be of different 
political parties ! The evils of a bi- 
partizan commission are to be fastened 
upon workmen's compensation and the 
labor law of the greatest of the indus- 
trial states. 

The Industrial Board is abolished and 
each of the five political commissioners 
is to supervise and direct a bureau, but 
each must be presumed to know the de- 
tails of the work of all because a vote 
of three of the five is needed for a de- 
cision on all rules and all matters of 
general policy. 

Incidentally the women wage-earners 
are deprived of representation. For 
political commissionerships carrying 
salaries of $8,000 are not entrusted to 
women. The abolition of the Industrial 
Board thus involves the loss to the state 
of the services of Pauline Goldmark who 
has been the board's ablest member. 

The Workmen's Compensation Com- 
mission is abolished. All its powers and 
duties are transferred bodily to the five 
political industrial commissioners, who 
must submit all their rules to the experi- 
mental unpaid Industrial Council for 
consideration and advice. But the coun- 
cil need not give its whole time to its 
work. The machinery for reference. 
consideration, reconsideration, appeal 
and litigation, including jury trials, 
threatens the injured workers and their 
dependents, and the survivors of those 
who are killed, with a Twentieth Cen- 
tury version of Dickens' famous chan- 
cery case, lasting from generation to 
generation in courts long notorious for 
their delays. 

The Industrial Commission bill is a 
ripper bill, a political product of secrecy 
and haste. Drafted after April 6. it 
passed the Senate on April 19 without a 
hearing, and the Assembly on April 22 
also without a hearing, although the 
labor organizations and the Consumers' 
League urgently requested hearings. It 
was passed in response to no demand 
from any of the bodies affected by it. It 
was endorsed by no Chamber of Com- 
merce, Board of Trade, or other organ- 
ization of business men. The. labor or- 
ganizations oppose it vigorously, and 
urgently demand that it be vetoed. Gov- 
ernor Whitman's record in regard to all 
legislation affecting women (with the 
single exception of his signing the bill 
for individual private settlement 
workmen's compensation claims') en- 
courages the Consumers' League to hope 
that he may veto the Commis- 
sion bill. 


Impressions of the Convict Camps of Florida 
By Marc N. Goodnow 


THE huge pine forest, its cool 
shadows interlacing across a 
ground growth of palmetto stub- 
ble, afforded a tranquil retreat to 
a lonely wayfarer that Sunday morning. 
The pungent aroma of fresh resin was 
exhilarating. Palmetto leaves playing 
against each other in the light spring 
breeze and a distant, mournful baying of 
hounds were the only sounds that broke 
the stillness. 

Suddenly the baying of hounds grew 
near and raucous; every tree became a 
sounding-board — a voice in itself. Near- 
er and nearer came a great scuffling and 
crunching. A man plowed his way 
through the mat of dead leaves, grass 
and pine needles — a Negro running head- 
long, his face burnished with sweat, 
casting furtive glances over his shoulder. 
On his body was the flannel garb of a 

For a moment the swift impression 
of witnessing an escape flashed through 
the spectator's brain, but there was not 
the slightest chance of that. The dogs 
were beating through the palmetto 
growth like an avalanche down a moun- 
tain side — six of them, their dilated nos- 
trils scenting the ground every few 
leaps, tongues hanging dry from their 
vicious mouths. 

Great drops of sweat flooded the re- 
ceding forehead of the hunted black ; 
sweat glued his striped shirt to his 
muscle-taut body ; to one foot clung a 
coarse shoe; his trousers were torn and 

frayed from contact with sharp palmet- 
to leaves and wet and sticky with the 
ooze of a nearby swamp. 

He swept one last look across his 
shoulder. Then, with an agility surpris- 
ing to see in a body seemingly spent 
from long pursuit, the black arms shot 
up, the legs came up under the thick 
trunk, and the Negro in one giant, prim- 
itive spring, had landed six or seven 
feet up the stock of a virgin pine — 
straddling it as a gorilla would a grape- 
vine — and "shinned" on up to a place 
well beyond the reach of the dogs. 

Almost in the same instant, a hound 
pup sprang even higher up the tree and 
fell back savagely, not once taking his 
hungry, fire-shot eyes from the crouch- 
ing form above. In another instant the 
entire canine detachment had surrounded 
the tree, baying furiously. 

A shout arose as three husky young 
men, mounted upon horses and wearing 
large black slouch hats, with long bar- 
reled pistols protruding from their hip 
pockets, swept up in full pace. They 
dismounted, leashed the dogs, and led 
them back through the woods. When 
they had reached a safe distance, the 
black, with the hunted look still on his 
face, crept down and shambled after. 

It was only the usual Sunday morn- 
ing practice, the rehearsal of the hounds 
— professional convict-trailers, — from a 
nearby turpentine camp manned by 
forty Negro convicts, sold body, mind 
and soul, to the distiller of turpentine fjor 

the sum of $4UU apiece per annum. And 
this usual Sunday morning rehearsal took 
place, not as you might suppose, in South 
America or Zanzibar or Mexico, but in 
the state of Florida ! 

Of course, dogs must needs be kept in 
practice ; disuse might dull the keenness 
of their sense of smell. It is a practical 
application of the theory that men and 
animals alike lose the talents which they 
do not improve. A "cracking" good 
hound dog in a convict camp is a much 
more fit object for the pride of officials 
than the black man who dips pitch or 
scrapes resin and toils in palmetto scrubs 
and swamps, wet to his shoulders and 
ill with pneumonia, rheumatism or con- 
sumption ! 

There is small fear that the Negro 
who plays the role of escaped convict 
will escape. His trail is only an hour or 
two cold, so the hounds pick it up easily 
and follow rapidly. Yet, who knows but 
that the hunted creature of that balmy 
Sunday morning, shot forward blindly 
in a mad desire to escape the punishment 
meted out to him in the midst of a wil- 
derness of pine forest and infested 
swamps, might not have been bent act- 
ually upon no ''make-believe" escape? 
At any rate, the officers and guards did 
not inquire after the health of the con- 
vict at the end of the chase; they only 
patted the dogs' heaving ribs and stroked 
their heads in appreciation. 

This particular chase I witnessed two 
years ago. It was then a weekly custom 



The Survey, May 1, 1915 

in each of the thirty-one convict camps 
of the state of Florida. Since then some 
of these camps have gone out of exist- 
ence and the state has made a beginning 
in humane consideration of its prison- 
ers. But other camps were given a new 
lease of life and are still running. 
While the light of a new day is dawning 
in the penology of Florida, the condi- 
tions now to be described and the spirit 
back of them, still play a dominant part 
in the treatment of convicts not only in 
Florida, but throughout a large portion 
of the South. 

Along the homeward trail through 
the pine woods that Sunday morning, 
horses, riders, hounds and Negro length- 
ened out in caravan-like twists. A mile's 
tramp brought the party to a clump of 
whitewashed, rough board buildings 
squatted in the white sand close to a 
railroad. From a distance the largest 
building had the appearance of a ware- 
house or a stable surrounded by a high 
board fence or stockade. It was a story 
and a half high, thrice as long as its 
width, with windows along the sides 
heavily barred. 

At two opposite corners of the high 
stockade were rudely constructed plat- 
forms sheltered by as rude a roof of 
pine boards. Beneath these shelters sat 
two young men lazily smoking cigar- 
ettes, their long-barreled pistols beside 

Near the railroad was the camp store, 
or commissary. Inside another enclos- 
ure was a small, one-story shack from 
one end of which a cloud of smoke is- 
suing, proclaimed the kitchen. Farther 
back in the same enclosure was another 
shack, open on three sides, and a pig- 

In the middle of the sandy yard stood 
a well, fed from surface water and the 
excess of the bayou more than a mile 
away. There were no trees, no grass, no 
shade of any kind, nothing but hot white 
sand and a few stumps. 

A lean, swarthy man of thirty-five 
years, wearing the ubiquitous black 
slouch hat and known by the official 
title of Captain, welcomed me as a visi- 

tor, and announced that dinner would 
be ready shortly. Until then we might 
inspect the camp. 

Working Squads 

The convicts are worked in three or 
four squads, each in charge of one or 
two guards and several dogs. One squad 
may box virgin trees, another dip fresh 
pine pitch, another scrape third-year 
trees, another pull fourth-year trees, and 
another back-box older trees that are 
sufficiently large to yield still more resin. 

The work is so arranged that the 
squads arrive at a certain stage of their 
rounds on certain days of the week. The 
entire territory is covered between early 
Monday morning and Friday night or 
Saturday noon. But it is constant and 
heavy work. A soft pitch is gathered 
from the open face of the blazed tree 
from March to October. From October 
to March, the gum must be scraped or 
pulled from the tree. The still, in which 
the gum and pitch are distilled into 
spirits of turpentine, is located near the 
camp and is kept supplied by teamsters 
and their wagons. A barrel of soft 
pitch produces approximately ten gal- 
lons of spirits of turpentine. In a single 
charge of ten barrels of scrapings, or 
gum, there are about six barrels of resin 
and two barrels of spirits. The stills 
run two charges a day ordinarily, and 
produce from 100 to 120 gallons of tur- 
pentine in one charge. 

"Sunday mornin' the men spend in 
cleanin' up, takin' a bath, and changin' 
clothes," drawled the captain, as the big 
gate of the stockade swung open and a 
growing pile of soiled, striped flannel 
garments became conspicuous. Here 
was the unique sight of a score of nude 
convicts, exchanging soiled garments for 
fresher ones. Their glistening bodies 
were burnished bronze in the strong sun- 
light and their huge, knotted muscles 
played under the skin like great cables. 

"The odor won't be very pleasant," 
.ulilcd the captain as he led the way to 
the bunkhouse and mess-room," but it is 
more the smell of disinfectant than any- 
thing else." 

The interior of the building was even 
more crude as a place in which to live 
than the exterior as a means of shelter. 
No attempt had been made to "finish" 
the building, as craftsmen would say; 
that is, to ceil, or plaster, or remove the 
bare effect of finished rafters and 
boards. A barricade of heavy timbers 
set vertically from floor to roof formed 
a partition between mess-room and 
sleeping quarters. Next to the only door 
of the building, was a small cage built 
of heavy timbers and furnished with a 
small heating stove and a chair for the 
guard who kept the night watch over the 
forty sleeping convicts. 

Two zinc-covered tables to the right 
of the entrance formed the dining-room 
tables; boxes and broken chairs formed 
the seats. In a corner close by, stood 
a sink and basin where the dishes were 
washed. Only dishes, pans, and spoons 
are used inside this stockade. There 
are no knives or forks (except for 
warden and guards). Fingers were 
made first; besides, knives and forks 
are much too ugly as weapons in a quar- 

In the same room, at the corner farth- 
est from the door, were two cracked 
porcelain-lined tubs set in a space not 
screened off but merely surrounded by 
torn wire netting. Several more broken 
chairs and boxes and a heating stove 
within a wooden pen, completed the fur- 
niture and equipment of the mess-room. 
On one wall, hung an illumination of the 
ten commandments, and several illus- 
trated psalms. On another wall hung 
the rules and regulations of the state 
prison authorities, almost too black from 
soot and grime to be deciphered. Ex- 
cept for these wall decorations, there 
was no evidence anywhere of any read- 

The bunk-room was a long, low com- 
partment filled with iron beds supporting 
filthy mattresses. The floor was bare 
and reasonably clean, and the entire in- 
terior smelled strongly of a mixture of 
formaldehyde and other disinfectants. 

"The beds are a bit old," was the ex- 
planation volunteered, "but we've made 





' £ 




a requisition for new ones. We disin- 
fect every other day and scrub the floor 
every morning. Sunday morning, of 
course, the men always take their time 
about things." 

In the mess-room the prisoners were 
singing and laughing and telling jokes. 
In one corner a black figure was just 
emerging from his "tub" ; in another, 
the rattle of tin and granite dishes told 
of preparations for dinner. 

The Vaudeville Troupe 

"Where's Charlie Jackson?" called 
the Captain, and two barefooted men 
shambled off to find Jackson. Presently 
the most genial smile one ever saw 
peered around the jamb of the door 
and a slender young Negro of thirty 
years shuffled into the room. 

"Charlie," said the Captain, "let's 
have a little harmonizin'." 

"Yassah, boss," he smiled, and forth- 
with assembled his troupe of vaudeville 
entertainers. Charlie disappeared for 
a moment and returned in his theatrical 
rigging of false whiskers, crooked cane, 
corncob pipe, straw hat, and a bend in 
his back which, with one arm akimbo, 
proclaimed him old Uncle Eph in the 
original skit "The Old Plantation." Eph 
had returned after forty years' absence 
to see his "ole mammy and the chillun." 
Mammy Liza was enacted by a young 
buck with a bandana tied about his head 
and falling over his shoulders. 

In the midst of this skit, in which 
Uncle Eph referred to his children gen- 
erally as "big hunks o' midnight." and 
in which each was letter perfect, they 
all broke into the song, "Pickin' Cotton." 
which was the cue for "buck and wing" 
dancing. Each of the seven indulged 
in his own brand of dancing and exe- 
cuted steps one never saw before — in 
shoes and barefoot. Some one pitched 
a quarter to the floor and the antics of 
the dancer in picking up the coin threw 
the observers into fits of laughter. Then 
followed a series of plantation and 
camp-meeting songs and hymns by an- 
other set of singers — curiously enough 
the most vicious men in the camp, it 
was said. 

"Almost every night it's just like this," 
said a guard. "They go over this stuff 
time and again. They gave a minstrel 
show last Christmas and made quite a 
lot of money from the visitors." 

"Don't they do it largely to forget 
they are here?" 

"All their singing and dancing 
wouldn't make them forget that," an- 
swered the guard with a significant 
glance. "But after the first three or 
four months, the tragedy wears off and 
they get to be like the fellows who have 
been here for years. It's the man who 
first comes to one of these camps that 
broods and gets sullen and is always 
thinking of getting away. That's the 


dangerous time, w lien he has to be 
watched, and about the only time when 
he tries to break camp. I could almost 
tell you how long every man has been 
in this stockade simply by the look on 
his face." 

Outside in the open area between the 
building and the fence, beyond which no 
one except a trusty might go, there was 
an odor of meat boiling in a kettle set 
over a small fire. Hovering over the 
fire was a man in stripes, holding a 
granite dish in one hand and stirring the 
contents of the pot with the other, and 
intoning something about "dat ole 
swamp 'possum an' yam tater." And 
then as if by the magic of his words, he 
drew out a great yellow potato as well 
as the leg bone of a 'possum, truly the 
greatest gastronomic delight of the 

"That's the nigger the dogs chased 
this morning." said a guard. 

Certainly he was enjoying himself 
now, however great the strain of the 
morning might have been. 

In another corner of the yard, a 
dozen men were engaged in shaping 
and smoothing long pine poles for use 
in pitch gathering. Charlie Jackson had 
come away from his vaudeville within 
and was now laboriously turning the 
crank of a grindstone while one of his 
co-workers sharpened the end of a three- 
cornered file for use in the woods. 

All the men were in their barefeet; 
feet, too, that were swelled and mis- 
shapen almost beyond recognition. They 
were spread out, broken down, cut, 
gouged, blistered and scratched; and 
the nails of many of their toes were 
gone. It is hard to imagine what com- 
fort such feet will ever find in the shoes 
of civilized society when release from 
prison conditions finally comes. 

"Niggah's dat fust comes heah," said 
Charlie's mate at the grindstone, "what 

ain*t use' to bein' on dey feet, gits fagged 
easy an" hit mek dey feet swell up sump- 
tin' awful, boss. Dat's why dey all goes 
barefoot in de stockade an' roun' camp 
Dey shoes ain't big enough foh dey feet. 
Mine doan swell no mo'." 

One could see that easily enough ; 
they had already reached their limit. 

Doodle's Kitchen 

Few American housewives would put 
up with such conditions as were found 
in Doodle's kitchen, to which the cap- 
tain and visitor and several guards now 
went for dinner. Doodle was a wiry 
little cook with a genial and continual 
smile, but he had not been schooled in 
domestic science. On one corner of 
this unique culinary establishment was 
a rude stove of bricks with a metal 
strip across the top. In another corner 
was a barrel of flour and a bread board ; 
and finally, a chest containing supplies. 

There was no flooring; the kitchen 
was carpeted only with a soft layer of 
sand. Through the open door strolled 
at will two huge Berkshire hogs and 
any of the six or seven dogs that hap- 
pened to smell something they liked. 
The dining-room adjoined the front of 
the kitchen. 

The meal consisted of stewed toma- 
toes, boiled rice with tomatoes, soggy 
cornbread, leaden biscuits and fried 
chipped V - f. Cream for coffee came 
from co .ensed milk cans, fly-specked 
and rust\ . The knives and forks were 
encrusted with a thick coating of rust 
which made contact with one's teeth the 
equivalent of excruciating toothache and 
produced a form of nausea. The beef 
was well cooked, though it was too 
strongly seasoned with sand to make 
an appropriate viand for a Broadway 

The state report catalogues the fol- 
lowing as the diet of the prisoners: 


The Survey, May 1, 1915 

"Good bacon, meal, flour, grits, rice, 
peas, white potatoes, onions, beans, 
syrup, coffee, vegetables. In addition, 
prisoners are served twice a week with 
fresh beef, pork, or fish for a change. 
On Thanksgiving, Christmas, and July 
4. when there is no work, they have 
chicken, turkey, pork, pies, cakes and 
all kinds of fruits." 

A tempting menu. But this is what 
the convicts tell you they get: "Three 
biscuits and a piece of meat for break- 
fast; biscuits or cornbread, and meat 
for dinner in the woods; biscuits, meat, 
and beans for supper. The meat is 
generally salt pork, sometimes bacon or 
fresh pork. And beans till you can't 

Being able, however, to catch raccoons 
or opossums and to buy the big sweet 
potatoes or yams, the convicts often 
feast in the stockade at no expense to 
the lessee. 

At Baseball 

When two o'clock came there w«re 
twenty men in line at the gate ready 
to file out for a game of baseball. The 
yard man counted each one as he came 
through and checked off his name on a 
list. Two guards carrying rifles walked 
just ahead. 

The game — there were six innings of 
it— was uproarious. It was crude, of 
course, but full of life, each side banter- 
ing and joking with the other over an 
error or a "strike-out." And the pitch- 
ers invariably yelled that old cry of 
"judgment!" after each pitched ball. 

Only the catcher and first baseman 
wore gloves. These were fashioned 
from hemp sacking, stuffed with straw 
and rags. The rough diamond was cov- 
ered with palmetto roots and stubble; 
yet most of the men played in their bare 
feet, and they were fleet runners, too. 
But they were ready to quit at the end 
of the sixth inning, and marched back 
to the stockade under guard. 

After the game I shared my seat on 
a log with a guard. "Jack" and "Scrap," 
two of the "dogs of war," followed and 
flopped down before us. 

"They're lazy looking pups," I sug- 

"Yes," he smiled, "till they get on the 
"Then its serious business, eh?" 
"I should reckon. The}' Wt allow 
no one to mess around 'en They're 
tired now; had a two-mile . .'iase this 

"Would they have torn up that black 
this morning if they had gotten him?" 

"They sure would. We train most of 
them just to follow the scent and keep 
a barkin' after they've treed him; but 
Scrap there, goes right after his man. 
The other dogs would jump in, too, if 
Scrap got the fellow before he shinned 
a tree." 

"But Scrap's only a cur dog," he con- 
tinued after a pause. "Can't keep full 

bred blood-hounds in this country ; they 
get sick and die. All our pack here is 
nothin' but plain cur dog. But they fol- 
low a scent as well as a blood-hound. 
Scrap got after a white fellow just 
yesterday and was chewing up his leg 
when I got to him." 

He spat a stream of tobacco juice be- 
yond the dog's body and stroked 
Scrap's head reflectively : 

"If I had my choice," he added, "be- 
tween dogs and guns, I'd take the dogs 
every time. There'd be twice as many 
escapes round here if there wasn't any 

"And do the dogs always track down 
the fugitive?" 

"They do if there is any scent at all. 
When the nine men broke out of the 
back end of the stockade last year while 
the guard — he was hard of hearing — 
went out to ring the night bell, they got 
about three hours start before we knew 
they were gone. Three of our picked 
dogs chased them for miles. They never 
were captured. The dogs died a few 
days later from the effects of the chase; 
too much exertion, I s'pose. Two men 
got out later, but the dogs treed them." 
From the total of 1,421 state prison- 
ers "on hand" in Florida, January 1, 
1912, 516 of whom had been committed 
the previous year, there were in all 96 
escapes. Just 47 of this number were 
captured and returned. The company 
which leased them lost the $400 in- 
vested in each escaped convict. 

Seven convicts died in this camp in a 
single year from diseases contracted 
from standing or working in water 
around their waists at all seasons of 
the year. There were no funeral serv- 
ices. The local carpenter throws to- 
gether a rude coffin of pine boards; the 
black, inert hulk is rolled into a blanket, 
dropped in the box, nailed up and carted 
to the burying-ground — mourned, per- 
haps, by a disgraced mammy who may 
have raised the future governor of a 

July and August, the rainy season in 
Florida, are the worst months of the 
year for ague, chills, fever, pneumonia 
and the like. Then it rains almost every 
day and the water floods the country. 
"Dat's de time when it gits yo," said 
a convict in a whisper. "Mah Gawd, 
man, hit's sho' awful, standin' in watah 
an' runnin' all day long in the wet grass 
up to yo' waist. Why, man, Ah's got a 
lump in mah chist right now as big as 
yo' fist. Every man in this heah camp 
has got sumpin' the matter of him." 

In 1910. Governor Gilchrist consid 
ered twenty deaths among 1,781 prison- 
ers a low rate, because "so many are 
diseased before entering the camps." 
He also declared "at least 75 per cent 
of the colored prisoners have syphilis 
in some of its stages." 

Few men are sent to these camps on 
short terms. It isn't profitable to the 

sublessees to have them, for the cost 
of keeping a prisoner is figured at $2 a 
day, and constant changing increases 
the cost and interferes with the work. 
But even though it pays $400 a year 
for each convict, in addition to nearly 
$750 a year for his upkeep, the camp 
mentioned here made a profit of $25,000 
on distilled turpentine and resin in 1912. 
If there is any loss in earnings from 
year to year, it is generally the pine 
trees that are at fault and not the men 
who work under the task system. Their 
stint for the day or week is about the 
same, rain or shine, sick or well. The 
treatment, of course, depends very large- 
ly upon the captain, who sometimes has 
an interest in the business. 

Keeping Order 

My host, the captain, was a slender, 
wiry fellow who, one could see at a 
glance, was accustomed to overseeing 
Negroes. He showed a certain quiet re- 
serve of manner, but an unmistakable 
force. There was a catlike stealthiness, 
springiness, about him even in moments 
of repose, that gave one a kind of won- 
der, when he discussed the treatment 
of prisoners. 

" 'Tisn't necessary to handle the men 
roughly, except when they get incorrig- 
ible or commit some act that requires 
punishment," he said with a typical 
drawl. "Yes, we use a strap; but not 
very much. I don't have much trouble." 
My mind reverted to the picture 
which the tales of people who lived 
close to this camp had conjured up 
for me, of Negroes yelling for mercy 

while being flogged: "Oh, Captain , 

I'll be good. I'll be good, Cap'n. 
Please don't beat me no more, Cap'n." 
No one who has seen that strap — a 
heavy leather lash four inches wide, 
with a thick handle — could have any 
difficulty in picturing a prisoner prone 
upon the floor receiving full punishment 
at the hands of a broad-shouldered 
guard or even from the lithe, wiry cap- 
tain himself. 

"Of course," observed the captain, 
"there are some things about a convict 
camp that are best not talked about." 

In confidence he told of an instance 
just that week in which a Negro had 
refused to work. The captain was on 
the point of shooting the fellow for in- 
subordination, he said, but changed his 
mind and only knocked him down three 
times with the butt of his revolver. a< 
the prisoner rushed at him. Refusal to 
work, induced frequently by other tilings 
than sheer laziness, forms the basis for 
a large part of the punishment. 

A trusty at the turpentine still seemed 
to voice the inevitability of the thins; 
when he said : "We all gets pretty good 
treatment, boss. 'Cose, Cap'n, he drives 
pretty hard, an' a man gits sick oncet 
in awhile, boss ; but then that doan mek 
no difference 'roun' heah — dev all ies 



works 'bout de same, nohow." 

All prisoners are worked on the task 
system, and if they finish their work 
on Friday evening or early Saturday 
morning, they have the balance of the 
week in which to rest. This system, in- 
spectors say, has been the means of get- 
ting good work out of the men without 
punishment. But there are many camps 
where there is entirely too much punish- 
ment, where the wardens and guards are 
not at all suited to their positions. Thus 
does the state delegate to thirty or more 
wardens or captains and six or seven 
times as many guards, the very import- 
ant feature of punishing its prisoners. 

The captain draws $150 a month; the 

great hope of the man who goes to 
prison ; he thinks he is innocent ; he is 
sure his case was not presented prop- 
erly in the first place. Perhaps the case 
is started, applications filed and other 
legal overtures made. Then, another 
payment of $25 is necessary to carry the 
proceedings on farther. There is an- 
other period of overtime work or ap- 
peals to relatives by mail and the sec- 
ond instalment is sent on. 

Sometimes a pardon does come; that 
is why the scheme is so well and faith- 
fully patronized by men who wear the 
stripes. But what chance is there for 
the average prisoner? Of the 1,821 
prisoners in 1911, the state report shows 

of $323.84 per convict annually and in 
turn subleased by the company to the 
individual turpentine distillers operating 
the 31 convict camps of the state for the 
sum of $400 a year apiece. Thus the 
Florida Pine Company was collecting 
the tidy little sum of about $76 per an- 
num per man upon the labor of between 
1,400 and 1,800 convicts — a total of per- 
haps $125,000 a year. This company 
paid to the state in 1912 for the use of 
convicts $307,1 16.48. 1 The arrangement 
was so satisfactory and profitable to 
both parties that the lease was renewed 
in 1909 for a period of four more years; 
and on January 1, 1914, a number of 
leases were renewed for two years. 

guard draws $25 a month — $35 if he 
has a horse. The life they are com- 
pelled to lead drives them to excessive 
drinking as well as to gambling and 
other questionable practices. One of 
these captains was a part owner of the 
still and business, and allowed the pris- 
oners to work overtime, for which they 
were paid. Then, because of his fond- 
ness for gambling, he compelled the 
prisoners to gamble with him, and in 
that way won back all the overtime he 
liad paid out. These practices exist 
despite the fact that the warden or cap- 
tain is an officer of the law, as much 
as is a county sheriff. 

In addition, there is the "private par- 
don" system, operated by a firm of law- 
yers who for $25 will start proceedings 
to secure a pardon. It is always the 

that only 2>7 were pardoned. Of a total 
of 1,928 prisoners during 1912, 60 were 

When you cut or burn your finger 
and run to the medicine cabinet for a 
bottle of spirits of turpentine, you sel- 
dom stop to think of the way in which 
this medicine is gathered; how much 
more of pain it involves than the pain 
which you seek to allay by its use; what 
bodily and mental travail ; what cost in 
human life; what degradation of a great 
and beautiful state merely for the sake 
of a few paltry dollars — the continua- 
tion, in fact, of a slavery even blacker 
in its sin than that before the war. 

At the time of my visit to this camp, 
1,800 or more convicts were leased by 
the state of Florida to one company — 
the Florida Pine Company — for the sum 

But what does the convict get out of 

Nothing but a whitewashed stockade, 
work the year round in all kinds of 
fever and weather, punishment with a 
leather strap for infraction of rules or 
lagging at work, no energy left for 
overtime work even if he were paid for 
it, and no money for those who may be 
dependent upon him. 

This is what Florida — and in greater 
or lesser degree a score of other states 
— gives these men in return for the 
more than $300,000 worth of labor they 
annually produce. 

This is the opinion also of the Com- 
missioner of Agriculture, in whose de- 

'During the thirty-two years in which the 
convict has been leased by the state, the 
state has received a total of $2,722,620.14. 


The Survey, May 1, 1915 

partment convict labor is placed. He 
asks in his report: "What has the state 
done for the convict?" and answers his 
own question by saying: "Nothing. 
But we have taken the money from 
his labor and have appropriated and 
used the same for every known purpose 
except one — the betterment of his un- 
fortunate condition." 

Until 1914 the state owned not a single 
prison building, stockade, hospital, or 
any other equipment. All these belong- 
ed to the lessee or sublessee companies 
There is a system of state inspection, 
which seems never to have had any ef- 
fect upon the type of buildings, or to 
have been used for any real reform in 
prison practice. The whole idea of the 
camp's local government is to get out the 
full run of turpentine or lumber; the 
previous record is always before its 

As thousands of pine trees lose their 
productiveness each year and are cut 
down for lumber, it is no longer profit- 
able to operate some of these camps. 
Several went out of existence when the 
four-year lease expired on January 1, 
1914. Scores of convicts have since 
been turned back to the state or re- 
leased for some other work. 

The Florida legislature passed a law 
in the summer of 1913, the provisions 
of which are now going into effect and 
change the traditional convict system 
in some respects. A state prison farm 
is established in Bradford county. The 
law provided that on January 1, 1914, 
or as soon thereafter as possible, all 
women convicts, infirm male convicts, 
and all convicts classed as hospital sub- 
jects should be placed on this farm, "to 
be used as the Board of Commissioners 
of State Institutions may direct." 

The bill permitted county commission- 
ers to apply on or before August 15, 
1913, for able-bodied convicts to be 
used on public roads. It required the 
counties to "guard, clothe, feed, main- 
tain, and give medical attention" to 
these convicts, and to pay the state ten 
dollars per convict per month. The 
state makes rules and regulations for 
the working of convicts by counties 
and may withdraw convicts from any 
county not living up to these rules. 

All able-bodied convicts not set apart 
for this use were directed to be leased 
to private lessees by January 1, 1914. 
These leases, limited to two years, are 
now running. The convicts cannot be 

The bill provided that after January 
1, 1914, all new prisoners should be 
placed on the state farm, except that 
able-bodied ones could be delivered to 
private lessees or to counties, to replace 
those whose sentences might have ex- 
pired or who might have become hos- 
pital subjects. 

There are other evidences in the meas- 

ure of a new attitude toward prisoners. 
Officers or guards guilty of "cruel or 
inhuman treatment to any convict by 
neglect or otherwise," may be imprison- 
ed for five years or fined $5,000. A 
similar penalty may be imposed on any 
one who works a convict more than 
twelve hours a day. 

But it is to be hoped that Florida will 
not take too great pride in this begin- 
ning. There are already evidences that 
leading citizens are content with this 
step, and are inclined to resent any sug- 
gestion that Florida is not in the fore- 
front of humanitarian care for those 
who have broken her laws. No legisla- 
tion of the last thirty-two years pro- 
vides either for their learning a useful 
occupation by which they could live upon 
coming away, or for their earning in 
prison even a small sum with which to 
aid in the support of their families or 
others dependent upon them. 

The Punishment Idea 

The delegating of the state's most im- 
portant duty and function toward its 
charges, such as their uniform care and 
preparation for future release, to sepa- 
rate units (counties) hardly relieves 
the situation. In the first place, the 
idea of reform for the prisoner — his 
preparation and development for the 
time when he shall re-enter society as a 
citizen — the idea of making him a bet- 
ter man at his release than he was when 
he became a convict, seems to be outside 
the conception of many of Florida's 
leading citizens. The whole system 
there as elsewhere is based on the 
prisoner's punishment rather than upon 
his reformation. It is impossible, there- 
fore, that the convict, especially the 
Negro, should be more fit when released 
than when he entered upon his sentence. 

The state has for years failed to 
realize that in placing its convicts in 


charge of men who are in no way equip- 
ped mentally, temperamentally, tradi- 
tionally, or by special training or social 
vision to handle them, it has done noth- 
ing of any value to the convict. It is 
hard to believe that sheriffs or deputy 
sheriffs of the counties have any more 
sense of justice toward the convict than 
has the turpentine or lumber camp own- 
er or operator. 

When the intelligent, educated and 
refined people of a state sanction, year 
after year, the sale of their convicts and 
the practice of such customs as prevail 
in some of these camps, what can one 
expect from the uneducated and uncul- 
tured men who, through political man- 
euvering, achieve positions of public 
trust and are then expected to keep in 
the forefront of modern thought? 

And under this county lease system 
every sheriff will devise his own 
methods of treatment and punishment. 
In some of the counties, where road 
vans are used when the prisoners work 
away from their base of supplies, the 
best treatment that can be offered a con- 
vict is a punishment. Either he sleeps in 
a tent with ball-and-chain shackled to 
his ankles or he is locked within an iron 
cage that has stood all day in a baking, 
semi-tropical sun. Men in the turpen- 
tine camp have told me they would 
rather be confined where they were than 
to try to sleep in these hideous road 
vans — commonly used in Georgia — 
packed in like sardines, with fifteen or 
twenty other men. Governor Gilchrist 
said that this sort of cage was worse 
even than an animal's cage, for in the 
latter only one animal is compelled to- 

Just look through the glass walls of 
that small vial of turpentine in your 
medicine cabinet and recall the story of 
the liquid particles. See those hundreds 
of ebony faces, burnished by the sweat of 
fiver and disease; the striped bodies wet 
to the waist with dead and stagnant 
waters, half-running at their tasks from 
the rising of the sun till the falling of 
night ; the swollen, misshapen clubs that 
once were feet and that probably will 
never again rest within a shoe that fits : 
the prone black figure writhing under 
the biting lash of a leather thong! See 
them dance and sing, more like puppets 
than human beings ! Above all. watch 
the half-dozen, blood-hungry hounds, 
beating and baying through the pine 
woods in Sunday morning pursuit ' 

The mere shifting of masters, without 
a shift in the fundamental attitude to- 
ward prisoners, cannot free Florida from 
the shame of this traditional and con- 
tinuing treatment of her prisoners. 

Does all this appeal to her as being 
the way to reform men who have com- 
mitted an error and who. after payinc 
their debt to the state ten times over, 
nre to be turned back into societv? 

The Probation Officer at Work 

By Henry JV. Thurston 


OTTO WENGIERSKI, a fifteen- 
year-old boy, was a thief. 
The evidence of the book- 
keeper from the office where 
Otto had worked, had convinced the 
judge and even Otto himself, that he 
4iad of late received more postage 
stamps from the bookkeeper than he 
had put upon the letters he had mailed. 

Otto had not openly admitted this, but 
\\ hen the judge asked what he thought 
should be done with him, he broke out: 
"Don't send me away, Judge. I won't 
do it again if you'll give me another 

"All right," said the judge, "I'll take 
you at your word, and give you another 
chance to make good at home. But I 
will put you under probation to Officer 
Josephson, who will come frequently to 
see you and your father and mother, 
and report to me how you are getting 
on. I expect you to talk things over 
with the officer and tell him all about 
how you came to do this. Report to him 
whenever he says. Get a new job or 
else go to school. Cut out stealing, and 
show me that you mean what you say. 
Remember, Otto, I expect to hear better 
things of you. 

"Call the next case, Mr. Clerk." 

A bunch of boys, charged with loafing 
and shooting craps, crowds up before 
the judge, to be followed in turn by 
boys who have stolen pigeons. Then 
come girls who have kept bad company, 
girls who have stayed out all night, girls 
who have stolen bits of finery from the 
shops. Other boys from rival groups 
appear, who have fought in the streets, 
and have broken heads and windows; 
still others who have been habitually 
truant from school, have upset push 
carts, broken into candy stores and slot 
machines, stolen junk, carried off booty 
from freight cars, and so on through 
the list of juvenile offenses. 

Meantime, Officer Josephson and Otto 
go out of the court room together to 
begin their new relation of probation 
officer and probationer. Mother and 
father follow. 

The boy had been arrested on com- 
plaint of his employer. During the 
three days before his appearance before 
the judge, he had had a medical and 
physical examination by a doctor and a 
mental examination by a psychologist. 
His mother had been present at the men- 
tal examination and had willingly given 
many supplementary facts about her- 
self, and about the birth, infancy, health, 
schooling, etc., of the boy; but of the 
boy's father, of the financial and other 
social problems of the family she had 

told little or nothing except that the 
father did not live at home but that the 
boy did. 

After leaving the court room, Officer 
Josephson explained to Otto and his 
parents what his duties as probation of- 
ficer were, gave the boy a card which 
stated the conditions of his probation, 
made arrangements to see each of them 
alone soon at places convenient to them, 
and expressed the belief that whatever 
mistakes the boy had made could be 
avoided in future if they would all he- 
open and honest with one another, and 
all work together. 

The personal talks of the next two 
days, together with a careful reading of 
the examinations made by the doctor 
and psychologist, showed these facts 
about the boy and his family : 

That the father was lazy, given to 
■diarp tricks in business, with no per- 
manent job, not allowed by the mother 
to live at home on account of question- 
able personal habits and irregularity of 
income, but fond of Otto and rather ad- 
mired by the boy for his smartness. 
Father and son often took luncheon to- 
gether and also went to movies and 
cheap theaters whenever the father had 

That the mother had taken up dress- 
making to help keep the home together 
for Otto and his sister of twelve. That 
she was given to complaints about her 
hard lot, was always hard up for money, 
took all of the six-dollar wage that Otto 
received, and continually urged him to 
try to get a job that would pay more. 

That the little girl was the pet of all 
the others and at all costs must have 
good clothes and go to school. Otto 
had more love for her than for anyone 

That Otto himself was of a bright 
mind, nervous organization, given to 
bad personal habits, and led by his 
father into bad recreational habits, as 
well as familiarized with sharp business 
practices that were as near dishonesty 
as the law would permit. The stamp 
stealing experience that brought him 
into court was not his first experience at 
petty stealing. The others had not been 

In short. Officer Josephson found out 
that if he was to make effectual plans 
for his care of Otto while on probation 
he must consider not only the fact of 
his repeated stealing but at least these 
other facts: 

His nervous organization and tend- 
ency to bad personal habits ; 

His active mind and need of recrea- 

His broken home and divided loyalty ; 

The questionable moral and business 
example and ideals of his father ; 

The financial stress of his mother : 

His love for his sister and his strong 
desire to help her and his mother. 

The stealing was of course wrong; 
but it was more significant as a symptom 
of the physical, mental, social, economic, 
and immoral stimuli which together 
were driving him on toward repeated 
delinquent acts. 

Therefore, a good team-game between 
the probation officer and Otto and his 
family must aim not only toward the 
prevention of further actual dishonesty 
by Otto, but also toward a wholesome 
adjustment of all the underlying factors 
in his personal and family life that, un- 
less adjusted, would be likely to lead 
not only the boy but his mother and sis- 
ter into further trouble. 

Building upon the sound basis of all 
the essential facts in the case, Officer 
Josephson was able gradually not mere- 
ly to prevent Otto from further steal- 
ing but to help him build up clean per- 
sonal habits and better health, better 
balance in his recreation, sounder busi- 
ness ideals. He secured more regular 
contribution toward the family budget 
by the father; and finally, through the 
real interest in and love for Otto and 
his sister by both father and mother, he 
brought about at least a formal and eco- 
nomic restoration of the father to the 
family circle. 

Although the personal and social facts 
of importance back of each one of the 
thousands of other boys and girls who 
are brought into our juvenile courts, no 
doubt differ somewhat in every case 
from those which Officer Josephson 
found in the case of Otto, the start in 
good probation must always be made in 
practically the same way. The officer 
must find out all the important facts in 
the case ; then start out on an intelligent 
constructive plan of probationary care 
that takes all these facts into considera- 
tion, keeping an open mind toward the 
discovery and use of more facts as they 

The following questions, to which the 
answers were helpful in the probation- 
ary care of Otto, will be found useful 
in making an efficient start in the pro- 
bationary care of most boys and girls : 

What kind of a body has he? What 
are its weaknesses, abilities, appetites, 
passions and habits? 

What kind of a mind has he? How 
well is it equipped? 

Who are the home and other compan- 
ions of this probationer? Whom Hoes 
he like and whom does he dislike? Who 
holds the secret of his choices? 

What kind of work has he done and 
can he do? 



The Survey, May 1, 1915 

What kind of play and recreation does 
he hare and what kind does he like best ? 

What are his controlling ideas of 
right and wrong? 

Investment of Self 

What reasons have a probationer and 
his mother and father so to trust a pro- 
bation officer that within two days of 
their first meeting him (as in the case 
of Otto and Officer Josephson), they 
will tell him intimate personal facts 
about themselves and one another? 

In the first place, the probationer is 
just now in trouble, and if he doesn't 
make good on probation, he will be in 
deeper trouble. The probationer knows 
this; his mother knows it; and his father 
knows it. 

In the second place, the judge, on 
whose decision the fate of the probation- 
er finally rests, has officially appointed a 
particular officer to represent the court 
in helping the probationer to make good. 

The doctor and the psychologist and 
the officer are all in the position of ex- 
pert advisers. They seem to those in 
trouble to have a certain right, as a 
physician has, to ask all the questions 
necessary to help them to understand 
what the real troubles are and how to 
help the probationer to overcome them. 

But even with such conditions in his 
favor at the start, the probation officer 
will not get further facts, will not have 
real team-work with the probationer and 
his parents in making and carrying out 
plans for the future, unless he can gain 
the genuine trust and confidence of the 
probationer. Now the personal trust 
and confidence we give another are 
based not alone on the initial conditions 
under which we meet him, but even more 
upon his own personality and his be- 
havior toward us. 

To get the complete confidence and co- 
operation of probationers and their 
parents, a probation officer must, there- 
fore, be ready to make any investment 
of himself that he finds to be necessary. 

For example, a man who had placed 
a boy in three homes in succession where 
he had failed to make good, was bring- 
ing him back sullen and silent from the 
third place. The man left the boy out- 
side a suburban store at noon while he 
went in to buy some crackers and cheese 
for luncheon. When he came out the 
good citizens were trying to stop a fight 
between his boy and a resident boy who 
had picked a quarrel with him. The 
man rushed in and pushed these good 
citizens back and insisted on forming a 
ring until the boys could fight it out. 
His boy won. The townspeople were 
shocked, and inclined to believe that the 
probation officer was the guardian of 
toughs and young gunmen. 

But the boy, after he was filled up 
with crackers and cheese, burst out: 
"Gee, Mr. S., I didn't think you really 
cared about me. But you sure were my 
friend this time, all right. I'll do any- 
thing you say." And he kept his word. 

He made good. He needed a real in- 
vestment of personality to secure his 

A fair chance to fight is perhaps not 
often the kind of investment a proba- 
tion officer needs to make in his pro- 
bationer, but as a rule he needs to make 
some investment of himself which the 
probationer will understand. Sometimes 
it is an invitation to his home, as in the 
case of a shiftless man arrested for non- 
support of his wife, whose probation of- 
ficer took him to his own table, in order 
that he might see with his own eyes 
what a nice little home a man could keep 
up on a small salary. 

Sometimes it is a visit to the boy's 
home at night or on Sunday at the ex- 
pense of needed rest or church attend- 
ance. Sometimes it is lending money 
with a three-to-one chance of losing it. 
Sometimes it is a confession of some 
weakness of his own against which he 
has still to fight. There are a thousand 
ways to invest yourself in a person 
whose problems you understand. 

But put yourself in the place of a per- 
son in trouble and ask yourself the 
question : "Do I fully trust a stranger 
until he has in some way trusted me, — 
has put his money, his time, his reputa- 
tion, his intimate personal affairs to 
some degree in my power?" The pro- 
bation officer must win the unreserved 
confidence of his probationer. 

Show them the stupidity of lying and 
theft ; don't let them fool you, but in- 
vest yourself. 

A probation officer, aided by the doc- 
tor and the psychologist, may make an 
investigation that reveals all the handi- 
caps which beset a probationer ; plans 
for overcoming these handicaps one by 
one may be perfect and the probationer 
agree to them ; but unless the probation 
officer in serious cases is then ready to 
invest himself in the probationer, he will 
not count for much in what happens to 
the probationer thereafter. 

The conditions under which you can 
become a good probation officer are in- 
exorable, and one of these conditions 
was stated two thousand years ago. 
The good probation officer lays down his 
life for his probationers. 

A Team Game 

But the probation officer must not 
make the mistake of thinking that he is 
the whole thing. If he knows his par- 
ticular probationer as he ought to know 
him, he will be quick to realize situa- 
tions in which he must work not directly, 
but indirectly through some one else. 

For example, a principal of a high 
school was told at the close of the ses- 
sion on a Friday night that an over- 
grown, ill-bred, mulish boy had been so 
insolent to a woman teacher that she 
had sent him from the room with the 
statement that he could never come into 
her class again until he had apologized. 

Both teacher and principal thoughl he 
would never conic hack. Bui the prin- 

cipal knew not only his pupils but their 
homes and friends; he was ready to in- 
vest his own personality, and he was an 
artist in the use of these homes and 
friends for the good of his boys and 

He took a train at once (pupils came 
to this school from various directions by 
surface and steam-cars) and called upon 
the grandmother of the boy and ex- 
plained to her the whole situation. The 
grandmother saw the girl friend of the 
boy; the girl friend saw the boy and 
got the whole story from him, and on 
Monday morning the boy came back to 
school and apologized. He never knew 
how the thing was done, but it started 
him on a different track in that school 
and in life. 

The alert and successful probation of- 
ficer must in the same way study all the 
agencies, not only personal but material, 
which are peculiarly available for each 
child under his care, and enlist these 
agencies both in the carrying out of his 
carefully laid plans of betterment and in 
making more effectual plans. He will 
also study all the resources of his dis- 
trict which can be used for probationers 
in general. 


From these general community agen- 
cies and persons, and from those which 
are available only to individuals, the 
probation officer who is an artist at hi^ 
work will choose his most effective avail- 
able agencies day by day, to help each 
probationer, child by child, to overcome 
his particular handicap, and to feel the 
growing sense of self-respect and power 
which come to those boys and girls — 

Who for weakness, disease, and dis- 
comfort of body, begin to know what it 
is to be well ; 

Who for idleness and inefficiency in 
work, begin to know the satisfaction of 
achievement ; 

Who for play and recreation that 
merely excite or lead to bad companion- 
ship and immorality, begin to experience 
the wholesome stimulus of competitive 
team-games and to respond to purer and 
more artistic music and plays : 

Who for ignorance and credulity, be- 
gin to feel the thrill of adventures yet 
to come through wise choice and read- 
ing of books which admit them into the 
wonderful story of what man has done 
and written down for them : 

Who really find in the probation offi- 
cer, often for the first time in life, a 
friend who knows all about them and 
likes them just the same; 

Who in questions of morals and re- 
ligion first get hold of the idea that here 
is guidance and inspiration toward an 
ever larger and richer life instead of a 
mere prohibition and condemnation of 
those practices and pleasures which, 
even if fleeting and low. are dear to 

The probation officer must of course 
always try to keep his probationer from 
further wrongdoing, but he will often do 
his best by knowing his probationer 

The Probation Officer at Work 


and the resources of his home and com- 
munity so well that he can keep the pro- 
bationer busy doing right and thus have 
less time and strength to do wrong. 

If the probation officer is to be a real 
substitute for the reformatory, he must 
aim to fill up one hundred per cent of 
the time of his probationers in activities 
that lead them toward a larger and 
more efficient life. 

To do this for each of his boys and 
girls one by one as each has need, the 
probation officer must know the helpful 
persons, agencies, and opportunities of 
his district so well that he can enlist at 
any time any one or any group of them, 
for the good of the individual probation- 
er in question. And he must do this not 
in the spirit and manner of one who can 
say to one, Go, and he goeth, and to 
another, Come, and he cometh, but as 
one member of a team or co-operating 
group, each of whom is guided by the 
same purpose : this one thing we do. 

How much is a probation officer 
worth who, in contacts with probationers 
and other social agencies in the com- 
munity, habitually says you and / but 
never we? 

What is a probation officer to do 
when the resources of his district are 
inadequate : when homes are poverty- 
stricken, houses wretched and unsani- 
tary, the streets the only playgrounds, 
employment opportunities largely dead- 
end occupations, schools crowded and 
curriculum formal and uninteresting, 
men and women who will help few and 

FiEHOLD, a certain probation officer 
went forth to his day's work among 
his probationers, and as he met them in 
their unlovely homes, upon the streets, 
lurking in the alleys, loafing on the corn- 
ers, dodging the attendance officer and 
the policeman, selling papers, seeking for 
a new job, idly busy at messenger serv- 
ice, he found that some of the blind in- 
stinctive Teachings of their natures tow- 
ard a more complete life for their bodies 
were trying to take root among the 
thorns of personal and social immorality, 
appetite and passion. And these out 
reaching tendrils of their lives, the 
thorns were already choking. 

J-JE found further that other gropings 
of the life within them had stretch- 
ed out toward the stony soil of barren 
schooling, truancy, dead-end occupa- 
tions; toward idleness and inefficiency in 
work ; and toward unsympathetic, ignor- 
ant, and base companions at home and on 
the street. And these tender new out- 
growths of their natures were being 
scorched and withered in the fierce heat 
of a demand for competitive efficiency 
in industry and citizenship, for they had 
no depth of root. 

A ND still other strivings toward at 
least a semblance of life and activ- 
ity had struggled out upon the much fre- 

discouraged; morals and religion at a 
low ebb ? In short, in a congested urban 
district where chances for wrong ac- 
tivities seem to be the rule and whole- 
some opportunities the exception, what 
can a probation officer do? 

Such questions as these I believe are 
habitually asked by some probation of- 
ficers and occasionally asked by many 
others. What is the answer? 

In the first place, are we not inclined 
to overstate somewhat the discouraging 
conditions? Suppose you try this ex- 
periment. Study the boys and girls in 
your care one by one, listing in each 
case your best judgment as to what is 
the matter, the plan you think would be 
successful if you could carry it out, and 
a list of all the persons and agencies 
needed to make the plan a success. Then 
check off those persons and agencies in 
each case that you know are not avail- 
able. There will of course be left in 
each case those persons and agencies 
whose co-operation you at least stand 
some chance of getting. 

Often such an experiment as this 
shows a probation officer that for many 
of his probationers he has available 
more help and helpers than he had 
thought, and this consciousness will give 
strength and courage and insight for 
better work in those cases. 

Perhaps, as a result of this process, 
you are the one person in your com- 
munity who really knows better than 
anyone else the number of delinquent 

A Parable 

quented but hard paths of irreligion, 
theft, disorderly conduct, and opposition 
to law. And these the condemnation of 
public opinion, police, sheriffs, courts of 
law, jailers and hangmen were devour- 

T^HEN when the probation officer saw 
the blind, groping, reaching after life 
of his probationers thus choked out 
among the thorns of appetite and immor- 
ality, scorched and withered by the sun 
of competition, in the shallow soil of in- 
efficiency, and devoured by the officers 
of the law from the well-trodden byways 
of transgression, he sought out each as- 
piring, misguided but growing tendril as 
it pushed its way out from the life of 
each of his probationers toward the 
thorns and stones and highways, and 
wisely guided it in the direction of the 
good soil of a healthy and clean body, 
regular attendance and steady progress 
in school, interesting and creative work, 
recreative and joy-giving play and com- 
panionship, better taste in dress, reading, 
music, and plays ; toward a truer under- 
standing of the worth of a real friend 
and of harmony with the Infinite. 

A ND behold, when these blind, grop- 
ing offshoots of activity seeking a 
more abundant life in places where there 

boys and girls whose delinquencies were 
in part caused and whose recovery is in 
part delayed by : 

Poor health conditions, unhappy 
homes, lack of playground; 

Truancy, lack of interest in school, 
suspension from school ; 

Lack of employment; 

Lack of wholesome companions; 

Neighborhood temptation to appetite 
and passion. 

If so, and there are any in your com- 
munity who have ears to hear, let them 
hear these facts of yours. If the chil- 
dren of your community are ever to gain 
the conditions that are essential to 
wholesome life it will be because those 
who know their handicaps plead their 

It is not enough that the probation of- 
ficer knows his probationer, invests his 
own life, and co-operates with persons 
and agencies as they now are in his 
community. He has the further duty of 
becoming an advocate for the children, 
an interpreter to the citizens of the com- 
munity in which he works, of the handi- 
caps under which his boys and girls are 
fighting their battles for a self-respect- 
ing, self-supporting life. 

Out of such advocacy have grown the 
Juvenile Court Movement, the Big 
Brother and Big Sister Movements, the 
Playground Movement, the Juvenile- 
Protective League Movement, and many 
others. The probation officer has a mes- 
sage for his community ; it is his duty, 
his opportunity to find his voice. 

was no life, were thus guided to a good 
soil, they began to grow and to store up 
health, intelligence, efficiency in work, 
joy in play, respect for law and recog- 
nition of duty, and to give promise of 
self-supporting and self-respecting citi- 
zenship — some thirty, some sixty, and 
some an hundred fold. 

A ND the probation officer, as late at 
night he daily lays his tired head 
upon his pillow, feels in his heart that 
his labor has not been in vain; and he 
breathes a prayer that on each coming 
day his eye may be keener to see the 
weak, straggling, misguided beginnings 
of life among his probationers and his 
hand quicker and more skilful to guide 
them toward places where the soil is 
good, so that they can take root. 

A ND at the close of the prayer, the 
persistent, aching, overwhelming 
burden of his heart finds voice in a great 

"And Lord, if it please Thee to hear us, 
help me and my fellow-citisens of this 
town in the days that are soon to come to 
pluck up more of the thorns, to clear away 
more of the stones, to plough deeper, har- 
row longer, and to fertilise zvith a more 
generous hand, that straightway there may 
be good soil enough hereabouts to go 
around among all my probationers!" 

[This article is also printed by the New 
York School of Philanthropy, Social Stud- 
ies No. 3. Price 5 cents.] 


The Survey, May 1, 1915 

HAN Karl Bit- 
ter, the sculptor 
who was fatal- 
ly injured by a 
recklessly driv- 
en automobile on the night 
of Friday, April 9, there was 
no more loyal American, no 
more devout believer in 
democratic institutions and 
their glorious future. 

Himself Austrian born, 
there were early manifesta- 
tions within him of a spirit 
too free and too impatient of 
fetters to be content with the 
atmosphere of the empire of 
Kaiser Josef. As a boy at 
the Academy of Fine Arts 
in Vienna, where he at "once 
showed his rare artistic tal- 
ent, he also evidenced de- 
cided leanings toward free- 
dom of speech in matters 
political. For some reason 
or other, European universi- 
ties have far more frequent- 
ly than our own been the 
breeding places of liberal- 
ism; and Karl Bitter was 
one of those students who 
think for themselves and 
talk well on their feet. This 
he did until the day for his 
military service came, and at 
nineteen he was drawn into 
the army. 

Not for one, but for three 
long years was he to wear 
the Kaiser's uniform be- 
cause, in those days, the 
graduates of the Fine Arts 
Academy were not as now 
permitted, like the graduates 
of gymnasia, to serve one 
year only on passing a given 
examination. That rankled 
deeply with Bitter, first be- 
cause it placed him on a par 
with the unlettered peasants 
of the empire; and secondly, 
because the abiding passion of his art 
would not be denied for three of the 
best and most formative years of his 

In addition, he came under the influ- 
ence of one of those unhappy products 
of continental militarism, the overbear- 
ing officer who, fortified by authority. 
is in a position to make life unbearable 
tor any soldier he dislikes. The superb 
young private Bitter — for the sculptor 
was a man of magnificent physique and 
compelling personality — bore as best he 
could the maddening humiliations of this 
malicious and mean-spirited lieutenant, 
until one day his captain sent for him 
and after voluntarily giving him a brief 
furlough said significantly : "I suppose. 
Private Bitter, when this is up we shall 
not see you again." 

The suggestion was a startling one. 
but Bitter took it and fled into Germanv. 




By Oswald Garrison Villard 

Being a fugitive, be was not allowed to 
set foot in Austria again until, at the 
height of his lame and powers, he re- 
ceived the royal pardon, as well as a 
royal reception from the friends of his 
youth on his return to Vienna. Years 
later when the selfsajjme, unworthy lieu- 
tenant applied to him at his studio in 
X T ew York, not knowing that this was 
the abused private. Bitter showed his 
Christian spirit by taking him in, cloth- 
ing him and employing him as his serv- 
ant for a period of two years, — a hu- 
man incident that would hardly be be- 
lieved if it appeared in a novel. 

So to conscription America owed this 
gifted and useful citizen as it has many 
another. Bitter, too, had to work with 
his hands as an artisan when first he 
landed; but his apprenticeship to pov- 
erty was brief, for he dignified the sim- 
ple labor he undertook and brought to it 

such obvious talent that 
within a year the barriers 
fell before him. At twenty- 
one, by means of the bronze 
door competition for Trinity 
Church, he achieved instant 
fame and what was more 
valuable, the friendship of 
William Morris Hunt, who 
quickly saw that this boy 
from abroad could dream 
dreams and visualize them, 
and then embody them in 
stone or in bronze. 

Thereafter, Bitter's rise 
was steady and rapid. At 
forty he was chosen presi- 
dent of the National Sculp- 
tors' Society; his death at 
forty-seven found him hold- 
ing this honorable position 
for the second time, and 
with it an admitted place in 
the very front rank of his 

During these years he ex- 
panded visibly and so did his 
Americanism. He would 
have been an artist had he 
stayed in the Austria that he 
loved — never more so than in 
these days of her dire mis- 
fortune — but he would never 
have been so great an artist 
as he became here. Like 
some of our Teuton political 
refugees, Carl Schurz, and 
Abraham Jacobi, he reacted 
in a wonderful way to our 
democratic institutions. Na- 
tive-born citizens, it often 
seems, come by the priv- 
ileges of American life too 
easily to appreciate them to 
the fullest degree. At least. 
some of those who have sac- 
rificed and suffered to ob- 
tain them value those bless- 
ings more highly than those 
to whom they come as a 
matter of course. 
Of the former, Bitter was one. He 
was a born democrat for all that he was 
so aristocratic in bearing, and his na 
ture was fineness personified. He was a 
democrat because he had full faith in the 
people. Free himself in thought, in 
speech, in religion, in his art, he natural- 
ly recognized more and more the right 
of others to be free — with which came a 
profound sense of his responsibilities as 
a citizen — and of the obligations of his 
talent. He recognized to the full his 
duties to his scholars and assistants, to 
his colleagues in the fine arts, to his city 
and to the country of his adoption. He 
had moreover a complete belief in the 
art future of this democracy, and was ,i- 
certain as anybody could be that the 
American people have a great role to 
play in the development of art. 

Of this he was the more convinced ti 
his opportunities drew him more an I 



The fragment on the cover and the complete 
piece from which it is taken — the Henry XJillard 
memorial at Sleepy Hollow shon>n here — were in 
a sense a foreshadowing of the tragic accident 
last month in New York which cut off the sculp- 
tor in his prime. A symbolic figure of the strong 
man who, having forged great things on the anvil 
of life, rests. 


Unveiled last month at the University cf Virginia. The gift of Charles R. Crane. 


Presented (o him on his seventieth 
birthday by "friends who went 
under his leadership to the con- 
ferences for education in the 
South, making excur- 
sions," in Dr. Eliot's 
fine phrase, "into en- 
nobling experiences." 


memory o 
Foster placi 
Criminal Co 
ing. New Yo 


Overlooking Morningside Park, New York 
Representative of the men and women who in the mid-century 
brought strength and spirit from the nations of western Europe to 
the New World. 


University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 
Representative of the men and women of New England who car- 
ried the fires of education and humanity westward in our national 


Liberty and enlightenment leading the newly arrived to freedom 
and the pursuit of knowledge. 

Karl Bitter 


more to the middle-western cities. His 
extraordinarily quick and searching per- 
ceptions, the deep study he gave to 
everything relating to a subject, made it 
easy for him to look below an unde- 
veloped surface and see the promise of 
what lay beneath. Cleveland, Madison, 
and latterly, Indianapolis, all made their 
profound impression upon him, and 
brought him fresh inspiration. Indeed, 
his hand, when tragically stayed, had 
already been set to a task which appealed 
mightily to him — the development and 
beautification with a fountain, of one 
of the greatest squares in Indianapolis, 
his purpose being to make it a center for 
child life. 

The civic and the child ideal in this 
appealed deeply to him, for he never for- 
got the social or the educative values 
of his art. Like the true artist and big 
man he was, the thing that he always 
forgot to put forward was, — the artist 
himself. When the commission was 
given him for the Sigel and Schurz 
statues, he spent days and days walk- 
ing about New York searching for sites 
and in both cases chose himself those 
that were finally selected. Then he 
worked on his problem as every sculp- 
tor ought to but many a one does not, — 
with a complete feeling for the respon- 
sibility he assumed thereby to give the 
municipality something suited to its life 
and in accordance with the best concep- 
tion of what its art policy should be, not 
only for the present but for the far dis- 
tant future. 

One of his last acts was to send a let- 
ter to the president of the board of al- 
dermen urging that Mr. McAneny's com- 
mission on a city plan reserve at once 
all available sites for monuments and 
classify them as A, B and C sites, re- 
serving the better places for the really 
great works of art of the future. He 
was a most useful member of the art 
commission ; certainly no one more glad- 
ly accepted appointment thereto or serv- 
ed more conscientiously, with a keener 
sense that it was a trusteeship of the peo- 
ple. Something of this will undoubtedly 
be brought out at the memorial meeting 
to be held in his honor under the aus- 
pices of the Art Commission Associates, 
the National Sculptors' Society and 
other organizations, at the Ethical Cul- 
ture Meeting Hall in New York on May 

One of the most amazing and gratify- 
ing things about Bitter's career is, per- 
haps, the quick public recognition of the 
way he took into his heart the ideals of 
the American people and their institu- 
tions. It is certainly astounding to re- 
call that when Dewey returned from his 
Manila bay victory, Bitter was but thir- 
ty-one; yet this Austrian, who had then 
been but eleven or twelve years in the 
country, was chosen to superintend the 
building of the Dewey arch to commem- 
orate the triumph of American arms in 
the East. 

Of this arch it has been said that it 

was too great and too beautiful for the 
victory it commemorated. Certainly it 
was one of the finest works of art of 
our day, and to its superintending Bitter 
gave weeks of inspired labor, — of 
course, a labor of love. Those who re- 
call the group he himself contributed. 
not only recall with deep satisfaction the 
virile gun crew grouped around a quick 
firer and its shield, each instinct with 
extraordinary life and vitality; but they 
also carried away a lasting impression 
that it typified in a rare way the spirit 
of duty and of daring of the American 

When he planned fofl the competition 
for the soldiers' monument at Albany, 
a design so original and powerful as to 
make its failure of acceptance inex- 
plicable to this day, he showed his feel- 
ing for social values. He planned not 
for the conventional shaft; but for sev- 
eral groups in a rare landscape effect 
which would have made of it an extra- 
ordinary civic feature. His idea was 
that the groups should not as usual per- 
sonify the spic and span, immaculate 
soldier as he may have looked on parade 
before fighting, but the return to peace- 
ful pursuits of surviving, war-torn 
veterans. Thus, one group typified the 
soldier-farmer, the soldier-clerk and the 
soldier-artisan bringing home their 
wounded comrades; another represented 
the waiting mothers and children, some 
recognizing their beloved ones in the re- 
turning groups, and others finding them 
not — the only monument socializing the 
meaning of war, of which the writer 

But even greater tasks of interpreting 
American life than the Dewey arch came 
to this "foreigner." At three great ex- 
positions, those at Buffalo, at St. Louis 
and at San Francisco, he was asked to 
take complete charge of the sculpture. 
For the sculptural work at Buffalo the 
sum of only $30,000 had been provided ; 
after the directors had engaged Karl 
Bitter, had come face to face with his 
enthusiasm and energy, and had seen 
his vision of what sculpture could do 
for their exposition, the appropriation 
was promptly raised to $200,000. Those 
with whom he became associated at these 
expositions remained his fast friends and 
his ardent admirers, as their published 
telegrams of condolence testify. 

Although he contributed no single 
group to the present Panama-Pacific Ex- 
position, the sculptural plan is his own, 
— a passing monument to the breadth 

and the artistry of the man which it is 
to be hoped some of thousands who ad- 
mire will remember as long as the 
hearts of his friends will be torn by the 
thought that this was to be the last of 
his great national services. One wishes 
that they might at least be told how Bit- 
ter believed in the union of architecture 
and sculpture and the art of landscape 
decoration; how he felt with all his 
heart that sculpture should express the 
highest ideals of personal and national 
life; that art should interpret the spirit 
of an age rather than the vagaries of 
the moment ; and that no man should 
seek to interpret that spirit until he had 
fairly soaked himself in the life, the 
legends and the personalities of the 
time in which he dealt. 

Above all. Bitter's life teaches the 
doctrine that the artist must ever be 
honest with himself and his work. Not 
in the days of his extreme poverty could 
he be bought to do an unworthy piece 
of work for the sake of money, or pres- 
tige, or influence. One commission, the 
statue of Senator Quay in the Capitol at 
Harrisburg, he accepted without realiz- 
ing the character of the man and his 
political record. It is one of the least 
satisfactory productions of his hands, 
but it is honest, because there is no ef- 
fort at flattery or idealization. There is 
nothing in the figure to make any man 
think of Quay as a great or noble lead- 

When it came to the memorial at 
Tuskegee for William H. Baldwin, Jr., 
and the gift of the friends of Robert C. 
Ogden to him of that exquisite medal- 
lion illustrated on another page, as well 
as the panels of the Schurz monument, 
the artist's keen understanding of our 
great race problems, and the poetry in 
him, both appear. As for the statues of 
Jefferson and Hamilton, and particular- 
ly the group of three figures in the 
signing of the Louisiana Purchase 
treaty, and the group typifying the win- 
ning of the West, his rare artistry 
speaks for itself. They illustrate his 
steadily growing power as an interpre- 
ter of American history. 

And how great was the promise for 
the years to come — a promise now so 
sadly and so needlessly ended ! 

In paying to Karl Bitter the tribute he 
so richly earned, we should recall that 
there are those among us who say that 
the time has passed when this country 
should be the haven of refuge for such 
spirits as this — that we should put up the 
bars against all who like himself would 
find their way to the clear, inspiring at- 
mosphere of "the land of the free and 
the home of the brave." Surely the 
gain that has come to this country from 
Bitter's life alone, ought to hush the 
voices that would speak such treason 
against the spirit of our institutions and 
the holiest tradition of our nation, that 
as a nation is so greatly in this Austro- 
American's debt ! 

Old Orders— New Needs 

How the St. Louis Mullanphy Fund for Emigrants and Travelers 

was Rescued from the "Dead-Hand" 

By Roger JV. Baldwin 

AT least one great fund restricted 
by the "dead hand" has been 
released for twentieth century 
usefulness through the efforts 
of St. Louis social workers and an act 
of the City Fathers. A public trust 
fund of more than one million dollars, 
known as the Mullanphy Emigrant Re- 
lief Fund, practically inactive for forty 
years for want of beneficiaries, is now 
being applied to the aid of travelers and 

Established in 1851 by the will of 
Bryan Mullanphy, former mayor of St. 
Louis, it consisted of one-third of his 
fortune, then amounting to a little over 
half a million dollars. He placed the 
funds in the hands of the city of St. 
Louis as trustee, administered by a 
board of thirteen members appointed by 
the City Council. Mullanphy's purpose 
was to furnish substantial and perma- 
nent aid to the great stream of home- 
seekers passing through St. Louis on 
their way to the new lands of the West. 
So great was the need of aiding stranded 
pioneers that the will was written to ap- 
ply to this group alone : "poor emigrants 
and* travelers coming to St. Louis on 
their way bona fide to settle in the 

In the early years of the fund thou- 
sands were aided. St. Louis was then 
the western outpost of the railroads, and 
hundreds made it their outfitting point 
for the long journey on horseback, or 
bv prairie-schooner, or steamboat up the 
Missouri. Through this fund, destitute 
hundreds were put on their feet by the 
purchase of outfits and by a supply of 
money for the long journey to the gold- 
fields of California or homesteads on the 
great plains. 

Development of the railroads and the 
rapid filling-up of the West caused the 
great stream to dwindle. Fewer and 
fewer applied for relief. The funds, 
formerly overtaxed to meet the need. 
now were thrown back upon the board 
for investment. The income of $30,000 
to $40,000 a year was sunk chiefly in 
improvements on real estate. In recent 
years, only about $2,000 annually has 
been expended in the aid of immigrants 
and travelers. The total amount for the 
sixty-three years' operation of the fund, 
however, runs up almost to $250,000. 

So thoroughly did the board appreciate 
that the fund's clay of usefulness had 
passed, that as long as fifteen years a?o 



From an enyraving by Darley in The Great Plains, by Randall Pwrish. 

A. C. ZlcClurg and Go. 

it made application to the courts for the 
right to use the income for another char- 
itable purpose. The purpose selected in 
the application was the erection of a hos- 
pital for the indigent poor. The courts, 
however, declined to permit this use of 
the funds as not sufficiently related to 
the intent of its founder. So the fund 
continued inactive; its large income 
poured into real estate investments and 
the improvement of its tenement prop- 
erty — tenements which, by the way, are 
among the few "models" of St. Louis. 

It was in 1913 that a group of citizens, 
sitting as the Social Service Committee 
of the Civic League, examined exhaus- 
tively the possibilities of the fund. The 
simple discovery was made that still there 
was a stream of impoverished homeseek 
ers, migrating through and to St. Louis; 
that in the new migration from the Old 
World there was just as legitimate a 
field for use of the fund as in the days 
of the native-born frontiersmen. 

So the committee drafted a memorial 
to the board in charge, arguing their 
case on the ground that "the stream of 
settlers, prospectors and other travelers 
that came to St. Louis fifty years ago to 
seek their fortunes, no longer comes in 
prairie-schooners, and their El Dorado 
is no longer a California goldfield or a 
quarter section in Kansas or Nebraska ; 
but the stream is still flowing, and the 
volume is greater than ever. . . . 
St. Louis receives everv year not only 

between 8,000 and 10,000 immigrants 
from the Old World, but thousands of 
young people from our own country com- 
ing into the big city to earn their liveli- 

Today, to be sure, the stream stops in 
the city; the frontier has passed, the 
land is taken. And it was this changed 
factor that offered temporarily the one 
obstacle to applying the fund to the new 
use; for in the language of the will, 
the beneficiaries must be "on their way 
bona fide to settle in the West." But 
the discovery was then made that the 
ordinances governing the board had al- 
ways required its officers to meet "every 
incoming train and steamboat" in order 
to reach all immigrants and travelers 
needing aid. This provision had for 
years been a dead letter because of the 
impossibility that one or two secretaries 
could keep pace with the complexities 
of railroad transportation in a rapidly- 
growing city, and the board never adapt- 
ed its practices to changed conditions. 
Also, of course, real-estate operations 
were too engrossing. 

So a plan was conceived to breathe 
new life into the old ordinances by pro- 
viding that the board's agents should 
again hunt travelers "on their way bona 
fide to settle in the West" by meeting 
everv train or steamboat entering the 
city from north, south, or east An or- 
dinance was drafted to establish a 
Travelers* Aid Bureau at Union Sta- 

I'hi- Si i:\ i \ M.n 1, 1815 

Old Orders— New Needs 


tion, the chief point of entry, with three 
agents at salaries not to exceed $1,800 a 
year, at least one of whom should be on 
hand all the time every day in the year. 

It was found that no provision of will, 
laws, or court decision would be violated 
if financial aid should be given only to 
those actually on their way west. But 
quite as essential aid — advice, informa- 
tion, and reference to other agencies — 
could be rendered all others. 

Backed by the united social agencies 

of the city, the Municipal Assembly has 
just passed the ordinance creating such 
a bureau. The three members of the 
Mullanphy board, — which the new city 
charter reduced from an old-fashioned, 
unwieldy board of thirteen, selected by 
the City Council, to a modern, workable 
board of three unsalaried commissioners 
appointed by the mayor, — have taken to 
the new idea with enthusiasm. The new 
vision of service has transformed the 
board from a group of hard-headed, 

Photo by Hine 

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ig&&\ m 


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siwf\ !«, Jr v 










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-■ ■ * > 







property-owned business men figuring 
rents and repairs, to a group of keen, 
big-hearted public servants figuring in 
terms of human life. The board even 
plans to go to the courts again in order 
to cut out from the will the language 
which restricts aid to those "on their 
way bona fide to settle in the West" so 
that the funds may be used to aid any 
poor traveler, whether he stays in St. 
Louis or moves on. 

It seems the irony of fate that there 
should be a public trust fund to help 
people get away from St. Louis when 
the city boasts a Million Population 
Club attempting to "make St. Louis 
grow" by any means short of bribing 
the census-taker. 

It is possible that the fund will be 
used for even wider purposes ; for in- 
stance, assisting in the deportation of 
immigrants who become charges on the 
community ; establishing new means of 
employment ; assisting city dwellers to 
establish themselves on farms; protec- 
tive work among young girls; the fur- 
nishing of interpreters; free legal and 
medical aid to travelers and the develop- 
ment of good temporary lodgings. 

As there is no travelers' aid organiza- 
tion whatever in St. Louis, and prac- 
tically no other work is being done for 
immigrants on arrival, the new applica- 
tion of this old fund is being watched 
with interest. 

The Minimum of Safety 

By David Starr y or dan 

IN the London Morning Post (Oc- 
tober 20, November 5) these 
statements appear : "After all, the 
British Empire is built up by 
good fighting by its army and navy. 
The spirit of war is native to the 
British Race. . . . Only by militar- 
ism can we guard against the abuses of 

Parallel is the motto given by the 
crown prince of Prussia some two years 
ago : "The earth rests not more se- 
curely on the shoulders of Atlas than 
Germany on her army and navy." 

The real struggle behind this great 
war is not that between military Ger- 
many and the allies of military Britain. 
That will very likely end in a drawn 
game, of itself settling nothing. 

The great conflict of our century is 
that between law and anarchy. Law in- 
volves the rule of justice between na- 
tions as between men, of friendship, con- 
ciliation, and mutual trust. Anarchy is 
the rule of men by force and by fear. 
By fear, armies and navies have vainly 
posed as insurance for peace. By force, 
they may make for victory — never for 
peace. No increase of adverse odds ever 
discourages the dare-devils who demand 

war. No victory of arms is ever per- 
manent unless it is followed by the rule 
of law. 

This then is the great world prob- 
lem: Shall militarism continue to exist 
for its own sake, or shall it be wholly 
subject to the needs and demands of 
civil authority? 

By the growth of armies and navies 
intended for attack, and by the use of 
the same dangerous implements for de- 
fense, Europe has inevitably fallen into 
its present plight. The same process, 
"the necessary period of fattening" be- 
ing over, would bring about the same 

So long as there are armies we shall 
have the army spirit, the spirit of in- 
ternational hate. The system of con- 
scription rests on this. If a man is to 
give two, three, or five of the best years 
of his life to the army, it must be im- 
pressed on him that this sacrifice is 
necessary. He must imagine the enemy 
watching insistently for a murderous as- 
sault on his home and country. This 
enemy it is his duty to despise and hate. 
And the conscripts of other countries 
have the same false ideas of his nation 
and of him. 

Meanwhile, with every group of con- 
scripts is a corresponding group of offi- 
cers. In Europe, these are drawn main- 
ly from the privileged classes, men too 
proud for any useful work, whose hands 
bear no stain save that of blood. 

The future of these men is bound up 
in their profession. They cannot af- 
ford to be half-hearted. Their activity 
is privileged. It is a sort of lese ma- 
jeste to oppose them. They have the 
ear of the press. They bear the banner 
of the state. They stand in the lime- 
light of patriotism. They are devoted to 
their business, and their business is to 
keep alive the idea of the righteousness 
and necessity of war. 

Although all war is unrighteous, its 
first and last acts being murder and 
robbery, the world sees no way of sup- 
pressing it altogether. When it ceases 
to be the chief business of nations, it 
still stands as a last resort. As nations 
are organized today, if one man in a 
thousand really wants war he can get 

The forces of peace are half-hearted, 
for people who dread war for them- 
selves still believe it salutary for others 
or even necessary for the welfare of the 


The Survey, May 1, 1915 

nations. Those who would make war 
may be thwarted time after time. If 
they succeed a single time out of a 
dozen, they have made their point. The 
friends of peace must win at each crisis. 
To lose in a single skirmish is fatal. 
And it is for this reason that a single 
new weapon, the ultimatum, has caused 
the present wreck of European civiliza- 

No amount of armament, large or 
small, ever made for peace. It may 
make for victory. It may save defeat 
from being utter rout. All war is de- 
feat, in two senses at least. It is "the 
failure of human wisdom" and its evil 
-results outweigh any positive gains, 

financial, social, or political, to any na- 
tion as a whole. "War between civilized 
nations," says Arthur Noyes, "is as in- 
sane as it is foul and evil." 

Elihu Root and Admiral Winslow, in 
different words, have expressed this 
great truth. There is no dispute so triv- 
ial that nations will not fight for it, if 
they want to fight. There is no dispute 
so far-reaching that it cannot be honor- 
ably and peacefully adjusted, if nations 
mean to be just and fair. 

It is said that a certain amount of al- 
cohol may be useful as food, while all in 
excess of it is poison to the system. In 
like fashion a certain amount of armed 
force may be useful even in a democracy. 

But just as all unassimilated excess of 
alcohol is poison to the body, so all un- 
assimilated excess of militarism is pois- 
on to the state. 

The condition of Europe is the result 
of such excess. It is the business of 
statesmanship in Europe to see that such 
poisoning shall not occur again. It is 
the business of American statesmanship 
to find out for ourselves the line of 
safety and to hold to that line. Militar- 
ism existing for its own sake, is a 
poison to society. Its place in the de- 
mocracy is the minimum consistent with 
safety. It may be that we have not ex- 
ceeded this minimum, but we have cer- 
tainly never fallen below it. 

The American Sailor a Free Man 

By Robert M. La Follette 
I. The Man 

ONE morning in December, 1909, 
there came into my office in 
the Capitol building, a tall, 
bony, slightly stooped man, 
with a face bespeaking superior intelli- 
gence and lofty character. It was An- 
drew Furuseth. 

He wanted to interest me in the cause 
of the American sailor. He was a sailor 
himself, he said, and he wanted to "be 
free." I did not know what he meant. 
I questioned him. Surely there were no 
slaves under the American flag. Bonds- 
men there were, — but Lincoln changed 
all that. And it had been written in the 
amended constitution. 

"Yes," he said, "but not for the sailor. 
All other men are free. But when the 
amendments were framed, they passed 
us by. The sailor was forgotten." 

I asked him to tell me about it. Sit- 
ting on the edge of the chair, his body 
thrust forward, a great soul speaking 
through his face, the set purpose of his 
life shining in his eyes, he told me the 
story of the sailor's wrongs. He said 
little of himself, excepting as I drew 
him on to speak of the long, long strug- 
gle of which he was the beginning, and 
is now finally the end. He spoke with a 
strong Scandinavian accent, but with re- 
markable facility of expression, force 
and discrimination. 

He knew the maritime law of every 
country; the social condition, the wage 
level, the economic life of every sea- 
taring nation. He was master of his 
subject. His mind worked with the pre- 
cision of a Corliss engine. He was 
logical, rugged, terse, quaint, and fervid 
with conviction. 

Born in Norway, the call of the sea 
came to him as a lad of sixteen. He 
stood upon the cliffs and looked out upon 
the infinite. The life of the sailor, like 
the ocean, must be wide and free. He 

y -1 HE persistence and sheer 
* moral power to carry convic- 
tion possessed by Andrew Furu- 
seth; the backing of the labor 
group in Congress and throughout 
the country- — for the seamen have 
few votes; the activity of the Con- 
sumers League, and the leadership 
of the senator from Wisconsin 
were the four factors, more than 
any others, which saw the sea- 
men's bill enacted into law this 

7" HE SURVEY brought out the 
need for such legislation in a 
series of articles during the sum- 
mer of 1012 by George McPherson 
Hunter, of the Seamen's Institute. 
which showed — before the great 
disasters claimed public attention 
— how we hare failed in safety 
and labor legislation to keep 
abreast of the evolution from sails 
to steam. 

TT T E are indebted to Senator 
' ' La Follette for the oppor- 
tunity to reproduce here from the 
current issue of La Follette's 
Magazine excerpts from an in- 
terpretation of the new law by its 
foremost champion and Senator 
La Follette's tribute to the Norse- 
man who won him to the caus> 
the sea.— Em roK. 

felt its mysterious spell. He would be a 
"free seaman," with all the world an 
open door. New thoughts were stirring 
within him. He sailed away, thrilled 
with the idea that his was to be a tree 
man's work. 

His dream was shattered early by the 
hard realities of life before the mast. 
First in the boats of Norway and later 
on the decks of the merchant main 
every great maritime nation he served as 

a seaman, and everywhere conditions 
were the same. He found himself a 
common chattel ! He was owned by the 
master of the ship ! 

"I saw men abused," he said, "beaten 
into insensibility. I saw sailors try to 
escape from brutal masters, and from 
unseaworthy vessels upon which they 
had been lured to serve. I saw them 
hunted down and thrown into the ship's 
hold in chains. I know the bitterness of 
it all from experience." 

He had seen overinsured and under- 
manned ships go down at sea, with ap- 
palling loss of human life, all because 
greedy owners would not furnish skilled 
seamen to sail them, or provide life- 
boats for passengers and crew. 

He had witnessed the blighting effects 
of the worldwide shipping trust upon the 
sea power of the white race. To swell 
its enormous dividends, he had seen this 
great monopoly supplant white sailors 
with the low-wage, cheaply fed Orientals, 
until they swarm the merchant marine 
of every maritime nation. And he had 
measured with the judgment of real 
statesmanship the future peril to Chris- 
tian civilization as the sea power slowly 
but surely passes to the Oriental races. 

He would not submit to slavery. He 
could not abandon his beloved sea call- 
ing. His great spirit asserted itself. He 
studied the history of the sea. He found 
that there had been a time when the sea- 
men of the northern countries were free 
men; now they were bondmen. He 
sought the source of it all. He found 
it in the cruel statutes of privilege, en- 
acted at the behest and for the 1>< 
of the ship-owners. These laws made 
the master of the ship absolute master 
of the seamen. The wrong to be up- 
rooted was firmly embodied in the law 
and wrought into the traditions and life 
of all civilized nations. He had arrayed 

The American Sailor a Free Man 


against him the powerful influence of 
those who owned the ships and were 
masters of the sea; behind them was the 
prejudice and public opinion of the 
world regarding the status of the sea- 

With unerring judgment, Furuseth 
selected the United States as his battle- 
ground. He wisely chose the Pacific 
coast as the place to begin the work. 
There were fewer ports on the Pacific 
coast. It was easier to organize. The 
influence of the international shipping 
trust was less potential there than upon 
the Atlantic coast. 

Furuseth did not underestimate the 
magnitude of the undertaking. He re- 
vealed his purpose to the seamen. His 
task appeared hopeless to the body of 
the men. Few had faith in success. 
Their organization was limited in mem- 
bership. It was limited in means. They 
could make no appeal to the press. The 
shipowners were powerful, — powerful 
with commercial bodies, powerful with 
the newspapers through their advertis- 
ing, powerful with politicians and pub- 
lic officials through combinations with 
railroads and allied interests. But 
Furuseth was undaunted. He believed 
that there were aspects which, if prop- 
erly presented, would enlist the support 
of broad-minded men and women of the 
United States and of Europe. 

Fifteen years before he had brought 
his cause to Washington. He had 
lived with it, — waking and sleeping. In 
the corridors of the Capitol, in the com- 
mittee rooms of Congress, about the 
hotels and on the streets of Washington, 
wherever he went, he carried his appeal 
for freedom. With rare insight he 
knew when to speak, when to be silent. 
But his whole personality was articulate 
with the cry for justice that would not 
be denied. 

In all the years of this historic strug- 
gle for human liberty, which finally 
culminated with President Wilson's sign- 
ing of the seamen's law, March 4, 1915. 
Andrew Furuseth was the one man who 
had the faith, the vision, and the cour- 
age necessary to sustain the contest. He 
launched the movement. He kept it 
afloat. Every moment of the twenty- 
one years he was at the helm. Through 
legislative storms and calms, over the 
sunken reefs of privilege, across every 
treacherous shoal and past all dangers, 
he held his cause true to its course and 
brought it safely into port. . . . 

After the bill was signed by the Presi- 
dent, in conversation with Furuseth one 
day, I touched upon his future. "When 
you can no longer work, what provision 
have you for old age?" I asked. "How 
much have you been able to lay up 
against failing power?" His keen eye 
mellowed, and a placid contemplative ex- 
pression smoothed out the seams of his 
weather-beaten face as he said, "When 
my work is finished, I hope to be finish- 
ed. I have no provision against old age : 
and I shall borrow no fears from time." 

I'lllltu I'll l-Jlllll'ill 


Courtesy La toilette's Magazine 

It remained fur l.a Follette's Magazine for April to bring out this, the first photo- 
graph of the Norse sea-leader ever published. 

II. The Law 

THE act to promote the welfare 
of American seamen and safe- 
ty of life at sea, approved by 
President Wilson on March 4, 
makes America sacred soil and the thir 
teenth amendment finally a covenant 
of refuge for the seamen of the world. 
It has taken a twenty-one-year struggle 
to accomplish this result. 

The law makes the sailor a free man. 

It standardizes his skill. 

It limits the number of hours of con- 
tinuous service. 

It provides better conditions of living 
for him on shipboard, — more food, more 
water, more light and air, larger and 
more sanitary sleeping and living space, 
and a hospital section separate and apart 
from that portion of the vessel in which 
the sailors must sleep and eat. 

While the law does not completely 
safeguard the public interest, it is a 
great advance in the right direction. 
Furthermore, it substitutes enforceable 
statutes for the rules and regulations 

of an inspection service which are more 
often disregarded than observed. 

It requires every vessel leaving an 
American port for a foreign country to 
carry life-boats sufficient to accommodate 
at least 75 per cent of all on board, and 
to carry life-rafts for the remaining 25 
per cent. Formerly the number of life- 
boats required to be carried by ocean 
liners was committed to the discretion 
of the Inspection Service, which has had 
less consideration for public safety than 
for the interests of the steamship com- 
panies. It was my contention from the 
beginning that there should be life-boats 
for all, and the Senate adopted the 
amendment I offered to that end. 

But the influence of the ship-owners 
was strong enough in the House to re- 
duce the number of life-boats to 75 per 
cent ; 25 per cent of the passengers must 
resort to life-rafts in the event of dis- 
aster. Life-rafts in mid-ocean would 
serve only temporarily to keep afloat the 
people so unfortunate as to be depend- 
ent upon them; they would inevitably 

\ Continued on fayc 125. 1 

Social Legisla- 
tion in THE 
Keystone State 

THE main artery of travel be- 
tween Pennsylvania's two great 
centers of population on her 
eastern and her western border 
flows, soon after it leaves Philadelphia, 
through a rich and lovely valley which 
scarcely needs official figures to estab- 
lish as the most prosperous farming 
section in the United States. About 
forty miles from Philadelphia the val- 
ley halts, gutted out by a cross-section 
into a deep hollow. To the traveler in 
the train speeding high above steeples 
and chimneys, the low-lying town sends 
up the glare and ruddy haze of furnaces 
and the metallic roar which has won for 
it the nickname of "Little Pittsburgh." 

One half of the men in this town 
work by night ; the other half, by day. 
Of the work done in the town, 77 per 
cent is unskilled labor; 17 per cent is 
skilled; and 6 per cent is of a mercan- 
tile or commercial nature. The domin- 
ant industry heralds itself afar by that 
red glow in the night sky. Seven large 
companies control the iron and steel in- 
dustry of the place. 

Fifteen years ago a group of Polish 
and Slavic immigrants were brought in 
to work in the mills. Today one-fifth 
of the 12,000 inhabitants of the town and 
its environs are of foreign origin, — one- 
half, of foreign birth — led in numbers 
by the Russians and Italians. 

In the latter part of the year 1914, a 
careful study of this alien population 
was made by J. I. Hoffman, the secre- 
tary of the local Y. M. C. A. He found 
that for every alien woman, there were 
about five alien men, and two children. 
This could mean only one thing, — that 
although largely a permanent element, 
this foreign group were not home-keep- 
ers. In fact, a survey of 375 houses 
occupied by aliens revealed that only 18 
per cent of these houses were wholly 
free from boarders ; that as many as 
eighteen or twenty men boarded in a 
single house, the general average being 
six. The occasional woman did all the 




Florence L. Sanville 

cooking for the boarders, who, in turn, 
provided their own food and paid her 
for her work. 

About one-third of the houses were 
built in solid blocks of twenty or more. 
In one section, familiarly known as the 
"Eighties.'' from its original blocks of 
80 houses ( now doubled in capacity to 
contain 160), all of the same pattern, 
live Negroes and Italians for the most 
part, with Syrians, Greeks and Poles as 
less numerous neighbors. 

Another 30 per cent of the houses 
are built in pairs and represent a better 
type. The remaining third offer a wide 
variety, from a converted carriage fac- 
tory and an abandoned grist-mill, to 
wooden shanties and comfortable homes. 
A large proportion of the homes are 
owned by the steel companies or their 

The health record of this little indus- 
trial section scooped out of a farming 
valley, speaks through its official death- 
rate: 24.9 per 1,000 (for native and for- 
eign) in 1907, and in 1911, 10.6 per 
1.000. In Pennsylvania, the general 
death-rate is 14.3 in each 1.000 native 
population and 22.6 per cent among the 
foreign-born. Nature has done her best 
to build healthy human beings in this 
region, for abundant fresh air filters 
from the surrounding hills. Rut the hu- 
man ignorance which offsets her efforts, 
is evidenced by a scene which Mr. Hoff- 
man describes : "A stream flowed in 
front of a block of houses, merely a 


Education and the 
Immigrant's Chances 
in Pennsylvania Today 

brook which one could jump across with 
a little effort. At an upper point of the 
stream a woman was washing clothes; 
below her, a man was washing his feet ; 
and below him again, another was wash- 
ing his face." Doubtless farther down 
the stream you would find some one 
drawing a jug of drinking-water for a 
family ! 

The educational standards of these 
alien residents appear in the illiteracy 
percentage among them. This ranges 
from 54 per cent among Italians and 
Syrians to 23 per cent among Greeks. 
To remedy this condition, two classes 
were established for instruction in Eng- 
lish and were attended by twenty men. 
A certain amount of educational and so- 
cial influence is exerted also by the 
Young Men's and the Young Women's 
Christian Associations and by a mission 
conducted by one of the steel companies. 
This seems to represent the sum of na- 
tive endeavor to fit the alien group into 
American conditions. 

Throughout the breadth of Pennsyl- 
vania are scattered replicas of Coates- 
ville, sometimes enlarged to second-or 
third-class cities, sometimes contracted 
to mere villages. The very character- 
istics which emphasize the need of child 
labor reform and workmen's compensa- 
tion in Pennsylvania, serve also to mag- 
nify the state's immigration problem. 
The same variety of occupation which 
calls for twice as many children as any 
other state in the Union, diversifies the 
call upon alien labor. The same group 
of tonnage industries that account for 
the largest proportion of deaths and in- 
juries to Pennsylvania's workers, use 
alien muscle in coal-mine, blast-furnace 
and steel-mill. 

Hence it is that the Coatesvilles are 
formed in all sizes and with every kind 
of national and industrial ingredient, 
trailing along the narrow anthracite belt 
of the east and northeast : radiating from 
Pittsburgh on the western fringe of the 
<tate. and from Philadelphia on the - 

The Scrvfy. >I:iy 1. 1918 

Social Legislation in the Keystone State 


em; grouped in the broad bituminous 
coal-fields of the southwest ; dotted here, 
there, everywhere, as large towns, vil- 
lages or small cities — Allentown, Johns- 
town, Reading, Chester, Bethlehem — 
with alien elements varying from 7 or 
10 per cent to 25 per cent of the total 

The first ripple of this immigration 
tide came up the Delaware river in the 
year 1643 bringing a group of Swedes 
to Tinicum, slightly below the present 
Philadelphia. The picturesque Old 
Swedes Church still stands in the lower 
part of the city, a monument to the 
piety of these first aliens. The white 
population of Pennsylvania 230 years 
ago, was 100 per cent alien — composed 
chiefly of a mixture of German, Dutch, 
English, Scotch-Irish and Welsh immi- 
grants. No especial change in the char- 
acter of immigration occurred during 
the first half of the nineteenth century. 
But at its midway point the discovery of 
coal and its application in industry 
created a new order. 

This impetus to industry, following the 
Civil War, began the crystallization of 
commercial wealth and industrial power. 
Companies, formed to capitalize Pennsyl- 
vania's great resources, were bidding for 
new supplies of labor; and the sources 
of these were discovered in the hitherto 
untouched countries of eastern and 
southern Europe. First came the Poles, 
Lithuanians and Slovaks in 1875, fol- 
lowed in the eighties by Italians, Rus- 
sians, Magyars and Croatians. Steam- 
ship companies, scenting prosperity, did 
their part to advertise the new world of 
fortune through the remoter corners of 

Over the length and breadth of Penn- 
sylvania these new nationalities have 
crowded, edging the native miners up to 
the northern point of the anthracite coal- 
fields; filling the iron and steel-mills 
with over 100,000 laborers, — and creat- 
ing the Coatesvilles of the state. 

There is no inherent reason why com- 
munities composed of these newer kinds 
of immigrants should represent evil con- 
ditions. The fact that different blood is 
pouring into the veins of the state should 
create no greater disturbance now than 
has the influx which steadily built up 
the present organism since the coming 
of the Swedes in 1643. But social values 
have changed. The newly arrived im- 
migrant is now relegated to his particu- 
lar group when he lands, and that group 
by common consent lies at the bottom of 
the established social scale. No means 
have been taken by the state to supply 
artificially the sources of independent 
initiative and community spirit which, 
automatically appearing in the alien of 
a century ago, fitted him at once into the 
whole order. 

Under the act which created the new 
Department of Labor and Industry in 
Pennsylvania (1913), a bureau of sta- 
tistics and information was charged 
with the duty of inquiring into these 

conditions. This duty has been dis- 
charged. But the state has stopped 
short of giving to the department the 
power to initiate remedial policies. In 
its recently issued report, the depart- 
ment explicitly asks for this power, set- 
ting forth as its justification the need 
established by its investigations. 

The great facts of immigration in 
Pennsylvania group about her dominant 
industries. In 1914, the Department of 
Labor and Industry sent inquiries to 
18,000 companies and firms in the state, 
to ascertain the present number of alien 
employes. Of the 13,023 reporting, 12,- 
960 replied that they employed 331,888 
workers of foreign origin. 

To this great extent is Pennsylvania 
indebted to alien brawn and muscle for 
the unlocking of her treasures, but 
injection of so large a proportion of 
ready-made labor into the industries 
of the state naturally disturbs greatly 
the balance of employment opportuni- 
ties. The Department of Labor and In- 
dustry, in an effort to secure data on 
the problem of unemployment, so pierc- 
ing in its sting during the past winter, 
circularized 1,800 plants having over 100 
employes, to determine the fluctuation 
in their force. 

The questions covered the various as- 
pects of fluctuation, such as the mini- 
mum and maximum numbers employed 
between certain periods, at certain 
dates, and for maximum and normal 
production. The replies received from 
1,000 companies and firms established 
the fact that the metal trades recorded 
the greatest amount of displacement, 75,- 
664 men being thrown out of work from 
285 plants between June, 1913 and June, 
1914. In a total of seventeen trades, 

there were 125,723 workers thrown out 
in this period. 

Although there has been on the statute 
books of Pennsylvania since 1907, an act 
to regulate and license private employ- 
ment agencies in cities of the first and 
second class, unlicensed agencies were 
discovered in every city of these classes 
in the state. A circular letter, more- 
over, to the mayors of towns exceeding 
5,000 population, excluding the above 
cities, revealed that no system of 
regulation was in force and that the 
authorities were unaware of the ex- 
istence of the agencies. During the 
year, 195 private employment exchanges 
were listed, 49 of which were practically 
labor agents or padroni. Less than half 
of these held licenses. The ten labor 
agencies which supply the largest num- 
ber of workers to the railroads of Penn- 
sylvania were among those unsupervised, 
and yet they included the padroni who 
are solely responsible for the food and 
shelter of hundreds of men who are 
helplessly dependent upon them. 

The forces at work making immigrants 
into Pennsylvanians have been tested by 
the Department of Labor and Industry 
in seventy communities by a series of 
surveys conducted in nine cities of the 
first, second and third classes, and in 
sixty-one boroughs and townships. 

As might be expected, a very wide 
range was represented in these com- 
munities in housing and in physical en- 
vironment and social opportunities. In- 
dustrially, they fall naturally into three 
groups: mining towns, iron and steel 
manufacturing towns and cities with 
diversified industries. 

Nothing more desolate can be im- 
agined than the average mining town 



The Survey, May 1, 1915 

which has sprouted at the foot of the 
culm-heaps of the coal regions. Two 
summers spent in these towns as a fac- 
tory worker, some years ago, convinced 
the writer that mind and spirit no less 
than faces and hands of the dwellers 
in these places, are dimmed and ob- 
scured by the implacable, all-pervasive 

Shenandoah, for example, in the heart 
of the anthracite belt, is a borough of 
about 26,000 inhabitants of whom 21,000 
are foreign born or of foreign and mixed 
parentage. Russians lead the popula- 
tion, followed in order by Austrians, 
Germans and Italians. A large propor- 
tion of its population is crowded into 
two of the five wards. Congestion is 
the curse of Shenandoah — with its con- 
stricted area of two and one-half by two 
and one-quarter miles. But the land is 
held by the two dominant coal com- 
panies, and they turn a deaf ear to all 
pleas to sell or lease more land. 

In nearly all the wards, company 
houses are in evidence. In one of the 
more congested sections, the houses are 
crowded along a creek with their out- 
side toilets overhanging the water. Each 
rainstorm backs the filthy water into the 
yards, almost up to the kitchen doors. 
Four or five families share a yard and 
clothes-line privileges. The toilets are 
unique in consisting of two stories, a 
plank leading from the second story of 
each house to the corresponding toilet. 
The death-roll of Shenandoah as record- 
ed in the last report of the state Board 
of Health for the year 1911 was 506 per- 
sons. This, in a population of 25,774, 
establishes a mortality of 19.6 per 1,000. 

Another and smaller mining commun- 
ity, where the company does things on 
a different basis, affords a contrast. 
Clean and freshly painted houses, with a 
drainage system, stand each in its own 
garden. The women and children are 
encouraged to learn gardening and to 
raise flowers and vegetables. Play- 
grounds and social centers are estab- 
lished and wholesome recreation provid- 
ed for everyone. 

Educational and social opportunities 
follow closely on the heels of housing 

facilities. Decent standards in living 
bring other benefits in their train. Un- 
fortunately the converse of this propo- 
sition is equally true, and those districts 
in Pennsylvania where the physical 
standards are most depressed are like- 
wise the black spots of illiteracy in the 
state. The high record of illiteracy is 
held by Luzerne county, in the heart of 
the anthracite belt, with a population of 
which 12.6 per cent are illiterate. Al- 
legheny county follows with 6.2 per cent ; 
Philadelphia is third, and then all the 
coal counties crowd in a heap. 

Illiteracy, no crime in itself, is symp- 
tomatic. In this country it is the red 
signal of warning of which the state, 
for its own necessity, should take heed. 
Against an illiteracy rate of 13.7 per 
cent among the foreign-born whites in 
New York, and of 12.7 per cent in 
Massachusetts, Pennsylvania shows up 
badly indeed with her 20.1 per cent of 
foreign-born illiterates recorded in the 
last census. 

The report of the Department of 
Labor and Industry clearly enunciates 
the principle that the problems of immi- 
grant education are not being met by 
school attendance. Of the 466,000 aliens 
over ten years of age in Pennsylvania 
who cannot speak English, only 46,000 
are attending school. Only 76 per cent 
of the foreign-born children between six 
and fourteen years old are attending 

Clearly the school machine is not 
maintaining full efficiency in this direc- 
tion. Were it doing so, however, it 
would still touch only the rim of the 
need. — for systematic education of the 
adult as well as the juvenile immigrant, 
must include industrial opportunities, 
community life and civic ideals, as well 
as the English tongue. 

Approximately one-third of the immi- 
grants into Pennsylvania during the past 
five years were farmers in their own 
country. Their training and knowledge, 
properly utilized, would be worth thou- 
sands of dollars to this rich farming 
state. Instead, each man's aptitude and 
skill is cast aside for haphazard in- 
dustrial employment which hears no re- 

lation to his equipment. 

Just as the exploiting padrone is free- 
ly permitted to destroy this valuable as- 
set by unceremoniously hustling his man 
to the rolling-mill or railroad line, so the 
corrupt politician has a free hand to 
squeeze him dry of all civic ideals be- 
fore he has a chance to glimpse the more 
decent elements of American life. So. 
again, the saloon is "on the job" to en- 
mesh him, while wholesome recreation 
of music, drama and sport continue to 
enliven a totally different world from 
that into which he has been cast. The 
ignorance which supports at the polls all 
the powers of corruption and vice, is an 
ignorance which can be dispelled only by 
a broadly conceived and thoroughly ex- 
ecuted state plan. 

The first steps toward such a plan are 
taken in the program formulated by the 
Department of Labor and Industry at 
the close of its report. It shows that 
power should be given to deal adequate- 
ly with the problems presented by the 
foreign-born population of the state ; 
power to investigate the exploitation of 
native and foreign-born residents; to 
entertain the complaints of wage-earn- 
ers and to effect an amicable adjust- 
ment where possible; to prosecute those 
who thrive upon the foreigners' ignor- 
ance of American customs, methods, and 

With this the department should be 
given power for the creation of a 
bureau of employment to cope with un- 
employment ; to promote regularization 
of work, and public improvements in 
seasons of unemployment. To make its 
program effective, it seeks to regulate 
private employment agents, padroni, and 
labor contractors. Bills are now pend- 
ing in the Legislature for the accom- 
plishment of these various purposes. 

By the enactment of these measures, 
the state will for the first time have 
focused its attention on one aspect of 
the widespread needs of its immigrant 
population. Obviously there remain 
other needs which this article has en- 
deavored to suggest. Among them the 
greatest is a constructive program of 
sound education which will ultimately 
determine whether the incoming races 
are to strengthen or weaken the staying 
power of the Keystone State. 


Four-room Bungalows, with Gardens 150 Neighborhood House and Other Com- L~p-to-Date Playground for Foreign 

Feet Deep. The rent of these houses is munity Developments of New Jersey Zinc Employes. An Intelligent Hungarian in 

$7 per month. Company of Pennsylvania. Charge. 

l^ 1 

IB BLlttJ 





Associate Editors 


SINCE the early stages of the war, the German 
and French and English medical journals 
have shown two distinct changes of attitude and 
emphasis, beginning toward the end of October. 

From that time, no longer came reports of clean 
bullet wounds which healed rapidly, of the admir- 
able effects of the soldiers' first-aid packages in 
keeping out infection, of the contrast between 
this and former wars all to the favor of the 
present one. Instead, we read that practically all 
the wounded received at such and such a hospital 
have arrived there already badly infected; that 
asepsis had to be abandoned and the earlier 
methods of antisepsis resorted to, with strong 
germicides and open dressings and free drainage. 

Most discouraging of all were the discussions 
of the proper treatment of gangrene, that terrible 
form of wound infection which supposedly be- 
longed to the dark ages of surgery before the 
discovery of the germ theory. 

Lockjaw was described with increasing fre- 
quency. From one French surgeon came a 
description of no less than fifty cases; a German 
surgeon reported a mortality of 80 to 90 per cent 
in cases developing quickly and said that he had 
found amputation of the whole limb quite power- 
less to arrest this disease. It was shrapnel and 
shell wounds that chiefly gave rise to tetanus, 
though it was suggested also that transporting 
the wounded in cars formerly used for cavalry 
horses may have had something to do with it. 

ALL this meant that one part of the efficient 
war machine had broken down under strain. 
Injured men who reached the hospitals were often 
so filthy that a clean wound was impossible, be- 
cause they had gone for weeks unwashed and with- 
out a change of underclothes. After they were 
wounded, they lay for hours or even days in the 
trenches or on the floor of freight cars, side-track- 
ed, waiting till the trains of troops, ammunition, 
and food had passed and the rails were free, for 
the wounded always come last. 

THEN as winter came on the picture grew 
less distressing. All the resources of medi- 
cal science and skill seem to have been brought 
to bear on the problems, and with good results. 
Bacteriological examinations showed that the 
germs of gangrene were present in the soil of 

some of the trenches, and these were abandoned. 
Requisition was made for enormous quantities of 
tetanus antitoxin, and a rule adopted that all 
wounded were to receive a preventive dose at the 
field hospital. The cold weather helped, by in- 
hibiting the activity of these bacteria. 

The efficiency of the service seemed also to have 
improved. Men who can be transported to a hos- 
pital stand an excellent chance of recovery. In 
our American hospital in Paris, the mortality 
has been only eight per cent. But the most severely 
wounded men do not reach these hospitals. Those 
wounded in the # abdomen stand transportation 
badly, yet they cannot be properly treated at a 
field hospital, with its imperfect asepsis and over- 
crowding. One English surgeon remarks signifi- 
cantly, that very few abdominal wounds are 
reaching the English hospitals. German sur- 
geons found by experimenting on animals, that 
the best protection for such wounds was melted 
paraffin, poured ovor thp oxposod surface and al- 
lowed to harden. 

THE real results of this war surgery will not 
be known till the war is over; there is no 
time now to take stock of anything but fatalities. 
An English surgeon writing in the Lancet deplores 
the fact that no surgeon at the front can possibly 
know which of the different ways of treating an 
injury turns out best. It is all guess-work and 
will continue to be guess-work. Shall he leave the 
fragments of bone in a badly shattered limb or 
take them out? He chooses one method, his pa- 
tient goes on to the base hospital, then to Eng- 
land; and neither the first nor the second surgeon 
knows how the treatment turned out. "If only 
we could stop long enough to find out what is 
happening.' ' 

ONE thing which most of us have hardly 
thought of, is spoken of from time to time 
in these journals; that is, the effect upon physi- 
cians and nurses, especially those in the field hos- 
pitals, of the long drawn out strain, both physical 
and emotional, to which they are subjected. Here 
is another result of the war which we shall begin 
to estimate when the war is over, the mental and 
nervous breakdown of these indirect victims of 
shot and shell. 



The Survey, May 1, 1915 




IN The Subvey for March 3, I pointed out 
that the legal minimum wage does not 
compel the employer to pay any worker more 
than he thinks she is economically worth. There- 
fore, the assertion that some employes will re- 
ceive more than they "earn," is untrue. 

From the point of view of the employer, how- 
ever, the difficulty of the situation is not disposed 
of so simply or so easily. For the employer the 
fundamental question is not, whether he is at 
liberty to discharge individual workers who are 
not worth the legal minimum, but whether he can 
profitably continue in business when he is com- 
pelled to pay the minimum to all indispensable 

Let us consider a department store having 600 
employes, 400 of whom are now receiving less 
than the legal minimum of $9 a week. When the 
law goes into effect, the employer cannot forth- 
with eliminate the 400 low-paid employes. In- 
deed, he cannot carry the elimination process so 
far as to cause a considerable reduction in his 
output of business ; for this would render his en- 
terprise, owing to the size of his plant, relatively 
unprofitable. Let us assume that, despite the in- 
creased efficiency of those employes whose wage 
has been raised to the nine-dollar level, and 
despite all feasible economies in the equipment 
and organization of his business, he requires 350 
of the 400 formerly low-paid workers in order to 
maintain approximately the former volume of 

The alternative that confronts him is to raise 
the wages of 350 girls to $9 a week, or to go out 
of this business and employ his talents and in- 
vest his money elsewhere. 

Such is the correct statement of the question 
whether a legal minimum wage compels the em- 
ployer to pay unprofitable wages. The question 
can be answered only hypothetically and presump- 
tively. In the first place, we must concede the 
possibility that the minimum may be placed so 
high in some communities as to force some estab- 
lishments out of business. In case this happened 
or were imminent, the practical question to de- 
cide is whether the minimum wage which has been 
set up exceeds the decent minimum cost of living, 
and, if it does not, whether social welfare de- 
mands that the endangered establishments should 
nevertheless be dispensed with. 

In the second place, the burden of proof very, 
decidedly falls upon those persons, employers or 
others, who contend that any significant number 
of concerns would be thus jeopardized by any 
legal minimum that is likely to be established in 
any state in this country. Neither in Australasia, 
nor in England, nor in the states of the Pacific 
Northwest has the minimum wage led to any such 
consequences. [See the article by Professor 
Hammond in The Survey, February 6; the little 
book by R. H. Tawney, Minimum Rates in the 
Chain-making Industry, and articles in the 

Catholic World, January, 1915]. In The Subvey 
of February 6, Howard B. Woolston shows that 
to raise the wages of all the department store 
women in New York sufficiently to give all who are 
under eighteen years $6 a week, and all over that 
age $9 a week, would affect only slightly either 
prices or profits. 

In a word, all our experience and all our ante- 
cedent knowledge point to the conclusion that a 
law requiring all adult women to be paid living 
wages would not drive more than an insignificant 
fraction of employers out of their present busi- 
nesses, and would not reduce profits in any un- 
reasonable degree. The predicament of the em- 
ployer is not serious. 

John A. Ryan. 


CAPITAL punishment is the last out-and-out 
survival into our day of the ancient and bar- 
barous idea of punishment as retribution. "Eye 
for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for 
foot," and of course, "life for life," as Deuteron- 
omy puts it — this was the basis of penalty for 
crime in days gone by. It is needless to point out. 
however, that within comparatively recent years 
this conception of punishment has fallen into dis- 
repute. Xow and again it seems to win recognition 
in an institution like the Delaware whipping-post, 
for example, or in the occasional imposition by our 
courts of excessive penalties for minor offences. 
But on the whole the principle of legal retribution 
has gone — save only as it appears in the extreme 
form of capital punishment, which is justified 
today, be it noted, on grounds quite other than 
those in which it had its origin! 

The usual defense of the death penalty in our 
time is found in what may be called the protective 
idea of punishment. Men are put to death for 
murder as they are imprisoned for burglary or 
fined for disorder, in order that they themselves 
may be prevented from, and other possible offend- 
ers warned against, committing further acts of 
violence, and society thereby be protected. It is 
certain, however, that capital punishment 
achieves this protective end no more successfully 
in the case of murder than it did generations ago 
in the case of the scores of less serious offences 
for which it was then indiscriminately inflicted. 

Numerous attempts have been made, of course, 
to prove statistically that crime decreases under 
capital punishment, and increases when this ex- 
treme penalty is abolished; just as similar at- 
tempts have been made to prove the opposite. In 
neither case, however, are the figures adequate. 
The factors involved in the problem are too nu- 
merous and complex to allow of conclusive sta- 
tistical treatment. What seems to stand out. as 
the one certain principle in this field, is that social 
protection is secured not by severity but by cer- 
tainty of punishment, as witness the experience 
of our forefathers with the outrageous penalties 
imposed by the criminal codes of the seventeenth 
and eighteenth centuries. 

The excessive prevalence of murders in 
America today is in large part to be explained by 



the general impression abroad in every commun- 
ity that there is much more than an even chance 
that the death penalty prescribed by the law will 
not and cannot be enforced. While capital pun- 
ishment is still written into our laws, the public 
conscience has unconsciously come to the point 
of not believing in it, and therefore of being un- 
willing to impose it except in circumstances that 
give no loop-hole for escape. Hence the growing 
number of unpunished murders and unconvicted 
murderers ! Hence the peculiar and impressive 
fact that the death penalty today, so far from 
being a deterrent from crime, has practically be- 
come an encouragement thereto because of its 
prevailing lack of enforcement! 

Abolish this extreme penalty, and put in its 
place a sentence of thirty years, fifty years, or 
life imprisonment for murder, which will be im- 
posed and enforced without fear or favor, and 
therefore without exception — and society will be 
protected as it has not been in years. 

The protective conception of punishment, how- 
ever, is in our time almost as out of date as the 
retributive. Modern penology has come to the 
idea that punishment, in order to be just, must be 
primarily reformative in character. The crim- 
inal, most of all the murderer, is rightly to be re- 
garded as a person diseased, and the prison as a 
hospital for his cure. It may be asserted, to be 
sure, that the murderer proves by his act that he 
is a criminal who is beyond cure. But this is im- 
possible of belief. Many murderers, of course, 
like many prostitutes, are feebleminded, a fact 
which raises a question of social control alto- 
gether outside the field of penology. 

Granted, however, that the murderer is respon- 
sible, there is always a chance of reclaiming him 
to self-control, and therefore to the possibility, 
however remote, of freedom. Indeed, such rec- 
lamation, and not punishment at all, is the specific 
task of modern penology in this case as in every 
other. From the standpoint of society and its 
protection, it may be necessary to impose a long- 
term penalty, which cannot be evaded. But from 
the standpoint of, the individual and his redemp- 
tion, the indeterminate sentence is as wise here 
as it is anywhere else. 

In any case, capital punishment is impossible. 
It "gives up" the problem of a murderer as hope- 
less, and gets rid of it by slaying the inconvenient 
individual in custody as one might slay a house- 
hold pest. This is a counsel of despair, an act 
of cowardice, a betrayal of the sanctity of human 
life — and hence a disgrace to the society which 
permits it. 

It is on such grounds as these that the laws 
abolishing capital punishment have been passed 
this year in North and South Dakota, that similar 
bills have been introduced into the Legislatures of 
New York, New Jersey, Illinois, New Hampshire 
and Arkansas, and that the Anti-Capital Punish- 
ment Society has been organized in New York. 
Nothing is more certain than the ultimate aboli- 
tion of capital punishment everywhere. Why not 
achieve this great reform today as well as to- 
morrow? John Haynes Holmes. 

Social Forces 



THE New York State Board of Charities 
seems to have taken up the task re- 
linquished only in its dying breath by the 
late State Civil Service Commission, that 
of baiting the Department of Public Charities of 
the city of New York. It is at best an ungracious 
task and the circumstances under which the pres- 
ent investigation is undertaken make it little less 
than odious. Of course, the motives of the State 
Board are above suspicion. No one expects a 
committee of which William Rhinelander Stewart 
is chairman, to make such an exhibition of its 
own incapacity as did the co-ordinate branch of 
the state government in the civil service inquiry. 
The state board has an undoubted right and 
even a duty, which it has by no means neglected 
during the past year, to inspect the institu- 
tions of the local department and, when the oc- 
casion calls for it, to make a more formal investi- 
gation. Moreover, the late unlamented legisla- 
ture, in one of its irresponsible moments, tossed 
off a joint resolution specifically calling on the 
State Board of Charities, with the co-operation 
and advice of the attorney-general, to look into 
the Department of Charities, apparently with a 
view to finding out what all the fuss on Ran- 
dall's Island was about. Perhaps the legislature 
thought that the attorney-general, whatever he 
discovered in New York city, might incidentallv 
bring to light good and sufficient reasons for turn- 
ing the Democrats out of the State Board at Al- 
bany. The jobs there are not so essential to a 
smooth machine as some others, but a prudent 
machine does not overlook even the charities. 

No doubt the legislature, and the State Board 
and the personal friends of Mary C. Dunphy, con- 
sider this an opportune time for such an inves- 
tigation as has been undertaken. Probably Com- 
missioner Kingsbury, whose department is to be 
investigated, agrees with them, as he is under- 
stood to be only too anxious to ventilate thorough- 
ly all the alleged abuses and shortcomings of the 
institutions on Randall's Island over which Mrs. 
Dunphy has held sway for a whole generation, 
and any committee which undertakes an official 
investigation at this time and wishes to retain 
public confidence and its own respect will, of 
course, have to hear all this evidence. 

Mayor Mitchel, whose early reputation was 
made in investigating and exposing abuses of 
administration, is not likely to shrink from the 
most thorough probing of all charges against any 
officials or employes of his administration and 
his official adviser will no doubt see that their 


The Survey, May 1, 1915 

legal rights are maintained; and so the stage is 
set for a huge entertainment, or a nasty exhibit, 
according to the point of view. 

It is a time when candid friends of both par- 
ties, of all parties to this, as yet insignificant but 
potentially most serious and disastrous con- 
troversy, and those who have no direct interest 
either way in the conflict may frankly express 
the opinion that further muck-raking will not pro- 
mote the interests of the wards of the city, for 
whose sake, after all, both the department and the 
State Board exist. What the Department of 
Charities needs, after six months of the State 
Civil Service Commission, is not further investi- 
gation, but the support and public confidence 
which it deserves, time and opportunity to do its 
legitimate and necessary work, and above all pre- 
cisely freedom from such interference and an- 
tagonism as this investigation, however suavely 
it may be conducted, really represents. 

The storm center of the issue is of course the 
personality of Mrs. Dunphy, superintendent, until 
her recent suspension under charges, of the chil- 
dren's hospitals and schools on Randall's Island, 
and long a familiar figure in the public charities 
of New York. Of large frame and commanding 
presence, Mrs. Dunphy has never been one to be 
ignored. More than once in the past commission- 
ers who have sought to replace her have found 
her more than their match. She has had positive 
views, especially as to her own fitness for the po- 
sition which she held, and effective ways of mak- 
ing those views prevail. Recently she served on a 
State Commission on the Feebleminded, and when 
there was a split on the commission it was not she 
and her friends but a distinguished physician and 
a distinguished educator, who retired. The State 
Board of Charities has itself recently expressed 
golden opinions of her institution. 

This remarkable woman would certainly have 
made a great success in business. Save for the 
disqualification of sex she might easily be imagin- 
ed as commanding a battleship. In such a position 
she would never have hauled down her colors and 
mutineers would certainly have had short shrift. 
Mrs. Dunphy 's career, fortunately perhaps for its 
earlier stages, but unfortunately for its close, has 
run its course, not in the fierce competition of 
business, nor on the quarter-deck of a ship, but in 
an institution for the treatment and cure of sick 
children, for the care and treatment of the feeble- 

In the early days there are said to have been 
cruel abuses there which the new superintendent, 
then a young, fearless, and powerful woman, put 
down with a strong hand. To assert authority, to 
throw out recalcitrant doctors or attendants, if 
necessary by physical force, to demand neces- 
sary funds and get them, to insist on loyalty and 
elementary efficiency, all came naturally to this 
honest and assertive head of the institution, and 
some of those who remember conditions on Ran- 
dall's Island in the seventies recall with ardent 
appreciation the energy and success with which 
she met such responsibilities. 

The Randall's Island of today is just such an 
institution as might be created by an administra- 

tion of this kind. It furnishes rather high grade 
almshouse care for its unfortunate "inmates." 
That is saying something, but not as much as 
should be said of the largest institution for the 
feebleminded in the United States. The children 
seem to be fairly well dressed and nourished. 
They are not allowed to escape or to injure one 
another. If they are ill, they have nursing and 
medical care. If troublesome children have been 
beaten, if the diet has not been as good as the ap- 
propriations permit, if low-paid and low-grade 
attendants have not been adequately watched, or 
displaced as soon as they should be, we shall no 
doubt now find that out— either through the hear- 
ing on Commissioner Kingsbury's charges or 
from the State Board's inquiry. It is not improb- 
able that specific instances of cruelty and misman- 
agement will be discovered, but it is also probable 
that these may justly be attributed in part to inad- 
equate appropriations, obsolete equipment, and 
inefficient staff. 

All such abuses and defects, if they exist, are 
but cumulative evidence of what is obvious to the 
most casual visitor to Randall's Island, that the 
hospitals and schools which make up that institu- 
tion need thorough overhauling, reorganizing, and 
modernizing. It will take at least ten years, and 
even Mrs. Dunphy 's most loyal friends would 
hardly say that she is now fitted to do this neces- 
sary work. Capable and devoted she may be, but 
in her native honesty she would scorn to pose as 
a scientific student of feeblemindness or a pro- 
gressive executive such as these institutions now 
require. All this, of course, is aside from the 
physical infirmities which have been so serious as 
to prevent her answering the charges made 
against her administration, and which should 
bring her sincere sympathy and consideration 
even from those who think that the time is long 
past when she should have voluntarily retired. 

The path of such retirement was opened several 
years ago when by special legislation she was 
made eligible for a public school superintendent's 
pension. That peculiar arrangement might itself 
be criticized from the public school point of view 
and it is not surprising that objection to car- 
rying it into effect was made in the Board of Edu- 
cation, when the application for retirement was 
deferred until actual charges had been made lead 
ing to suspension from duty. 

If the retirement is granted in spite of these un- 
heard charges, and the way is thus opened for 
the appointment of a new superintendent without 
further delay, this will be exceedingly fortunate 
for Mrs. Dunphy, and we cannot help thinking 
that it will also be fortunate for the Commis- 
sioner of Charities, in that it will give him a free 
hand to proceed rapidly with the pressing work 
to be done on Randall's Island. We may even be 
permitted to add that it will be fortunate for the 
State Board of Charities, as it will give them 
the chance to make their investigation, as they 
have announced that they wish it to be, a construc- 
tive instead of a harassing inquiry. The briefer, 
the less harassing, and the more "constructive'* 
it can be made, the more credit will it reflect on 
the State Board and the attorney-general. 

The American Sailor a Free Man 



[Continued from page 116.] 

drown or die from exposure in a high 
sea and chill weather. 

The bill provides that each boat and 
raft carrying fifteen persons or more, 
shall be in charge of a licensed officer 
or an able seaman; and other life-boats 
or rafts shall be in charge of members 
of the crew who have been tested by 
government inspectors in handling life- 
boats and to whom certificates as quali- 
fied boatmen have been issued. At pres- 
ent, under the easy regulations imposed 
by our Inspection Service, Chinese, Las- 
cars, Arabs from the Mediterranean, 
waiters from the dining-rooms, bartend- 
ers from the saloons, make a pretense 
of manning life-boats when disasters oc- 
cur at sea. . . . 

On ocean-going vessels operating less 
than twenty miles from shore, like re- 
quirements are enforced for the protec- 
tion of life at sea; excepting from May 
15 to September 15, when the summer 
travel is heaviest, such vessels are re- 
quired to carry life-boats for but 35 per 
cent of those on board, life-rafts for 35 
per cent, and nothing but life-belts for 
the remaining 30 per cent. 

Vessels on the Great Lakes are re- 
quired to make the same provision for 
safety of life as are ocean-going ves- 
sels for eight months in the year; but 
from May 15 to September 15, when the 
excursion season is at its height, such 
vessels are required to carry life-boats 
for only 20 per cent of those on board, 
life-rafts for 30 per cent, and nothing 
but life-belts for 50 per cent. 

Obviously when the summer season is 
on and cheap excursion rates induce to 
heavy passenger traffic, greater, not less, 
provision should be made for the preser- 
vation of human life. But here again 
the steamship combination was strong 
enough so to amend the Senate bill in 
the House and maintain the amendment 
in conference, as to permit vessel own- 
ers to crowd the space which should be 
occupied with life-boats, with women 
and children, who constitute a large per- 
centage of excursion steamer pas- 
sengers. . . . 

The new law provides as a standard 
of qualification for the title of able sea- 
man that a man shall have served three 
years on deck at sea or on the Great 
Lakes. It requires that 40 per cent of 
every deck crew shall be able seamen, 
and raises the percentage each year for 
four years, at which time and thereafter 
65 per cent of the deck crew shall be 
able seamen. It provides that at least 
75 per cent of the crew of every vessel 
in each department must be able to 
understand any orders given by the offi- 
cers of the vessel. . . . 

Aside from the sections of the law 
primarily for the benefit of the passen- 
gers, the public has a direct interest in 

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